Seleukia Ktesiphon, (Arab: المدائن, aluminium-Mada'in = the cities, Persian: تيسفون Tisfun, also as pickle Ardaschir admits), was a double city in the today's Iraq, which was formed from the growing together cities Seleukia at the Tigris and Ktesiphon. The double city was main residence thatKings that part ago and the Sassaniden. The origin of the name (actually a Greek family name) is unclear.
Table of contents
Seleukia at the Tigris (Greek: Seleukeia) been because of the right bank of the river, is of Seleukos I. based and raised to the capital of the Seleukidi realm. The city remained still purely Greek by Tacitus (annals, 6, 42) described, above all noticed that it is a powerful city protected with walls, the those in parthischer time andlittle around worried part ago. 300 citizens of the city educated a senate, opposite whom a representative government. Seleukia was the place of birth of Diogenes of Babylon and Seleukos of Seleukia
Ktesiphon - which is name purely Greek -, which was because of an important commercial route,is approx. 35 km southeast from Bagdad on the left bank of the Tigris. Ktesiphon , which already admit since the time of the Seleukiden were, raised part ago as counterpart to the Greek Seleukia to the winter residence and finally fastened it, even if Seleukia further an important roleplayed. After Ammianus Marcellinus (Res Gestae, 23, 6, 23) is this under Vardanes (38 to approx. 45) happened its. However Tacitus ( annals , 6, 44) already calls the city residence of animal IDA width units III. (a parthischer usurper, that in the year ) the city (one
occupied 36 occasional Mesopotamien would have to say more exactly: Cities, since it concerned a conglomerate of places) developed under the Sassaniden, which likewise used Seleukia Ktesiphon as capital (Istakhr and other places were used in the summer, if the climate inSeleukia Ktesiphon too unpleasantly became, but remained Seleukia Ktesiphon main residence), but additionally increased, to a true large city, which had probably around the 500,000 inhabitants. It was conquered several times by the Romans and/or. besieged (last 591), could be however never held by them.
After the Persian defeat inthe battle of Kadesia (see Islamic expansion) the city became 637 n. Chr. conquered by the Arabs and partly destroyed, however Kufa was a center of the Schia in omayadischer time apart from the Islamic reestablishment. The Islamic governor Seleukia Ktesiphons Salmān aluminium-Fārisī is an important figurethe Islamic Gnosis. With the establishment of Bagdad 762 Seleukia Ktesiphon purged finally. Received are however impressive remnants, particularly the palace.
Seleukia Ktesiphon was also center of the Christian church of Persia (Assyri church of the east). At the latest the bishop leads 410 as Grossmetropolit of the church of Persia thatTitle Katholikos. Were subordinated to it all Metropoliten Mesopotamiens as well as all churches of the east (Persia, India, later also central Asia and China). Toward end 8. Century also the seat of the Katholikos was shifted to Bagdad.
excavations found in Seleukia 1927-1932 and1936-1937 of the University OF Michigan instead of, whereby above all a large Insula was examined. In this house block were partly very richly equipped housing units. Four layers could do (of approx. 300 v. Chr. to 200 n. Chr.) to be differentiated. The excavation results are inseveral volumes submitted. From 1964 to 1989 here also an Italian mission of the University of Turin dug. They found among other things a building, which was apparent used in seleukidischer time as public records. 15000 seal castings in clay/tone could be excavated there, all in onepurely Greek style held. The building apparent went with parthischen conquest around 150 v. Chr. in flames up. In Ktesiphon so far no larger excavations took place, which is above all because of the fact that with a change of the run of the Tigris destroys large parts of the cityare.
- Jens Kröger: Ctesiphon. In: Encyclopaedia Iranica, Bd. 6, S. 446–448.
Web on the left of
coordinates: 33° 5 ′ 37 " n. Break, 44° 34 ′ 51 " o. L.