navigation mark or navigation character are usually hear or visible markings, which serve as navigation aids in the navigation.
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1310 stood alreadya tower on the island crowd horn in the Elbmündung. The first swimming navigation marks laid 1358 out. The “crowd ton” is mentioned 1466. Those Hamburg Kaufmannschaft brought it with a Kauffahrteischiff out.
The tons were usually manufactured like a barrel from oakwood with iron rings. First were theyconical formed, later they approached at both ends pointedly. Later the different today's forms developed. Around 1900 it gave in the Elbstrom already approx. 134 tons.
First if all tons were black, then one began 1575 to lay also white tons out. 1887 became by the realm chancellora uniform Betonnung at the German coasts arranged: Red Spierentonnen at the starboard side and black, pointed tons for port. Since 1982 the regulation of the international sea-going vessel travel organization applies.
serve function navigation mark navigation after view and are for orientationthe sailor frequently at coasts, dangerous sand banks or reefs, in port entrances and routes confine set up.
They are by form and colour as well as partly by light signals (beaconing) clearly distinguishable and have internationally specified meanings. Navigation marks with radar answer beacons (Racons) identify themselves on oneRadar display screen with special indications (usually Morse code, today digitally with control characteristics, which are registered in sea charts).
Swimming navigation marks are called tons. The term frequently used in this connection Buoys is nearly always wrong for a navigation mark.
differentiation ranges deletion tower of 1854 in Bremerhaven one.
Day navigation marks are:
- red painted light ships,
- firm navigation mark,
- when beacons with a Toppzeichen that is free-turning, so that one it ofall sides to see can; applies to all navigation marks
- the individual or from several stakes existing Dalben (Dückdalben);
- Bar navigation mark: Individual bars or in-rammed stakes with a Toppzeichen, fitted into the reason;
- Pricken: Recent trees or branches of tree, likewise into that, provided with branchesReason to be put;
- Tons, usually for the direct designation of the driving water.
To the night navigation marks belong:
- light ships and
Nebula characters are:
- Nebula horn: Acoustic signal, either of the board of a ship or stationarily at the country to mark around an obstacle etc. (e.g. Fehmarnsundbrücke)
- Nebula buoy - (with light signal lantern with fog) during convoy travel by a ship, thus the following thing is suspended does not drive
column was once; but still nebula character
- howling ton
- of gong buoy
- bell ton does not give it any longer; there is in addition a beautiful Kurzgeschichte of Theodor Storm, the Glockenboje
- swimming navigation marks
- peat of you - to both sides at the beginning of a driving water with Betonnung or to open ocean the entry of a port entrance
- fairway buoy in the center of the driving water, mostly in a river curvature (green, red,knows)
- beacon ton
- marking ton shallows ton (yellow/black) - a sea-area does not designate that to be driven on may e.g. Sea-shooting areas of the navy, wreck too closely at the water surface is
- and designation of the driving water
- for fastening (creation)
- fastening ton
- to the marking of the anchor cable
- anchor buoy
- navigation mark for the designation of Untiefen (Kardinalsystem):
- celebrations navigation mark
- beacon navigation mark - coloured markings, of lake seen (Lateralsystem A):
- Port: Red
- to starboard: Green
maintenance of the navigation marks
for the maintenance of the navigation marks are responsible in the German territorial waters the water and navigation administration of the federation with at present 39 water and offices for navigation (WSA). Central technical giving up becomenoticed by the specialized place of the WSV for traffic engineerings ( formerly navigation mark experimental field) for the sea and binnenwasserstrassen. The navigation marks are waited in the ton yards of the WSA. The tons are caught up Tonnenlegern so by special ships, mentioned, regularly for overhaul and laid out again. Thus becomes for example inice-endanger waters in the winter a special Winterbetonnung laid out. If lit navigation marks are not operated yet with solar energy, regularly the energy sources in addition must be filled up.
Web on the left of
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- specialized place of the water and navigation administration for traffic engineerings technical information toothe navigation marks/navigation characters.