Sailing boat

Segelschulschiff Deutschland
sail school ship Germany
SS Rickmer Rickmers
SS Rickmer Rickmers
Bug eines Segelschiffes
nose of a sailing boat

a sailing boat is a ship, which is moved completely or primarily due to its sails by Kraft of the wind. Sailing boats were since the antiquity up to 19. Century the most importantMeans of transport for the transport of goods and persons over longer distances. They became since that 19. Century by steam ships and motor ships replaced. In 19. Century inside were also most warships of sailing boats. Small sailing boats are called sailing boat.

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structure and classification

of sailing boats having at least one mast and at least one sail and as counterpart in the water a keel.One differentiates two kinds from sails:

  • Rahsegel, which hang on a Rahe and are oriented transverse to the driving direction,
  • and Schratsegel, which are set toward the ship longitudinal axis. To letztern belong also:
    • High gel, triangular sail, behindor at the mast and its lower edge is driven by a tree is stretched.
    • Gaffelsegel, which are square and itself between Gaffel (above) and tree (down) find.
    • Lateinersegel, triangular sails, whose Rahe is primarily lengthwise facing forward aligned,diagonally on the mast hangs and with a part before the mast is.
    • Luggersegel, which are to be arranged between Gaffelsegel and Lateinersegel.
    • Sprietsegel, square sails, those with a bar (Spriet) of the front lower corner at the mast to the rearupper corner to be stretched. These sails are usually driven without tree.
    • Cancer shearing gel
    • Spreizgaffelsegel
    • steam turbine and gas turbine system gel

drive

the propulsion keeps a sailing boat (on that cross) like an airplane wing from the resulting force equilibrium, between wind force and Kraftfrom the sword (shipbuilding) / Kiel (ship) forms. More to it: Aerodynamics in this way can drive a sailing boat also up to a certain degree against the wind. If it drives into wind direction (before the wind), the wind pushes simply by the fact thatit into the sail presses. For the case of a calm air and for maneuvering larger ships have an engine, the “calm air slidegate valve”.

historical development

Historische Entwicklung des Segelschiffes
historical development of the sailing boat

the development of the sailing boats probably began in Egypt. Sailing boatsthe first progressive movement means is in the water. Primarily for the travel on the Nile, in addition, for travels over the Mediterranean and the Red Sea ships with a mast and a large Rahsegel were used. The sail was already swivellingstored, so that the ships could also with lateral wind sails.

The Phönizier and Greek developed off approx. 1000 v. Chr. two Grundtypen of sea-usual sailing boats:

  • The Lastschiff with roomy trunk and a mast as well as a large Rahsegel, exclusive, and
  • the Galeere , which had a mast with a medium sized Rahsegel for the cruise speed, was gesegelt during the fight and with calm air however with belts was gerudert.

In particular with the Lastschiffen already far journeys were accomplished. Thus that segelte Karthager Hanno around 600 v. Chr. along the west coast of Africa up to the equator. The Greek Pytheas from Massilia, today's Marseille, around-applies the British islands and came probably also to Helgoland. The Romans took up these ship typesand they developed further. The Lastschiffe received a Bugspriet, on which likewise a Rahsegel hung.

In central and Northern Europe long ships were developed, which were first gerudert. Already the Saxonia and fishing rods, those as fishing rod Saxonia toward end of the Roman realmover the North Sea to England, the long ships with a mast and a Rahsegel emigrated had besegelt.

The Wikinger continued to develop this ship type for perfection (Wikingerlangschiff). After contemporary reports the slim Wikingerschiffe was faster than a mounted messenger. Sothe Wikinger could attack the element of surprise with their in the early Middle Ages to use. They drove already over the open sea to Iceland, Greenland and North America.

After the end of the Wikingerzeit those became in the north from the broader open trading vessels Hansekogge develops. Also it had only one mast, formed however the backbone of the remote trade of the Hanse. Toward end of the Middle Ages also two and dreimastige ships were built, z. B. the Hulk. From them became in Spain and Portugal the Karavelle develops, with which Christoph Kolumbus, Ferdinand Magellan and Vasco undertook Gama their discovery journeys there.

Since that 17. Century used one forms ever more specialized, and. A.

  • Liners (as warships with several cannon deck),
  • frigates (more easily reinforced ships of more increasedSpeed)

in China already reached the building of sailing boats in 15. Century under admiral Zheng He a very high level. At that time in Nanking treasure ships so mentioned were built by over 120 m length and 50 m broad, those up to nine mastshad. They became for remote travels z. B. to India, Arabia and Africa assigned. These ships were regarding the size only with the Grossseglern Europe and America in 19. Century comparably.

Modern machines permit the handling of enormous one-piece sails, severalTrunks permit a stronger putting up moment, and the lightweight construction makes ever larger hydroplanes and higher masts possible. With the hydroskimmer the bearing areas take over the function of the keel and the trunks.Kite Surfing prevents the torque completely.

sailing boat types

Brigantine
Brigantine
Linienschiff (HMS Victory)
liner (HMSVictory)


See also

Web on the left of

  • Tallship fan - German-language data base with many modern and traditional sailing boats.
 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)