|of these articles treats the term „semantics “in the sense of the subsection of the linguistics, which is concerned with the meaning of natural-language sentences. For semantics as formal meaning theory of the logic, computer science and also linguistics see formal semantics.|
Semantics (meaning teachings) is the subsection of the linguistics (linguistics), which is concerned with sense and meaning of language and/or linguistic indications. Semantics worries about the question, like sense and meaning of complex terms from those from simple terms to be derived can andusually supports itself thereby by the syntax. Here Frege designates sense after
- God praise (English. scythe, meaning meaning with Intension, nowadays as synonym to designation outstandingly) the contents of, that itself from the relations of the indications, words, sets of etc.among themselves in the system of the language, meaning
- ( English results in. reference, meaning meaning with Extension) contents, which result from the relation between indications and world.
Frege clarifies the distinction at the example of the pair of terms morning star and evening star, the two thosesame meaning have, since they designate the planet Venus. The sense of the expressions is however obviously different. Since this differentiation is no longer easily comprehensible after today's word use, the pair of terms meaning in place of the Frege terminology (sense ) becomes in the meantime predominant - Designated uses, sense and meaning thus as synonymously outstanding. Within semantics the Semasiologie is the science of the word meanings. The designation teachings are called Onomasiologie.
An important, traditional task in semantics is it, expressions in natural speech into logicalTo convert formulas. The most well-known procedure comes from smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Montague. Point of criticism thereby however is that meaning meanings can be lost.
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Semantics differentiates between different, one on the other developing levels:
- Lexical semantics concerns itself with the meaning of words like also the internal structuring of the vocabulary altogether (see for example synonym, Antonym).
- Sentence semantics examines, as individual from the meaningWords by a firm inventory at linkage rules the meaning of larger syntactic units (cliches) and complete sentences comes out. The interpretation of a sentence must be developed thereby on an analysis of its syntactic structure.
- Text semantics concentrates on the analysis thatCombination of sentences as real or hypothetical circumstances to narration, description or argumentation connections.
- Discourse semantics works on the level of texts of different persons, those with one another in relationship stands (discussion, maintenance, training meeting, table reserved for regulars).
The switching between the levels of semantics takes placeover the Frege principle: The sense of a complex indication is a function of the senses of its components. The definition of the linking functions is one of the major tasks of semantics.
SENSE (the apple is red) = f (SENSE (), SENSE (apple), SENSE (is), SENSE (red))
Functional classification of the semantics ranges
the ranges of semantics can be classified further not only to different levels of the language structure, but also according to the type of the relationship between language and thinking and/or. Language and world. Afterwards one differentiates between three aspects of significance thatsemantic theory:cognitive significance, informational significance and pragmatic significance.
The term of the cognitive significance (English. cognitive significance) refers to the relationship between language and thinking. Therefore one can understand a linguistic report only if one throughshe on the reconstruction of mental structures of her transmitter comes.
Semantic theories of the informational significance (English. informational significance) are called also referenzielle theories. Following Ferdinand de Saussure plays here the relationship between the linguistic indication and its adviserin a possible world the main role.
The semantic Untersuchnung of the pragmatic significance refers to the relationship between the linguistic meaning of an expression and their meaning in a certain situational context. This is also the investigation article of the pragmatics.
Semantics in different disciplines
except in the linguistics has semantics also within other science ranges a firm place:
- The semantics level of the semiotic develops on sigma TIC , as data a meaning received are called and then message. InDifference to the linguistic semantics, which is concerned with linguistic indications, here also natural or technical processes are analyzed in their Zeichenhaftigkeit and interaction.
- In the communication theory one understands the meaning of this information sequence by the semantics of an information sequence. A pure Zufallsfolgeno semantics (however a very high information content) has.
- In the logic and computer science semantics is used as aspect of meaning of formal systems and languages. This field is called formal semantics. It is in particular in the predictability theory, that Complexity theory and for the verification of the correctness of computer programs crucially.
- The sociological system theory understands the entire knowledge supply (the official memory by semantics and/or. fundamental cultural inheritance) of the Gesellschaftsystems, which is available durably, re-usable and socially spreading. System-specific semantics containsocially in each case important and keep-worth guidance conceptions, which resulted from standardisations of feeling, thinking, acting and talking.
- Baldinger, short. 1984. Verse une sémantique modern Paris.
- Chierchia, gene aero. McConnell Ginet, Sally. 2000. Meaning and Grammar. OnIntroduction ton semantics. Cambridge, measure
- of Coseriu, Eugenio. 1975. Problems of structural semantics. Tübingen.
- Löbner, Sebastian. 2003. Semantics: An introduction. Berlin, New York.
- Lyons, John. 1995 (1977). Linguistics semantics. Cambridge.
- Saeed, John I. 2003 (1997). Semantics.Blackwell Publishing.
- Stechow of, Arnim and Dieter Wunderlich (Hrsg.).Semantics. An international manual.
- Wunderlich, Dieter. 1980. Work book semantics.
- meaning change, logical value, lexical semantics, prototype semantics, formal semantics, Functional Grammar, Word field, WordNet, Intension, Extension, characteristic matrix, semantic proximity, Natural semantics Metalanguage, sense relation, Etymologie, term, designation, word case, semiotic, pragmatics, linguistics, referentielle sharpness, semantic essay, Semiotic triangle, semantic role, semantic Web, semantic net.