Sejm

 Der polnische Sejm
1791, the “large one” or four yearly Sejm of 1788 - 1792 take the condition of the 3. May in Warsaw king locks on.

The Sejm [sεjm] forms the parliament in Poland as well as the senate. The Sejm can be compared with the British House of Commons, the senate with the British upper house.

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history (mute Sejm)

the name goes back on Reichstag in the old Polish Kingdom of, mute Sejm, with which the right to object and talking were forbidden to the delegate. They stand in direct connection with the interference of of Poland neighbour states (Russia, Prussia, Saxonia, Austria), those for allocation government unable the aristocracy republic become led.

The mute Sejm of 1717 marks the beginning of a substantial interference of Russia into the Polish affairs, which continued in the Polish succession to the throne war.

1767/68 came it to two rivaling party formations into Poland. The one (in the following organized in the Konföderation of bar) occurred the other one (Konföderation of radome) for extensive reforms, was with Russian support against it. Under the protection of Russian interference (Zarin Katharina II.) met 1768 a mute Sejm, which stood for free king choice and unanimity of the realm tag decisions (Liberum veto). The following fights of the Konföderation of bar against Russian troops under general Suvorov led to the 1. Division of Poland. This was sanctioned in a further mute Sejm 1773.

In Poland after the first division the efforts were strengthened around reforms by the king Stanisław August Poniatowski. After the French revolution gave itself Poland at the 3. May 1791 in Warsaw king locks as the first country of Europe a condition. This was rejected of by Russia corrupted the Konföderation of Targowica (1792). That its power robbed conservative part of the Polish aristocracy asked with the empress around Russian intervention, in order to re-establish the old order inclusive Liberum veto. The Russian troops maschierten in May 1792 with the official reason in Poland, there are a Jakobinerherrschaft in developing. This led to the second division 1793. At this Austria was not involved. To 23. September 1793 had to agree the Sejm in a “mute meeting” (in Grodno) of the however times division of Poland, changed over from Russian troops.

today's parliament

the president of the Sejm carries the title marshal (marszałek Sejmu).

Since 1993 a 5-Prozent-Klausel applies with elections to the Sejm to parties. Wahlbündnisse (e.g. AWS, SLD) had to reach 8 per cent of the voices, in order to be able to draw into the Sejm.

content, Diät and cost lump sums

the delegates of the Sejm refer a content of 9526,96 PLN and a Diät of 2381,73 PLN in the month. In addition monthly 10,000 PLN to the maintenance of their delegate office in the constituency and an annual lump sum of 7600 PLN come for overnight accomodation outside from Warsaw. Furthermore stand for the delegates in each case a sedan with driver, free taxi travels into Warsaw as well as free travels with all public means of transport too (Polish state railway PKP, national bus enterprises PC and local transporting enterprises). (Source: Fact, 4. - 5. February 2006, S. 7)

election results to the Sejm since 1991

1991

a party per cent of seats
UD 13.48 62
SLD 13.04 60
KPN 11.09 51
PSL 10.87 50
WAK 10.87 50
POC 9.57 44
KLD 8.04 37
PL 6.09 28
NSZZ “Solidarność” 5.87 27
PPPP 3.48 16

1993

a party per cent of seats
SLD 20.41 171
PSL 15.4 132
UD 10.59 74
UP 7.28 41
KPN 5.77 22
BBWR 5.41 16
Samoobrona 2,78 --

1997

a party per cent of seats
AWS 33.83 201
SLD 27.13 164
UW 13.37 60
PSL 7.31 27
ROP 5.56 6
UP 4,74 --
Samoobrona 0,08 --

2001

a party per cent of seats
SLD - UP 41.04 216
PO 12.68 65
Samoobrona 10.20 53
PiS 9.50 44
PSL 8.98 42
LPR 7.87 38
AWSP 5,60 --
UW 3,10 --

2005

a party per cent of seats
PiS 26.99 155
PO 24.14 133
Samoobrona 11.41 56
SLD - to UP 11.31 55
LPR 7.97 34
PSL 6.96 25
MN 0.29 2

see also

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