Table of contents
name and emergence
the Septuaginta derives its western name (Latin for 70) of the legend, after in the Egyptian Alexandria in3. pre-Christian century 72 Jewish scholars the whole Tanach in 72 days from the Hebrew one into the Greek would have translated. The shortening designation (LXX; see Roman numbers) points likewise on this origin.
Both Septuaginta and LXXlatin is designations, which are not used in the Greek one. The usual Greek title is Kata tous Ebdomêkonta (after the seventy).
The expressiondesignates the coinage, which experienced the Greek language structure and conceptualness (semantics) by the assumption of Hebrew telling ways and association complexes. Existing words got as if showed Hebrew expressions a changed content.
this legend mentioned goes on thatAristeasbrief so mentioned back, that as a time of origin of a translation of the Hebrew Pentateuchs in (Koine -) the Greek the reign Ptolemaios II. indicates (the alleged author may not be confounded with the poet of the same name Aristeas). After Demetrius of Phaleron, the alleged chiefthe library of Alexandria Jewish Tora to its Greek library to take up, the Jewish high priest Eleazar wanted on requests of the Ptolemäerkönigs the mentioned 72 Jewish scholars (ever 6 from the 12 trunks of Israel) to Alexandria sent. These would haveprecious scrolls with itself led and the translation on the island Pharos within 72 days completes. Demetrius noted the text. The author of the letter indicates on the procedures to have participated. Before the translation the king presentsbecame, it was presented to the Jewish municipality and accepted by this.
The history of the Aristeasbriefes was already taken up by Josephus Flavius, and Philo of Alexandria expanded the legend there that all 72 scholars in independent work to the identicalResult came. The church fathers followed the legend and extended the translation activity to entire old persons the will.
Today it is generally accepted that history dargebotene in the Aristeasbrief is to be regarded as legend.
the text of the Septuaginta goesunder no circumstances on a uniform group of translators back. Rather style and accuracy of the translation in the individual books deviate so far from each other that an independent emergence must be accepted at least individual parts of the translation.
Today one assumes that the original translationaround 250 v. Chr. - in the reign of Ptolemaios II. - only the Pentateuch (i.e. the 5 books Mose) it covered and that the remaining books were gradually translated. In the preface of the Greek translator of Jesus Sirach (approx.132 v.Chr) is the speech of a Greek translation „the law, the prophets and the remaining books “. For this reason one assumes at this time whole old person was present the will in Greek translation. From this preface are some lines quotes, which clarify the translation problem:
- You are asked to make with sympathetic consideration and attention the reading and practice indulgence, if perhaps we showed some that expressions which can be translated with difficulty insufficiently. It does not have somewhat the sameMeaning, if it is read in the Hebrew basic language and if it is translated into another language. But not only the available work, but also the law, the prophets and the remaining books do not exhibit a small difference,if one reads it in the basic language.
One of the oldest more or less complete handwriting, which the Septuaginta contains, is the Codex Sinaiticus from that 4. after-Christian century. However individual sides and side fragments to back are in 2. pre-Christian centuryto date. (the oldest nearly completely received handwriting of the Hebrew Bible, see Masoreti text, are against it only from that 10. after-Christian century.) the Sinai Bible is a Greek expenditure for Bible, i.e. in the old person will offers it the Greek translation, thoseso-called. Septuaginta (translation of the 70). It concerns with the old person will “only” a translation, but the famous scroll finds of the dead sea showed that the Septuaginta must be judged as a very old and valuable translation.
The Septuagintaalways easily different text version than those showed the Hebrew Bible. At the reformation time one assumed that itself the translators around 200 v. Chr. all too many liberties would have taken out, and/or. the text falsifying and disfiguring would have even shown. ThisAspect is however durable after today's knowledge level not without reservation. Under the Qumranrollen one discovered Hebrew Bible texts, which deviated from the delivered Hebrew version, but agreed with the delivered Greek translation. This Qumrantexte puts the acceptance close that the translators thatSeptuaginta on basis of another text basis worked, many of the differences before the translation within the Hebrew excessive quantity had thus already developed.
Unite books of the LXX is obviously the basis even a not delivered Hebrew text, neither with that Masoreti text still with SAM air tables the text or the variants testified by the scrolls of the dead sea agrees.
in the Judentum, from which the Septuaginta was originally provided, always lost it since the time turnmore at influence, this although from the comparison of different Greek and Hebrew text reviews results that the Septuaginta is based on its own, partial older Hebrew text than that, which was kanonisiert later in the Judentum. With the standardization of the Hebrew textin after-Christian time efforts accompanied to destroy all anderern one text types. Safe remainders of Jewish Septuagintahandschriften are very rare therefore.
It may not be surveyed however that the Septuaginta had become very surprisingly fast the official Bible of the brightistic Jews andalso in the synagogs one used. Since a majority of the Urchristentums did not come out from this group (so-called brightists) surprises it also that old person will was quoted by the authors (Greek written ) of the new will after the Septuaginta. Alsomost church fathers quoted old persons after will the Septuaginta. The fact that assistance of the Septuaginta was polemisiert by the Christian writers against the Judentum, caused a break of the Jews of the Septuaginta and Jewish efforts for the recovery of a integerenHebrew text version in after-Christian time. The later translations in the Greek by the Jewish Proselyten Aquila (2.Jh n. Chr.) and by Symmachos (toward end of the 2.Jh. n. Chr.) and by Theodotion, a Eboniten from Ephesos, are unfortunately so incompletedelivered that they do not permit a real comparison. In addition Jewish theologians accused to Christian writers to change the Septuaginta consciously in order to have a text, which was closer to the Christian teachings. Christlicherseits was answered this with the reproach, which would correspond to Septuaginta Lesartenof the older Jewish tradition, those one now in the Judentum get rid of, in order to be able to represent the Christianity than not-Jewish.
It is probable that in many places of the Septuaginta the Hebrew origin text was changed in favor of a better understanding by the brightistic world.As salient example exodus 3.14 is mentioned: during the Hebrew text the name of God translates with: „I am which I am “(or „I become its, who will be I “), read the Septuagintaversion: „I am its “.
The Christianity of the old persons church preferred the Septuaginta, since only few church fathers of the Hebrew one were powerful, and because the Lesarten of the Septuaginta translators often Christian thinking closecame. Besides so christlicherseits the postulated unit of the old person of will with the new will drawn up on Greek became more strongly clearly. For old person the will of his German Bible translation did not use Martin Luther at that time however the Septuaginta or within the westchurch rangeexcluding relevant latin Vulgata, but the Hebrew text, why to today Bibles of Protestanten and catholics have different extent (see also late writings of the old person of will).
the Septuaginta is in the orthodox church alsotoday still the most important version of the old person of will. In Greece and Cyprus it is used until today in the service. Most other orthodox churches use an old will, which is translated into the respective national language from the Septuaginta.
Those Roman-catholic church used against it over more than one millenium the Vulgata, a translation of the Bible by Hieronymus in latin. Hieronymus, one the few good Hebrew connoisseurs of the old church, had preferred Hebrew texts opposite the Septuaginta as translation basis. Howeverneither the quality of the underlying Hebrew text reviews is admits was possible still it it to reject up to then the quasi kanonisierten text of the Septuaginta in all Lesarten. Many agreements between Vulgata and Septuaginta in relation to the Masoreti text might on theseTo lead back its and not on a common (unknown) origin text are based to influence. On the other hand the work of the Masoreten led to a standardization of the text and an elimination of all alternative Lesarten. The Septuaginta becomes with all problem concerning the quality of the translation andthe excessive quantity, an also far important role in the research play, because it is made of a non-university-formed text and permits thus views of the vormasoretischen text.
Newer catholic Bible translations, like e.g. the German unit translation, often seizeindividual Lesarten of the Septuaginta back, if these a locally disfigured or to unclear Hebrew text seem superior.
For the textual criticism it is to be noted that generally preference cannot be given to the Masoreti text before the Lesart of the Septuaginta. Becomes particularly clearthe problem of the text excessive quantity with the scrolls of the dead sea. These agree partly with the Masoreti text, partly with the Septuaginta and partly with none of the two texts. In all other respects the Septuaginta often offers the only possibility, thoseTo translate word meaning of singular idioms (Hapax Legomenon) of the Hebrew text - contrary to the oldHebrew, in which except the Bible hardly different texts are delivered, is a oldGreek substantially better delivered language with extensive Vergleichsmöglichkeiten.
Contents of the Septuaginta
the Septuaginta contain beside that traditionally the Tanach assigned books also some texts, which admits in the Christianity as Apokryphen or deuterokanonische books is and which are rejected in the Judentum as uninspiriert. (These books are marked with (*),whereby (*) = rejected with Protestanten, rejected with catholics and orthodox ones recognition, (**) = with Protestanten and catholics, not recognized with orthodox ones recognition, (***) =.)
|Ιησουσ ναυη||Josua or „Jesus,the son of the Navi “|
|Βασιλειων α||the 1. Book of the Königtümer (1. Book Samuel)|
|Βασιλειων β||2. Book of the Königtümer (2. Book Samuel)|
|Βασιλειων γ||the 3. Book of the Königtümer (1. Book of the kings)|
|Βασιλειων δ||4. Book of the Königtümer (2. Book of the kings)|
|Παραλειπομενων α||the 1. Book of the omissions (1. Book of the chronicle)|
|Παραλειπομενων β||2. Book of the omissions (2.Book of the chronicle)|
|Εσδρασ α||(**) the 1. Book Esdras (within the catholic range also 3. Esra mentioned)|
|Εσδρασ β, ΝΕΕΜΙΑΣ||2. Book Esdras (Esra, Nehemia)|
|ΕΣΘΗΡ||ester (additives are (*))|
|ΙΟΥΔΙΘ||(*) Judit (Judith)|
|ΤΩΒΙΤ||(*) Tobit (Tobith, Tobias)|
|Μακκαβαιων α||(*) the 1. Book of the Makkabäer|
|Μακκαβαιων β||(*) 2. Book of the Makkabäer|
|Μακκαβαιων γ||(**) the 3. Book of the Makkabäer|
|Μακκαβαιων δ||(***) 4. Book of the Makkabäer|
|ΨΑΛΜΟΙ||the book thatPsalmen|
|ΩΔΑΙ (under it Προσευχη μανασση)||(***) the book of the deserts (with the prayer would one-eat)|
|ΠΑΡΟΙΜΙΑΙ||the book of the proverbs or the sayings Salomos|
|ΕΚΚΛΗΣΙΑΣΤΗΣ||the book Kohelet or the Prediger Salomo or Ecclesiastes|
|ΑΣΜΑ||the book of the high one Song|
|ΙΩΒ|| the book Ijob (Hiob, job)
|Σοφια σολομωντοσ||(*) the wisdom Salomos|
|Σοφια σειραχ||(*) Jesus Sirach / Siracides / Ecclesiasticus /the wisdom Sirachs|
|Ψαλμοι σολομωντοσ||(***) the book of the Psalmen Salomos|
|ΩΣΗΕ||the book Hosea or Osee|
|ΑΜΩΣ||the book Amos|
|ΜΙΧΑΙΑΣ||the book Micha or me carrion|
|ΙΩΗΛ||the book Joel|
|ΟΒΔΙΟΥ||the book Obadja or Obdiou|
|ΙΩΝΑΣ||the book Jona or Jonas|
|ΝΑΟΥΜ||the book Nahum|
|ΑΜΒΑΚΟΥΜ||the book Habakuk or Ambakoum|
|ΣΟΦΟΝΙΑΣ||thatBook Zefanja (Zephanja or Sophonias)|
|ΑΓΓΑΙΟΣ||the book Haggai (Aggaeus)|
|ΖΑΧΑΡΙΑΣ||the book Sacharja (Zacharias)|
|ΜΑΛΑΧΙΑΣ||the book Maleachi (Malachias)|
|ΗΣΑΙΑΣ||the book Jesaja|
|ΙΕΡΕΜΙΑΣ||the book Jeremia|
|ΒΑΡΟΥΧ||(*) the book Baruch|
|ΘΡΗΝΟΙ||Complaint songs Jeremias|
|(*) letter of the Jeremia (in the catholic area: Baruch, chapter 6)|
|ΙΕΖΕΚΙΗΛ||the book Ezechiel (Hesekiel, Jezekiel)|
|ΔΑΝΙΗΛ (with Των τριων παιδων αινεσισ)||the book Daniel (with the prayer of the Asarja and the praise singingthe three young men (*)|
|Βηλ και δρακων||(*) Bel and the Drache|
- Michael Tilly: Introduction to the Septuaginta. Wiss. Book company, Darmstadt 2005 ISBN 3-534-15631-5
- Kirstin De Troyer: The Septuaginta and the final shape of the old personWill. Investigations for the developing history of alttestamentlicher texts. UTB 2599. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Goettingen 2005 ISBN 3-8252-2599-2
- Folker victory ore: Between Hebrew Bible and old will. An introduction to the Septuaginta. MJSt 9. Münster 2001.
- K. H. Jobes, M. Silva: Invitation tonthe Septuagint. Grand Rapids 2000
- E. Tov: The Greek Bible translations. In: ANRW II.20.1 (Berlin and others 1987), S. 121-189
- harsh ore hunger, Otto bar Mueller, Hartmut pea, max of Imhof, Karl Büchner; Hans George Beck, refuge Ruediger: The text excessive quantity of the antique literatureand the Bible. dtv science, Munich 1988 (unchanged reproduction of the edition of 1961).
- Ernst Würthwein: The text of the old person of will. An introduction to the Biblia Hebraica. German Bible company, Stuttgart 1988 (5.überarbeitete Aufl.) ISBN 3-438-06006-x
- E. Tov: The text thatHebrew Bible. Manual of the textual criticism. Stuttgart and others 1997
- C. Dogniez: Bibliography OF the Septuagint. Bibliography de la September aunt (1970-1993). Supplements ton of Vetus Testamentum 60. Suffer among other things 1995
- Alfred Rahlfs (Hrsg.): Septuaginta, ID est Vetus Testamentum Graece iuxtaLXX of interpretes. Stuttgart 1935 among other things (Editio altera quam recognovit et emendavit Robert Hanhart, Stuttgart 2006) - the standard output of the Greek LXX text
- Göttinger academy of the sciences (Hrsg.): Septuaginta. Vetus Testamentum Graecum. Goettingen 1924ff - the Göttinger Septuaginta is thosedetailed dt. wiss. Expenditure; up to now 24 volumes
- Martin Karrer, Wolfgang Kraus (Hrsg.): Septuaginta German. Bd. 1: Greek old persons the will in German translation. Stuttgart 2006; Bd. 2: Explanations concerning the Greek old person will in German translation. Stuttgart2006 (in the appearance)
- Alfred Rahlfs: Septuaginta: Vetus Testamentum Graecum. Suppl.: Listing of the Greek handwriting of the old person of will. Volume 1,1: The excessive quantity up to VIII. Century. Treatment. of Detlef Fraenkel. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Goettingen 2004 ISBN of 3-525-53447-7
dictionaries and Concordances
- J. Desire, E. Eynikel, K. Hauspie: A Greek English Lexicon OF the Septuagint. Stuttgart 2. Aufl. 2003
- Friedrich deer head: Septuaginta vocabulary. Goettingen 1989
- E. Hatch, H. A. Redpath: A Concordance ton the Septuagint and the OTHER Greek version OFthe old will (including the Apocryphal Books). Oxford 1897-1906 (reproduction: Graz 1983; Grand Rapids 1998)
- Alfred Rahlfs: Septuaginta studies I-III. Goettingen 2. Aufl. 1965
- Martin Hengel, Anna Maria Schwemer (Hrsg.): The Septuaginta between Judentum and Christianity.WUNT 72. Mohr filter-hit a corner, Tübingen 1994
- Robert Hanhart: Studies to the Septuaginta and to the brightistic Judentum. FAT 24. Tübingen 1999
- Heinz Josef Fabry, And. Offerhaus (Hrsg.): In the focus: The Septuaginta. Studies for the emergence and meaning of the Greek Bible. BWANT 153.Stuttgart and others 2001
- S. Cruiser, J. P. Lesch (Hrsg.): In the focus: The Septuaginta. Volume 2. BWANT 161. Stuttgart and others 2004
- J. Desire: Messianism and the Septuagint. BEThL 178. Leuven also
Web on the left of
- Septuaginta (full text in Greek)
- introduction to the Septuaginta research with reference works
- the project to the translation of the Septuaginta to the German language
- guidelines to the naming and way of writing
- project to the translation of the Septuaginta to English by US-American orthodox Christians
- of the Aristeasbrief
- Resources for the study of the Septuaginta (English)
- older translation of the Septuaginta in English