the Seldschuken or Seldschuk Turks were Turkish princes a dynasty in Central Asia, Iran, Iraq, Syria and Anatolien (1038 - 1194). They were Sunni Muslims and brought the Islam after Anatolien. Culture and office language thatSeldschuken was newPersian.
the Seldschuk Turks or briefly: Seldschuken - so mentioned after its leader Seldschuk (around 1000) - came of the oghusischen trunk to the Kınıklar, which had its settlement area east the Aral Sea (area today's Kazakhstan and Usbekistan).Seldschuk Khan stepped the ruler of the Oghusen after the death of its father into the services Oghus yabgu. He became its a mercenary in the fight against the Chasaren, but already soon he over-threw himself with that Oghusenherr. Around 960 Seldschuk with a large part its steppedPeople to the Islam over and stood first in the service of the Karachaniden in Central Asia.
Among the grandchildren Seldschuks, Tughrul Beg (1038 - 1063) and Chagri (1038 - 1060), penetrated the Seldschuk Turks around 1030 into Khorasan and displaced after the victory inthe battle with Dandanqan 1040 the Gaznawiden. Around 1055 the Buyiden fell in remaining Persia. Between Tughrul Beg and Chagri came it to the division of the realm. While Tughrul Beg the west of the realm from Isfahan governed, controlled Chagri of Merw from thatThe east of the realm with Khorasan.
Under Tughrul Beg subjected the Seldschuken Persia and 1055 the Iraq. Thus they became after the fall of the Buyiden protecting power over the Abbasiden - Kalifat in Bagdad. Tughrul Beg received the title of a Sultans from the Kalifen in Bagdad lent.
Under Alp Arslan (1060 - 1072) came it to the combination of the Seldschukenreichs and to the conquest of Anatolien to the victory with Mantzikert over Byzanz (1071) as well as for the conquest of Syria. Thus also the rule of the Shiite Fatimiden over Mekka could and Medina to be broken, now again the abbasidischen Kalifen in Bagdad recognized.
Under Alp Arslan, its successor Malik Schah I. (1072 - 1092) and the Persian Wesir Nizam aluminium-Mulk (1065 - 1092) the sultanate achieved its political and cultural high point.Thus with the establishment by Medressen of the Sunnismus in the realm opposite the Shiites one interspersed to a large extent.
With the murder of the Wesirs Nizam aluminium-Mulk by the Assassinen and the death of Sultan Malik Schah (1092) soon throne fights broke out within the Seldschuken. These led 1118to the division of the realm in Khorasan/Transoxanien and both Iraq (western Iran/Iraq).
After itself already in the 11. Century the Rum Seldschuken in Anatolien had made independent and around Konya /Ikonion the independent Sultanate of Ikonion had based, became also Syria independently anddisintegrated into several principalities, only into 12. Century were again combined by the Zengiden. The decay of the Seldschukenmacht in Syria favoured however conquest Jerusalems by the 1. Crusade substantially.
Under the Sultan sand crowd (1118 - 1157), governing in Khorasan, son Malik Schahs,attained the Seldschukenherrschaft a last bloom time. However it suffered 1141 with Samarkand a defeat against the Kara Kitai, a little later was fallen and tried up to its death the Seldschukenreich up in vain again to put.
The Choresm Schahs stepped its inheritance with mercenaries of the Kyptschaken and Oghusenon, 12 conquered to end. Century of Central Asia and Iran. 1194 eliminated it the latter Seldschukenherr from Ray.
In Anatolien the Rum Seldschuken came after 1243 under the rule of the Ilchane; their sultanate of Konya dissolved until 1307 . The rising Osmanen stepped 14 at the beginning . Century the inheritance of the Seldschuken in Anatolien on.
- see also: Seldschuken prince
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