Seoul

Special city Seoul
Hangeul: 서울특별시
Hanja: (none)
Romanisierung revised: Seoul Teukbyeolsi
McCune Reischauer: Sŏul T'ŭkpyŏlsi
base data
surface: 605.52 km ²
inhabitants: 10.349.312
(2005)
population density: 17.091, 61 inhabitants for each km ²
arrangement: 25 districts (Gu)
administrative seat: Seoul (young gu)
Karte von Südkorea, Lage von Seoul hervorgehoben
Skyline of Seoul

Seoul (서울 Tondokument ? / License) is the capital of South Korea. Of 29. November 1394 up to the division of the country 1948 was whole it the capital Korea. Also the condition of North Korea planned Seoul as capital, a constitutional amendmenthowever 1972 Pjöngjang raised to the capital of the KDVR in December, whose guidance had furnished a provisional seat of the government there after the Second World War.

The actual city Seoul has 10.349.312 inhabitants; in the Metropolregion Seoul, to that among other things the towns with millions of inhabitants Incheon, Suwon, Goyang and Seongnam count, live 21.738.345 humans (conditions in each case 1. January 2005). Thus concentrate approximately 43 per cent of all south Koreans in Seoul or its satellite cities. The Seouler Metropolregion is considered as world-wide third biggest to Tokyo and Mexico city [1]. The distances to Mexico city and to the followingRegions New York and São Paulo are however only small, in addition problems should be considered like the comparability lacking with the demarcation of the dyes and differently exact and current base data.

Seoul is not only largest city, but also handels, industrie and cultural center of Korea. The city1988 hosts of the olympic summer games and 2002 were one of the delivering places of the soccer world championship.

Sometimes Seoul , Incheon and Gyeonggi DO are combined into the region Sudogwon (수도권).

Table of contents

the name of the city

Seoul

differently than most place names, which are often sinokoreanischen origin (Chinese leaning words), are seoul a purely Korean word. From thisReason gives it also no Hanja for Seoul, only for the additive „special city “(特別市). Seoul meant simply „capital “, however since some decades no more in this meaning is used, but referred only to the city. Is supposed seoul with the word seobeol or seorabeo the Silla dynasty related. If a Hanjaschreibweise is needed, the sinokoreanische is used gyeong (, 京, meaning is likewise „capital “).

discussion

the name „Seoul “consists of the syllables seo and ul, thus not „SE-oul “is expressed.The s is be correctless spoken (as in „Mar s “). The e and o are expressed not individually, but together like „the o “in „o ffen “. The u and l are expressed as in German, approximately in „sp UHL “. As is the case for nearly allKorean words the first syllable (Seo) is stressed. Seoul is expressed thus practically like the English word soul (soul).

earlier names

Satellitenaufnahme Seouls
Satellitenaufnahme Seouls

the name Wirye also in the Olympic park in connection one brings to discovered settlement remainders; it is not meanwhile clarified,to what extent and where it actually gave Wirye and whether the name an attachment (Wiryeseong;위례성; 慰禮城) designated. In the Silla time it became Hanyang (한양; 漢陽) mentioned; in the Goryeo - time was called it Namgyeong (남경; 南京;„southern capital “). The seat of the government was shifted several times for short time from northwest the Seouls in the today's North Korea Kaesŏng lain after Seoul. In the Joseon - time became Seoul finally capital and received the name Hanseong (한성; 漢城).

During the Japanese crew time was the officialName of the city 京城, which is expressed on Japanese Keijō, on Korean Gyeongseong (경성) (during the Goryeo time Gyeongseong designated the today's Kaesŏng). 1900 were opened the Seouler station under this name. After that 2. World war again the designations Seoul became andHanseong usually. To 15. August 1946, the first anniversary of the end of the Japanese rule, was changed the name officially from Gyeongseong to Seoul.

Many Korean cities have a similarly eventful name history; often the same name designates different cities depending upon time.

Geografie

geographical layer

the city is in the northwest part of the country into close to the border ones to North Korea of on the average 87 meters over the sea level because of the underflow of the river Han course (한강; „Han river “), whose upper runs Bukhangang („north Han river “) and Namhangang („south Han river “) flow together east the city with Yangsuri.The city center is surrounded by numerous mountains. Also from the city center rises the Namsan (남산; „South mountain “) with TV tower and aerial ropeway. The mountain Bukhansan („mountain north the Han [course] “) is in the north of the city, the mountain fortress Namhansanseong in the southeast. Into the surroundingMany small villages and old buddhistische monasteries are appropriate for valleys. South Seouls is the mountain Gwanaksan as important local recreation area.

56 kilometers north of Seoul 38 lies on that. Degree of latitude, which formed the internal-Korean border up to the Korea war, the place Panmunjeom. There became to 27. July 1953 the truce between north and South Korea signs.

In the city Seouls flows around the Hangang a few islands, whose most important Yeouido is. An arm of the river was drying-put for land reclamation. The historical core Seouls is appropriate for that in geomantisch favorable situation somewhat north the river,here easily w-förmig and after its withdrawal from the city in northwest direction toward the island Ganghwado and the yellow sea flow on, while after southwest Seoul changes smoothly into its port Incheon.

Administrative arrangement

the geographical coordinates Seouls are
coordinates: 37° 35 ′ N 127° 0 ′ O
37° 35 ′ N 127° 0 ′ O. Thus it is for instance on the same degree of latitude as Athens (37° 54 ′ N) and Lisbon (38° 43 ′ N).

city arrangement

Seoul is divided into 25 urban districts (구; 區; gu), whose were furnished first seven 1943.The districts are in 522 dong divided, these again into 13.787 tong and these finally in 102.796 ban. The urban districts Seouls are:

  • Dobong gu (도봉구; 道峰區)
  • Dongdaemun gu (동대문구; 東大門區)
  • Dongjak gu (동작구; 銅雀區)
  • Eunpyeong gu (은평구; 恩平區)
  • Gangbuk gu (강북구; 江北區)
  • Gangdong gu (강동구; 江東區)
  • Gangnam gu (강남구; 江南區)
  • Gangseo gu (강서구; 江西區)
  • Geumcheon gu (금천구; 衿川區)
  • Guro gu (구로구; 九老區)
  • Gwanak gu ({long|ko|관악구}}; 冠岳區)
  • Gwangjin gu (광진구; 廣津區)
  • Jongno gu (종로구; 鍾路區)
  • young gu (중구; 中區)
  • Jungnang gu (중랑구; 中浪區)
  • Mapo gu (마포구; 麻浦區)
  • Nowon gu (노원구; 蘆原區)
  • Seocho gu (서초구; 瑞草區)
  • Seodaemun gu (서대문구; 西大門區)
  • Seongbuk gu (성북구; 城北區)
  • Seongdong gu (성동구; 城東區)
  • Songpa gu (송파구; 松坡區)
  • Yangcheon gu (양천구; 陽川區)
  • Yeongdeungpo gu (영등포구; 永登浦區)
  • Yongsan gu (용산구; 龍山區).

climate

Klimadiagramm Seoul
climatic diagram Seoul

Seoul is in the moderate zone, the annual average temperature amounts to 12,2°C. The climate is coined/shaped of strong contrasts, then the yearly maximum temperature amounts to 38,4°C in the summer, the lowest temperature in the winter is -19,2°C on the average.

The summers are during the monsoon - time (in Korea 장마, Jangma mentioned)from June to Septembers, very warmly and damp, in particular in July. The daily maximum temperatures are appropriate often beyond of 30°C, in the hottest month August amount to the temperature on the average for 25,4°C. 70% of the annual precipitation, which amounts to on the average 1,344, 2 millimeters, fall during the monsoon time, 369 millimeters of ithowever in the heaviest-rainfall month July.

The winters are strongly by cold hoists from Siberia affected and therefore very cold, but drying. Usually three very cold days and four warmer days alternate by a certain high pressure constellation. The coldest month is January with oneAverage temperature of -3,4°C, in which with on the average 23 millimeters also to few rains falls.

The best travel times are the spring of at the end of March until May, if Seoul lures with a marvelous Kirschblüte, and the autumn in September and October.

history

Der Palast Deoksugung
the palace Deoksugung

clay/tone goods from the Jungsteinzeit show that the area is inhabited for at least 3,000 years around Seoul. Earlytemporal remnants are particularly well-known from Gangdong and Songpa gu.

History of Seoul as capital can to 18 v. Chr.are retraced. In this year that builtagain-created Kingdom of Baekje in this area its capital Hanyang (한양; 漢陽), been directly because of the Han course. From this time there are still remnants of the Stadtmauer. 475 the capital was shifted after Gongju and the Kingdom of Goguryeo took over control of thatArea. Later the Silla fought for less than hundred years - realm control of the area. During the Sillazeit Seoul was probably only a small village named Hansanju.

In the later part of the Goryeo - dynasty grew the meaning of Seoul. One believed at that time that the realm,which checked the Han course, which could win supremacy over the whole Korean peninsula, since the river was a central traffic vein already at that time. For this reason the Goryeo realm made the city „southern capital “(Namgyeong), as well as the administrative seat for the surrounding areas. Between that 11.and 14. Century different buildings of palaces in Seoul were established, of which the most important today still received Changgyeonggung - palace is. It probably served as summer palace. The actual capital was however, apart from very short sections, that approximately 60 km far today's Kaesŏng lying northwest.

rule of the Joseon dynasty

Yi Song gye terminated 1392 the rule Goryeos, created the Joseon dynasty and decided, the capital umzuverlegen. After an establishment history it began with the building at the foot of the Gyeryongsan, but Geomanten found out that this place for the capital of onefuture dynasty certain is. Therefore became to 29. November 1394 Hanyang the capital of Korea appointed and with the building of a new palace, the Gyeongbokgung, temples and Stadtmauern begun. The wall was 18 km long and connected the four mountains Bugaksan, Inwangsan, Namsan and Naksan, which surround the city. There it stands partly this very day. Also the most important city gates remained. Two of the gates, Sungnyemun (frequently Namdaemun called) and Dongdaemun, are extensively well-known. The gates were daily opened and closed. A loud bell rung overto signal this.

Further buildings of palaces followed. From 1405 to 1412 the Changdeokgung became - palace establishes, 1616 the Gyeonghuigung. The name of the city became later in Hanseong (한성; 漢城) changed. Although the city by its situation well to defend was and by strongWalls, it was protected in the Imjin war 1592 by the Japanese was conquered, 1635 it by the Mandschuren taken. Only under the rule king Yeongjos (1724-1776) flowered the city, since it could out-play their good position at the Han course. It grew to the most importantCommercial centre near.

1872 pulled the king back into the Gyeongbokgung. This palace had purged to 1865 after the destruction in the Imjin war for a long time and only had been rebuilt. In the meantime that had originally functioned for it meant Changdeokgung as seat of the government.

introduction of the Christianityin Seoul

in the year 1784 Yi Pyeok, Kweon established and Yi Seung hun a first church in Seoul to create with the intention a catholic religious community. But the attempt to spread the catholicism was from the outset connected with large difficulties. The reason was thatthe government a policy of the suppression of the catholicism and thus its prohibition operated. The country should remain konfuzianistisch. As a king Sunjo its predecessor Jeongjo on the throne followed used soon a substantial pursuit of the catholicism. In the years 1801, 1839 and 1846 cameChristian pursuits in Seoul, which seized the whole country in waves. Catholic Gläubige was exposed to everywhere large dangers. Nevertheless the number of the Koreans converted to the catholic faith grew. Humans were at that time on the search for a new religion, in order to find their soul peace. This peacewas missing in a society torn of contrasts between the political forces of that time.

the Japanese colonial age

main street and palace gate in Seoul 1896

on pressure of Japan opened Korea to 24. February 1876 in relation to the foreign country. In the future messages of Japan became western andTo States of open, also a GermanKorean friendship and trade agreement one decided in June 1882. Foreign companies continued to themselves settle in Seoul on and the trade flowered up. 1888 was opened after Incheon, Ŭiju and Busan to telegraph lines, 1899 with the Gyeongin distance in the close Incheon firstRailway connection Seouls. In the same year an electrical streetcar took up the enterprise. At the 1. January 1905 was opened the important Gyeongbu distance after Busan. The number of inhabitants, which had been over two centuries about 200.000, began to grow constantly, 1936 lay it with 730.000, 1949 with 1.418.000Inhabitants.

1910 were annektiert Korea of Japan (see Korea under Japanese rule) and Hanseong became the colonial capital. The official name of the city read during this period Gyeongseong (경성; 京城), on Japanese Kējō, capital of the prefecture of the same name (京城府 Gyeongseong le and/or. Kējō fu). The Japanese built Seoul to the center occupy country out, increased the city strongly and ensured with large-scale structural measures for further blossoming of the industry and other industries. The Stadtmauern were torn off to a large extent, and the architectural style of the buildings became more modern. In relation to the populationduring the Second World War as in other Japanese occupied countries a repressive colonial policy was operated however in particular: The Korean culture was suppressed, men were forced or obligation-recruited into the Japanese army and kidnapped women - often under feigning wrong facts - in the theater of war and thereas so-called comfort women in war brothels partly for many years rapes. Korean farmers had to give their country up and Koreans were forced to accept Japanese names. In schools in Japanese language one informed.

After the surrender of Japan to 15. August 1945 changed the Japanese into the American crew time, andSeoul became seat of the U.S. - Military government. Exactly one year after release was renamed the city to Seoul. Thus it carried now for the first time also officially for this names. With the establishment of the Republic of Korea (South Korea) to 15. August 1948 became Seoul their capital. Afterit under Japanese rule with that it surrounding province Gyeonggi DO folded up was, it now administratively these was extracted and got the status of one besondern city, to which to that corresponds to a province.

Korea war

U.S. Marine during back conquest Seouls in September.1950.

Major item: Korea war

to 25. The north Koreans the demarcation line exceeded and conquered June 1950 already three days 1950 late Seoul. The south Koreans were back-pushed up to a narrow strip around Busan, only toward the landing with Incheon (in 28 km to the west of Seoul) of UN-troops,of it approx. 90% US troops, were sensitively met the north Koreans. These entrenchd itself in Seoul and had to be driven out in the house fight involving heavy losses from the city. After three-day-long fight the commander of the US troops Seoul explained to 25. September, three months after outbreak of the war, asreleases, even if in the northern suburbs still shots and artillery were to be heard.

At the 3. The south Koreans and American the city had to again vacate January 1951, since they could not withstand the supremacy north Koreans allied with a Chinese „armyarmy army of the “. On the following day becamethe city of north Koreans occupies. As Seoul to 14. March to be back-conquered knew, the north Koreans a large part of the population had kidnapped. Besides the city was nearly completely destroyed, eye-witnesses reports of a worse destruction than of Berlin during the Second World War.

Of the outbreakthe war up to the 1. August 1953 was Busan seat of the government, Seoul the status of the capital of South Korea was however never agreed upon.

one began

newer

development Gangnam after the end of the Korea war with the reconstruction and Seoul grew very rapidly. The total population was duringthe Korea war again clearly broken in, it rose in the subsequent years again rapidly. 1963 were exceeded the 3-Millionen-Grenze. Together with the Fünf-Jahresplänen, with which the military government of park justified the Chung hee economic upswing of South Korea, also a plan for the development and modernization Seouls was sketched.The administration of the city was subordinated directly to the prime minister. The townscape changed and it for substantial little consideration for traditional was taken. Up to the palaces, temple and so on is hardly still possible it, older buildings than finding from the 1960ern. The population growthfirst concentrated on areas south the slope course, in the meantime takes place it practically only in satellite cities in the surrounding countryside. Seoul grew for the political, cultural and economic center of South Korea.

1968 were adjusted the enterprise of the streetcar, and to 15. August 1974 became the first underground line inSeoul opens. The route network extended up to the today's day constantly, served in the meantime also the surrounding cities and is connected with the underground Incheons. 1986 were Seoul host of the 10. Asia plays, before it became two years late venue of the olympic summer games. Until 1991 becamethe mayor appointed by the president, since that time he and the town councillor by the population are selected directly.

1994 celebrated the city their 600. Birthday, a cap with 600 articles, which represent the modern life of the city, at the north slope of the Namsan was buried. During that togetherin Korea and Japan delivered soccer world championship 2002 took place here the opening play, an appearance as well as a half final play.

population

Seoul has a very high population density, it amounts to on the average 17,092 inhabitants per square kilometer. This is nearly 40 times as high as the average inSouth Korea. The district is most closely settled Yangcheon gu with approximately 26,400 inhabitants per square kilometer. To the comparison, in Munich, this value is to the city with the highest population density in Germany about 4.147 inhabitants per square kilometer. The most densely populated district is with 633.934 inhabitants Nowon gu in the norththe city, the population-poorest district is young gu in the center. Live insignificantly more women than men in the city (the difference amounts to about 9500 persons). 102,882 foreign inhabitants from more than 90 states in Seoul, this lived end of 2003 correspond per cent the total population. Seoulthereby the highest foreigner portion of all South Korean cities, in the international comparison is this however very little has.Of Hamburg citizen foreigners are, in Frankfurt/Main are it 25.5% to 14.9%. The largest group of foreign citizens is followed the 52,572 Chinese, of that11,484 Americans and the 6,139 Japanese.

inhabitant development

World trade center

by its political, economic and cultural primacy experienced Seoul after that 2. World war and the departure the Japanese colonial power an uncontrolled population growth. The strong inflow above all rural population, the wideDestruction in the Korea war (1950 - 1953) and chaotic political and economical conditions led to gaping between number of inhabitants and urban infrastructure. After the total population had decreased/gone back during the Korea war from 1.4 million to 650.000, it rose 1953 one million andincreased tenfold to end of the 1980er years on ten million.

To settle since beginning of the 1970er years tries the population south the Han course. Lived 1975 only 30 per cent of the inhabitants there, there is today 60 per cent. Also, the population increases the efforts in the satellite citiesto settle, were successful. Since the 1980ern stagnates the population growth in the actual city. These cities are connected with Seoul by a close network of motorways, Buslinien and undergrounds. The dye with approximately 20 large cities including Seoul accommodates a population of 21.7 million (conditions 1. January 2005)and belongs thereby to the largest Metropolregionen of the earth.

The following overview shows the numbers of inhabitants of the actual city after the respective area conditions. Until 1952 it concerns usually around estimations, from 1955 to 2000 around census results and 2005 a computation.

Cheonggyecheon in June 2005
Year inhabitant
1428 103,328
1660 200,000
1881 199,100
1890 192,900
1899 211,200
1902 196,600
1906 230,900
1910 278,958
1915 241,085
1920 250,208
1. October 1925 336,349
1. October 1930 355,426
1. October 1935 404,202
1. October 1940 930,547
year inhabitant
1. October 1944 947.630
1. May 1949 1.418.025
1. January 1952 648,432
1. September 1955 1.574.868
1. December 1960 2.445.402
1. October 1966 3.793.280
1. October 1970 5.433.198
1. October 1975 6.889.502
1. November 1980 8.364.379
1. November 1985 9.639.110
1. November 1990 10.612.577
1. November 1995 10.231.217
1. November 2000 9.895.972
1. January 2005 10.349.312

development of the living situation

63 (Yuksam) - Building

contrary to cities in Europe and North America found the urbanization Seouls not in the form of wide settlements of single family houses on garden properties generously put on, but throughTransmission of urban living forms, thus predominantly multi-family houses, into the suburbs with according to high population density. The land development borders often closely on the agriculturally coined/shaped and/or wooded surrounding countryside.

In the 1960er and 1970er numerous farmers from the country followed years to Seoul over in the industrial companies of the capitalbetter paid jobs to search. The close, mostly settlements of the land refugees established without permission on national country grew predominantly in quarters already existing. The there dwellings were established partly in substantial building method with clay tile roofings and hardly differed from the buildings established with official permissionin the regular land development areas.

The inhabitants of the unofficial settlements were resettled nevertheless by the city administration starting from end of the 1970er years into areas, which continued to lie far away from the city centre. These areas were only insufficiently attached to the urban water, waste water and transportation network, which to a degradationthe standard of living of the resettlers led. In the center Seouls developed numerous five to fünfzehnstöckige apartment multistoried buildings for families with middle to high income, whose rents for the former inhabitants with low income were not payable.

For the 1980er years comprehensive structural alteration measures took place and those in Seoulexisting public infrastructure was substantially extended. In this connection it came for example to the building of new underground lines and motorways. In the further environment of the capital, in landschaftlich beautiful situation, the country houses of the Oberschicht, artist, working in Seoul, became thus predominant businessmen in elevated positions, university teachers andhigh military establishes. There a building prohibition exists for industrial companies and settlements with multi-family houses.

politics

Seoul are administered by an town councillor and the Seoul metropolitan Government. The town councillor consists of 104 members, that are selected for one term of office by four years. Likewise directlyand for four years the mayor is selected, who manages the Seoul metropolitan Goverment. Before it was used by the president of South Korea. Three vice-mayors stand for it to the side, two for functions of the administration and one for political affairs. The 25 districts are to a large extent autonomous, their mayors become since1995 likewise directly of the population selected.

Mayor Lee Myung bak at the Cheonggyecheon

of the 32. Mayor von Seoul is Lee Myung bak from the Grand national party (GNP). He took over the office at the 1. July 2002 of its predecessor Goh Kun, that the city since 1. July 1998 governed. Lee possesses a university conclusion and was active since 1965 for the world company Hyundai, since 1977 as its managing directors. In the year 1992 it changed into the policy.

During its term of office numerous improvements of the quality of life of the inhabitants Seouls were made. In addition that belongsDevelopment of the cycle tracks, the building of parks (Ecological park, Yongsan Family park), the mechanism of bus lanes as well as the renovation among other things the city hall free area and the Namdaemuntores. Its measures are with the population very popular and in such a way are considered to Lee as a promising candidate with the presidency elections inYears 2007.

Problems prepare however for the far air pollution and the traffic noise. Seoul possesses the worst air quality of all capitals in the OECD. Thus also the outline of a motorway over the Cheonggyecheon (clear landing on water Rome) belonged, to a Seitenarm of the Han, and the Renaturierung of the river to thatlargest projects of the city administration. The 3670 meters long Cheonggyecheon was zubetoniert 1961 and covered 1971 with a high route. At the 1. October 2005 was made accessible the restored river and the green belts in the center Seouls, due to it, officially for the public.

Also the fight against the corruption, which was already begun by the former mayor Goh Kun 1998, continued of Lee Myung bak. In addition belong among other things the Deregulierung and the reorganization of administrative processes as well as the expansion of the E-Governments.

partnerships between cities

typical road scene in Seoul

Seoul maintains with the followingCities partnerships:

theatres and music

in Seoul one

finds many kinds

of cultural performances to Rome, Italy [work on]. Traditional music, dance and theatre performances, classical music resembles and more is ordered in modernized or modern form. Seoulhad a multiplicity of small stages over the whole city scattered, these are often experimental. In addition, large stages are settled in the city.

national theatre OF Korea

the national theatre (국립극장) was created 1973 and has its seat at the Namsan.It is homeland of the state State of, that national thanks company and that national drama company. The larger of the two halls has 1.500 seats; here many of the important cultural meetings of the country take place. In the small hall one finds among other things each Wednesday around 19:00 clockDemonstrations of traditional dances and music. Further the theatre has a stage for experimental theatre performances as well as a Amphitheater for less formal performances.

Sejong Cultural center

the Sejong Cultural center (세종문화회관), designated after king Sejong, has the largest stage thatCity with 4.000 places. Here one finds concerts, operas and large productions to also foreign origin. In the smaller hall usually choirs arise or lectures are held, partial find one also free performances in the inner court. Beyond that there are frequently changing exhibitions with Kalligraphie, paintingand similar art.

museums

South Korean artillery, issued before that Memorial was

resident as cultural center of the country Seoul numerous museums, under it the national museum. The extensive collection also over 100.000 exhibits is in October 2005 into a new, clearly larger buildingin the Yongsan family park pulled. The existence of Baekje tiles, Silla Tonwaren, golden Buddhas, Goryeo Blassgrün and Joseon Kalligraphien as well as painting offer a panorama of the Korean culture.

In the national museum also the famous Bosingak bell, an important culture treasure of Korea, is kept which indicated the time during the Joseon dynasty in Seoul. It became in the morningat four o'clock 33 times struck, and the city gates opened, on evening at 19 o'clock 28 were then times struck, and those gates were again locked. The first bell was destroyed 1455 with a fire, the second bell developed 1468 and becomes until today inMuseum keeps. Into the Jongno (bell road) 33 bell times struck to the turn of the year only 1985 were always manufactured, to which bell pavilion establishes 1979 of the city administration.

On the area of the Gyeongbok palace, in the rear part of the plant, is national the Folk museum. It shows religiousRituals (shame anise mash), different housing traditions, household appliances, tools and utensils from Korea. Altogether the museum accommodates over 10.000 objects.

That was Memorial, a building of monumental in the city center, informed also over 13.000 exhibition objects descriptive over Korean wars and weapon technology. In one resounds in the center of theMuseum wonderful Büsten war hero of Korean history. There is furthermore one memory-resounds for the Korea war, in which the unexpected attack from the north and its material superiority are represented with outbreak of war, one resounds with war machines, material to the internal-Korean border, one resounds with documentations overabroad Korean troops and one sent resounds, which present the development of the Korean armed forces. Generally speaking monuments beside munition, which remind of the employment of the US military in the Korea war and of the South Korean soldiers in the Viet Nam war, stand for garden of the museum. The reproduction of a turtle ship standson the inside.

buildings

the throne hall of the Gyeongbokgung

in Seoul are due to the long history of the city numerous cultural properties, begun Relikten from the Steinzeit up to graves, temples, palaces and weir systems. Seoul unites the past with the modern trend. Historical buildingsare located between Wolkenkratzern and in the small lanes are many traces of history to be discovered. Here naturally only some important can be emphasized.

Seoul

had palaces as capital of the Joseon dynasty six palaces, from which today still five are received. Are worth seeingabove all the Gyeongbokgung, the Changdeokgung and the Deoksugung. The Gyeongbokgung (경복궁, palace of seeming luckyness) was built for 1394 with Seouls appointment as the capital, is impressing above all throne and audience-resounds Geunjeonggung. The palace became during the Imjin war 1592down-burned, however not of the Japanese troops, but of slaves of the palace, who wanted to destroy vouchers of their body characteristic in such a way. Only 1865 were begun with the reconstruction, which intensified the then bad economic situation of Korea clearly. The king drew already 23 years after the repurchase howeveragain into and therefore allegedly safer the Deoksugung lain in the message quarter, after his Mrs. Königin min had been murdered 1895 by order murderers of the Japanese government.

A pavilion in the Gyeongbokgung

of the Changdeokgung (창덕궁, palace of illustrer honesty) became from 1405 to 1412 as extension of theGyeongbokgung builds. It likewise during the Imjin war was down-burned, but directly thereafter rebuilt and served, although originally not when in addition builds, the country until 1872 as seat of the government. 1907 it was referred erneunt by the king Sunjong, the last king, also after its resignation1910 up to its death here 1926 lived. Also the last members of the royal family lived here, until 1989 the latter died. Beside the buildings of palaces particularly the secret garden Biwon is worth seeing. The palace was added 1997 the UNESCO Weltkulturerbe.

The Deoksugung (덕수궁, palacethe quite-creative longevity) became in 15. Century as residence for the grandchild of king Sejo builds. After all palaces Seouls in the Imjin war had been down-burned 1592, the Deoksugung served min again until 1623 as palace and 1897 after the murder of queen until 1907.

InterestedAlso the Changgyeonggung originating from the Goryeo dynasty and the small Unhyeongung are open to visitors . In the place, of which once the Gyeonghuigung level, today a park plant, the Seoul Historical museum as well as the Seoul Metreopolian museum OF kind is to be found. 1988 became the main gate Heunghwamun, which stood in the meantime in another place in Seoul, set back, into the 1990er years became reproductions of some other buildings of the palace established. The visitor become traditional cultural rites of the Korean culture, like the introduction meetings for officials of the Joseon dynasty at royal palaces, changing thatRoyal awake soldiers or the wedding between king Gojeon and kings min dargeboten.

temples

traditional buildings of the Deoksugung and modern buildings in the center of Seoul.

The head office of the buddhistischen medal of Korea Jogyejong is the Jogyesa temple. In the main street before the temple are many business, which sells buddhistische Requisiten. Once in the year in May (8. Day 4. Monthly of the Chinese calendar) is the Jogyesa temple the goal of the large lantern parade, with which Buddhas birthday is celebrated. Up to 100.000 humans in colourful costumes and delegations from manybuddhistisch coined/shaped countries participate in it.

The Bongeunsa temple (봉은사), in 15. Century the center of the religion of the Zen - Buddhismus became 794 in the Silla - period beside the grave of king Seongjong establishes and 1562 north the today's World trade of center resettled. Beside thatMain temple is an interesting collection at wood block inscriptions. The temple burned several times and most buildings down in the plant in more recent time was in such a way built.

The Bongwonsa temple (봉원사) became in the year 889, in the third year of the rule of the Silla queen Jinseongunder the guidance of the monk ton-seon establishes. The original location of the temple was appropriate close for the Yonsei university.1728 it was resettled to the back door of the today's Ewha woman university. On each weekend there the Yeongsanjae takes place. It acts around a ritual, with that the kindand way, as Buddha taught the Lotos Sutra of the Mahayana Buddhismus, is celebrated. The Bongwonsa is the main temple of the Taego sparkling wines of the Buddhisten in the capital. A characteristic of this group, is the possibility of the monks of marrying.

fortifications

the mountain fortress Namhansanseong („fortress of the mountain[river] the Han “) a popular moving area, which is appropriate about 30 kilometers southeast for Seouls and with the underground well be attained can, is southern. This large-scale place of refuge in the mountains, with approximately eight kilometers long and up to seven meters high surrounding walls developed before 2,000 yearsunder the Baekje - dynasty. Most of the still standing building parts go however on 17. and 18. Century back, when the fortress served the protection of the Joseon kings from the Chinese invading armies. 1637 capitulated in Namhansansong king Injo with 14.000 soldiers before an enormous armed force that Mandschu, into whose control then on completely Korea changed.

Bukhansanseong, „the fortress of the mountain south [river] the Han “, is together with the celebrations Namhansansong the second considerable antique attachment plant in the periphery of Seoul. Bukhansanseong is to that in the north of the city, on the burr Bukhan mountains built. Also this plant was established already in the early Baekje time and was several times violently contests. After armies of the Chinese Ming - emperors in 16. The Joseon king Sukjong (1674-1720) threatened, let century the fortress their brick-work strengthen. In the process of the Korea war partly destroyed, those becameWalls in the meantime because of its great historical importance restores.

burial places

a pavilion in the Biwon.

Gwangneung (광릉): The impressive burial places of king Sejo and his wife, queen Yun Chon rear, belong to the art-fullest tombs in the catchment area Seouls. The monumental hill graves are 28Kilometer northeast from Seoul, directly behind Uijongbu, to find (locality and garrison became by the film and TV serial M*A*S*H admit). The actual Nekropole is hidden in a dense forest.

Hongneung (홍릉): These burial places of the 3. and 24. Joseon king in Naekok dong in the southeastSeouls are surrounded by a green belt. Melons, strawberries, Auberginen, Paprika, corn and rice are cultivated there. Close ones lie the burial places of the king Taejong and the queen Wonkyong in Hongneung as well as from king Sunjo and queen Sunwon in guild. All tombs are surrounded from fixed imagesGranite, which represent Vasallen of the monarch as well as fantastic animal guards. Annually to 8. May takes place there chesa - the ceremony, which is celebrated by descendants of the Yi.

park

of the N Seoul Tower on the Namsan

Namsan is one of the most beautiful oases in the midst of thatCity: A public park including botanischem garden, an octagonal pavilion and a museum village to see in that five restored Hanok (traditional houses), are. On the highest collection the N Seoul Tower with turning restaurant stands. At the foot of the mountain are the Nationaltheather, thatGoethe Institute, the Namsan library as well as a botanischer garden.

Behind the Changdeok palace „the secret garden spreads “, also Biwon mentioned, the former private park of the king family. Footpaths lead by wooded, hilly area, past at ponds and pavilions as well as across small bridges. Pictorial the Bandoji was put on,its outlines the peninsula Korea after-draw. From the fan-like arranged pavilion went into 16. Century king Injo of its large fishing rod passion after. The Naksonjae complex is only twice annually, on the occasion of the Königszerenomie, to the public accessible.

A further park in Seoul is the Seonyudo. It findson a small island in the Han river and a playground, lookout points, ponds and an interesting garden plant accommodates themselves. The Seoul Forest in Ttukseom is a park plant at the Han river. Beside several green areas, a large playground and a number there are cycle tracks there a photo exhibition to the topic „forest “and also some animals. A 1983 open park are around the 1639 established Samjeondo monument. The only national park within the city of Seoul is Bukhansan. It is with numerous buddhistischen temples and rare animals, those the mountain area inhabits equipped.

sport

olympia stadium

Seoul has 12.000 sport mechanisms, by which most are commercially operated. About 700 of the mechanisms is in public hand or is internal sports facilities. There are 28 sport mechanisms, including four stages for football, operated by the city, baseball and Leichtathletik. Further ten of the 25 operateDistricts own sports centers, four further districts build at present such mechanisms.

The sports sites of the Jamsil of sport Complex are most representative in the district Songpa gu, which spreads over a surface of 0.59 square kilometers. Here among other things the Asia plays became 1986, the olympic summer games 1988 as well as those Summer paralympicses 1988 held. They cover the olympia stadium with a capacity for 100.000 spectators, a baseball stadium, an indoor swimming pool, one sport-resound, a sports field and a pupil haven place.

The largest football stadium in Asia is the singing to stadium built for the soccer world championship 2002 in the district Mapo gu. It has 65.000Seats, one had a feeling for siebenstöckig and in the basic form to the Soban, a traditional Korean octagonal dte tray from wood. In the stadium roof the style „of the Bangpaeyeon is connected “, a traditional shieldlike kite, which carries hopes of humans towards skies, with the form „of the Hwangpodotbae “, intraditional sailing boat on the Han river. The natural alignment of the stadium corresponds to the roof as well as the Dachtraufe of traditional buildings in Korea. After approximately three-year construction work since October 1998 the stadium was opened in November 2001.

Seoul is homeland of two baseball - clubs of the Korean baseball Organization, the Doosan Bears and the LG Twins, as well as football club the fiber plastic Seoul, which plays in the K-League.

spare time and recovery

Gwanaksan

at the southern outskirts of a town of Seoul find the 632 meters high mountain Gwanaksan. It is a popular andwell opened local recreation area for the urban population of Seoul. Because of its beauty it is often designated suction handling (small Geumgang mountain) or Seogeumgang (Geumgang mountain of the west) after the mountain in Korea, most beautiful after general view.

Numerous moving ways lead by the mountain massif with its close and old tree existence. Starting pointfor the trips is usually the national university of Seoul at the foot of the mountain. Mounting the summit takes up about four to five hours.

On the rocky summit are a radar station and several antenna systems. Because of the Gwanaksan are also the Wongaksa temple and the Yeonjuam Einsiedelei,which of king Taejo in the Joseon dynasty during the transfer of the Korean capital after Seoul were built in the year 1394.

regular meetings

the gate Namdaemun at night

in the Sungkyunkwan shrine on the area of the Sungkyunkwan University from Biwon becomes northeast twice annually to1. February and 1. August after the moon calendar a ceremony held. One honours the spirit of Confucius, that man, who had spent the guidelines in the Korea of the Joseon dynasty on the government work.

To 8. April after the moon calendar finds the celebration to Buddhas birthdaythe lanterns instead of. The buddhistischen monasteries with lanterns are decorated and a lantern parade is organized by the Yeouido Plaza to the Jogyesa temple.

On first Sunday in May after the moon calendar „the Jongmyo Daeje takes place “in Seoul at the Jongmyo shrine. The Prozession and the ritual become the admirationthe queens and kings of the Joseon dynasty organizes.

Seoul does not have

culinary

specialities Samgyeopsal its own culinary speciality. But the city has a very large selection at restaurants with Korean and international kitchen for each purse. Western restaurants are quite expensively, foreseenof Fastfoodketten like Mc Donalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken or Burger King, which has comparable prices as in Europe. Much are road restaurants like, in which meals are roasted such as Bulgogi , Samgyeopsal and Galbi at the table. It concerns thin meat strips, thoseafter the roast into small pieces to be cut and with sauces and vegetables verzehrt become.

In the region Seoul is the Gimchi - variant Sokbatyi spreads. A further Gimchi court of the capital region is Chunggak. Here radish as well as the sheets of the plant is inserted or intoseveral cubes cut prepares.

buying

the market Namdaemun Sijang in Seoul.

The largest market in completely Korea is the Dongdaemun market at the old east gate, the Dongdaemun. The colourful bazaar drags on over ten of block. From housewares or electrical articles, shoes and clothes toto furniture, everything can be purchased here. A further important market in Seoul is the Namdaemun Sijang (large south gate market), which extends in the east of the south gate.

Beside the many markets Seoul offers also the possibility in the numerous department stores and shopping streets to buy. To the Namdaemundoone finds direct opposite the entrance after Myongdong on the right of Midop'a and on the left of Lotte. The road is appropriate for Sinsegye up, opposite the bank of Korea. In the Samil NO, in the proximity of the Cheonggyecheon, the department store Printemps stands. A good purchase possibility for antiques andtraditional Mitbringsel offers the road Insadong.

Whole shopping streets - as for example below the Jongno and Euljiro along and the Westin Chosun, Lotte and Plaza hotel - were built into the underground. The Sogong Arcade begins under the Plaza hotel, bends at the Chosun hotel to the leftoff and Cosmos flows into Myongdong into the department store; the Hoehyon Arcade begins before the main post office and ends only to the Toegyero. In these and other numerous arcades one finds a broadly varied offer at clothes, decoration, stationery, computers, cameras, souvenirs and reproductions antiquePorcelain.

economics and infrastructure

economics

World trade center
COEX Convention and Exhibition center

the capital through-lived a rapid modernization process after the Korea war (1950 - 1953) into the present. For this count the rapid change of the before-modernto industriellen the society and the fast economic growth. Between 1989 and 1998 the economy of South Korea grew annually by on the average 11.6%, that Seoul had surely the largest portion. The unemployment ratio amounted to 1997 only 2.7%. As however completely Korea became also Seoul at the end of of 1997 of thatAsia crisis through-vibrated, unemployment jumped on over 9%, the GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT of South Korea shrank 1998 around 5,5%. Since then the situation recovered however rapidly again.

Seoul accommodates today a multiplicity at industrial companies. Most important industrial products of the city are chemical products, textiles and clothes, electrical and electronicDevices, machines and printed products. From the 75,285 industrial companies of the city employ only 232 more than 300 coworkers, the remaining middle and small enterprises employ on the average 6.0 persons (conditions 1999). Most important industrial area is Korea export Industrial Complex, also Guro Industrial Complex mentioned, where upa surface by 1,98 km ² 474 enterprises are settled. They employ 25,111 coworkers and are particularly in the fields assembly and paper trade active.

The tourism is likewise of economic importance. In the agriculturally used environment from Seoul Soja , in addition, millet become and Wheat cultivated.

The city possesses a large port for the retracting and extending industrieller of goods and an important person and goods airport with the close Incheon at the yellow sea. Seoul profits appreciably from the central situation of South Korea between the People's Republic of China and Japan. Sharp und Taiwan can be attained in less than two flying hours, within five hours achieve one the likewise strongly growing markets Indonesia, Thailand as well as the Philippines.

Due to successful decentralization politics Seoul has its already in the Japanese colonial age developed position as the most important industrial site of the countrylost, in the service sector its primacy however invariably maintain. Thus nearly all institutions with the highest national and private-economical authority to control, administrative and planning are as well as their person employed in the capital. Also nearly all large companies, banks, trading ventures and insurance companies of South Korea have their head office in Seoul.

traffic

long-distance traffic

of the Incheon internationally air haven

of the 2001 close Seoul open Incheon internationally air haven is the international airport of South Korea. Almost all international flights of the country end or start here. It is appropriate about 50 kilometers west for the capital on oneto Incheon and of shuttle penalty is connected belonging island with Seoul by a motorway as well as a large number. At present an extension of the underground Seouls is built, whose opening is planned for 2008. The airport replaces 18 kilometers of Seoul removed Gimpo air haven as internationalJunction of the country, here today above all national flights are served. Practically each city with airport in South Korea is approached from here.

Seoul has two large railway stations. The most important is the Seoul station. Delighted by the Japanese originally, it became 1989 and 1990extended. Nevertheless those had to be built for at the beginning of of 2004 open Yongsan station for discharge. The Eisenbahnnetz is expanded very much and connects all larger cities between Seoul and Busan. To 30. March 2004 drove the Korean Train express (KTX) over the first Korean high-speed distance between Seouland Busan. South Korea was thereby the first asiatic country, which used the French technology of the TGV (high-speed course).

Seoul is tied up over an expanded net at express and intertown center penalties to almost each city in South Korea. Most express penalty drive from the Gangnam express bus terminalin the south of the city, about the Dong Seoul bus terminal in the east starts a dozen of lines, some few also the Seoul Sangbong bus terminal in the north of the city. From that about 70 goals, which can be achieved with express penalties from Seoul, becomethe important in the clock from 10 to 20 minutes started, most however at least in the hour clock. Beside usually the lines operating from about 6:00 to 21:00 clock gives it also some special night lines, which are operated in the morning to 2:00 clock. Intertown center penalty are somewhat cheaperand clearly more goals, than the express penalty, are however usually no direct lines start and need longer.

suburban traffic

the underground in Seoul

Seoul possesses a close and well developed road system with six motorways. 19 large stinging races lead from all directionsaway from the city centre, beyond that there are three struggle races around the city centre. The overall length of the road system amounts to 7801 kilometers (conditions 1999). All more important roads are developed mehrspurig, the broadest are the Sejongno with 20 traces. Nevertheless it comes regularly to back-up. Beyond that those leadshigh density of traffic, connected with a still little pronounced environmental awareness to high air pollution.

Faster one achieves its goal usually with the underground. The first distance section of the underground Seoul became to 15. August 1974 opens. Today it operates on a network of eight lines with a lengthof 460 kilometers, which is constantly extended. The undergrounds operate from 5:30 clock in the morning to 23:30, usually in the distance from four to six minutes, to peak hours all three to four minutes. The underground is used daily by up to three million humans. Of the 1. May1899 up to 29. November 1968 gave it an electrical streetcar in Seoul, whose enterprise was however stopped.

Underground plan

likewise very well developed is the city bus system. On over 350 the routes daily over seven million passengers are carried. There are three kinds of penalties: Normal one Lines, neighbourhood lines and express city lines. Normal lines are served usually by 5:00 clock to midnight, the penalty drive usually every few minutes. Timetables will not notice often. The express city lines are served by more comfortably furnished penalties and to hold more rarely. Many of these lines are commuter lines, the Seoul alsoconnect for the satellite cities. Neighbourhood lines connect otherwise not attached populated areas with the remaining bus network. In recent time more barrier-poor penalty are used.

Both single travels with the bus and with the distance-dependently computed underground are based on Central European prices very favorable, it exist however no weekor Monatskarten. Many drivers possess usually a smart card, on which money to 10,000 Won can be booked, which can be used then for single travels. Thus the prices sink around approximately 10%. Bus tickets do not permit transferring to the underground contrary to those.

education

Seoul is also the education formation of South Korea. Here alone 36 universities are resident, among them the most renowned country like the Seoul national the University, Koryo University, Yonsei University and Ewha Women's University.

Further there are 15 junior college, 273 High Schools, 352 Middle Schools und 512 Grundschulen sowie 1.370 Kindergärten (Stand: 1997). Beyond that there is a set of foreign schools, under it also the German school Seoul. There are 28 libraries in the city, two of it is special for blind ones. In addition Seoul accommodates the largest book business of Korea,also are based on European shops very extensive.

See also: South Korean universities after Städten#Seoul [

work on] Bae

Yong June, South Korean actor Myung Whun

sources

literature

  • Dirk Bronger: Manila Bangkok Seoul. Regional development andSpace economic policy in the Philippines, Thailand and South Korea. Hamburg: Institut for Asia customer, 1997, ISBN 3-88910-178-X
  • Beom Chu: At the tradition oriented housing and building of cities: Development of a concept for the re-organization of historical populated areas in Seoul, Dortmunder selling for building and planning literature, 1999, ISBN 3929797534
  • LotharCoenen (Hrsg.):The wind blows from the south. Certifications from Seoul, Stuttgart, 1990, ISBN 3766831097
  • Young June Lee: Air pure retaining politics in the urban population centre Seoul, publishing house for science and research, 1994, ISBN 3930324091
  • in-Ju Song: Analysis of the city ecological system as ecological basis for the town planning. By the exampleof Seoul, publishing house Dr. Kovac, 1998, ISBN 3860648004
  • Martin Robinson: Lonely planet: Seoul (English travel guide), Lonely planet Publications, 2003, ISBN 1740592182
  • Keith Pratt: Old Seoul, Oxford University press, 2002, ISBN 0195930878

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