Serbia

РепубликаСрбија/Republika Srbija
Republic of Serbia
Flagge Serbiens
Staatswappen Serbiens
(detail) (detail)

Wahlspruch: СамослогаСрбинаспашава
(serb. for „only the unity “) Serbian, regionally

also some minority languages capital Belgrade seat of the government Belgrade
with partial governments
saves office languages to the Serbsin Novi Sad and Priština
system of government parliamentary democracy
system of government republic within the state State of Serbia and Montenegro
economic system free-market economy
president Boris Tadić
head of the provincial government Vojislav Koštunica
surface 88,361 km ²
(88,480 km ² with the disputed areas)
number of inhabitants 10.394.026
without Kosovo: 7.498.001
(source: Foreign Office)
population density of 126.83 inhabitants per km ²
first establishment in D. old. History around 850
first establishment in D. young. History 1817
final independence 1878
establishment of the Republic of Serbia 29. November 1943
currency Serbian dinar
1 dinar = 100Para
time belt MEZ (UTC +1)
national anthem Bože Pravde
national holiday 15. February (day of the movement of independence)
Kfz Nationalitätszeichen SCG
Internet TLD .yu (.cs reserved)
preselection +381
Topografie Serbiens

Serbia (serb.: Србија/Srbija Tondokument ? / License) is a republic in South-east Europe and member of the community of states Serbia and Montenegro. The official designation reads Republic of Serbia (РепубликаСрбија/Republika Srbija).

Serbia lies in the center of the Balkan Peninsula and borders in the north on Hungary, in the east on Romania and Bulgaria, in the south on Macedonia and Albania, in the southwest at Montenegro and in the west at Bosnia and Herzegowina and Croatia.

Serbia is somewhat larger than Austria and has into approximately as many inhabitants as Baden-Wuerttemberg.

Table of contents

Geography

the northern part of Serbia belongs the Pannoni to lowlandses, which middle part of the country to a large extent taken by several central mountain courses, which form a connection between the Dinari mountains in the west and the Balkans mountains in the east, the southernPart Serbia cover high low mountain ranges and high mountains. 30% of the surface of Serbia are wooded.

Hydrographic the largest part of Serbia belongs to the catchment area of the Danube, which crosses the country in its central run on a longer distance. The most important Danube tributaries in Serbiaare the save (into those again the Drina flows), the Morava, the Theiss and the Timok. The extreme southwest of the country is only drained by the white one in it to the Adria. And the extreme southeast becomes over thatRiver Pčinja, which flows into the Vardar, to the Ägäis drains.

The largest island of Serbia is 60 km ² large Flussinsel Ostrvo in the Danube east of Belgrade with Kostolac.

Belgrade: Delta of the save (from left coming)into the Danube

the 12 longest rivers in Serbia:

  • Danube (serb. Dunav) 588 km (entirely 2783 km)
  • Zapadna Morava 308 km (entirely 308 km)
  • Južna Morava 295 km (entirely 295 km)
  • Ibar 272 km (entirely 272 km)
  • Drina 220km (entirely 346 km)
  • save (serb. Sava 206 km (entirely 945 km)
  • Timok 202 km (entirely 202 km)
  • Velika Morava 185 km (entirely 185 km)
  • Theiss (serb. Tisa) 168 km (entirely 966 km)
  • Nišava 151 km (entirely 218 km)
  • Tamiš118 km (entirely 359 km)
  • Kolubara 110Km (entirely 110 km)
  • Begej 75 km (entirely 244 km)
Luftbild
aerial photograph

the 6 largest lakes of Serbia:

  • Djerdapsee (serb. Đerdapsko jezero) 163 km ² (entirely 253 km ²)
  • Vlasinasee (serb. Vlasinsko jezero) 16 km ²
  • Perućacsee (serb. Perućačko jezero) 12.4 km ²
  • Gazivodesee (serb. Gazivode jezero) 11.9 km ²
  • Zvorniksee (serb. Zvorničko jezero) 8.1 km ²
  • Zlatarsee (serb. Zlatarsko jezero) 7.25 km ²

the 9 highest summits of Serbia:

  • Đeravica 2,656 m
  • Crni vrh 2,585 m
  • Gusam 2,539 m
  • Bogdaš 2,533 m
  • Žuti came 2,522 m
  • Ljuboten 2,498 m
  • Veternik 2,461
  • Crni krš 2,426 m
  • Hajla 2,403 m

the largest Wasserfall into Serbia are the 71 m high Jelovarnik in the Kopaonik. The largest and longest, butnot deepest ravine of Serbia and in Europe is the iron gate at the Danube.

Enclaves, Exklaven and other areas

on Serbian national territory is 4 km ² a small Bosnian Exklave (Sastavci). This area becomes today however ofSerbia administered (district Priboj), although Bosnia and Herzegowina still requirement over this area raises, is not exactly defined the border.


Around the Serbian Crown Prince Alexander II Karađorđević (its parents because of the Second World War to England in the exile to flee had)the birth on Yugoslav territory to make possible, explained vienna clay/tone Churchill to 17. July 1944 the Suite 212 in the Londoner Claridge hotel for one day to the Yugoslav national territory.


The course of the border between Serbia and Croatia along the Danube is not until todaydefines exactly. Due to its that the Danube constantly changed its run in the last centuries around some kilometers, it ran the border not always in the center of the river, but along ox-bows of the Danube, or developed Flussinseln, whichin the Serbian territory projected, but belonged to Croatia. In the contract of Erdut, which was signed by Serbia and Croatia 1995, the Serbian insurgent in Croatia east slawonien again to the Croatian administration, at that time became the course of the border subordinated as the central run that Danube defines. Therefore took over Serbian montenegrinische armed forces control of the disputed Danube islands (under it the Šarengradska Ada and the Vukovarska Ada). The total area of the disputed areas, which stand today under Serbian administration, amounts to 115 km ².

Impressions from Serbia

of national park and nature park in Serbia

major item: World inheritance, national park and protected area in Serbia

Serbia hasfive of national park and ten nature parks with a total area of 7.315, 08 km ², with which more than 8% Serbia under nature protection stand.

Geomorphologic phenomena

  • Đavolja varoš (dt.: “Devil city “) earth pyramids in south Serbia (close Leskovac).
  • Mäander and ravine of the river Uvac (serb.: Meandri i klisura reke Uvac) in southwest Serbia (Sandschak).
  • Mäander and ravine of the river Temska in southeast Serbia (with Niš).
  • Rock of the Babin zub summit in the Stara Planina in southeast Serbia.
  • Rock Stol in east Serbia (with boron).
  • Ušaćka pećina (cave of Ušać) in southwest Serbia.

Climate

Klimadiagramm von Belgrad
climatic diagram of Belgrade

Serbia lies on a peninsula with a large land mass, those in the west, the south and the east of relatively warm seas (Adria, Ägäis and black sea)and in the north by the remaining European mainland one surrounds. A further important factor, which determines the climate of Serbia, is the relief. Roughly said continental climate in the north , moderate-continental climate in the south, mountain climate in the higher mountains in the south prevails in Serbiathe country. The winters in Serbia are briefly, cold and snow-rich, the summers are warm. The coldest month is January, the warmest is July. The lowest measured temperature in Serbia was attached - to 38,0°C (26. January 1954in Sjenica), the highest with 44,3°C (22. July 1939 in Kraljevo). The annual average temperature in Serbia is with 10°C. The average amount of precipitation with 896 mm.

The most important hoist in Serbia are:

  • Košava (cold and dry wind in northeast Serbia)
  • Severac (cold and drying; North wind)
  • Moravac (cold and drying; Južni comes vetar from the north the Moravatal
  • along) (warm and drying; Jugozapadni comes vetar from the south of the Morava
  • along) (warmly and damp; history comes of the Adria and blows in west Serbia

)

Major item: History of Serbia, history Serbiens/19. Century to today

the first namentliche mention of the Serbs is with Greek historians, who called the majority of the incident slawischen trunks Serbs. It admits is from this that of the people the selectedWojwode Višeslav 522 the Serbs from their today East German Urheimat, which led Lausitz, to the south. First documentary mention finds the State of Serbia in the year 822 with a hard, to the bio graph of Karl of the large one. A training writing of the Byzantine emperor Konstantin VII. Porphyrogenitus to its son Romanos in 10. Century referred to the fact that the Serbs already since the center 7. Century on the Balkans lived. Porphyrogenitus mentioned the term in its writing also „white Serbia “for the area, outthis people comes. The existence and situation of white Serbia, which is to have lain in the today's East Germany, west Poland and Tschechien, are however disputed among historians.

In the year 622 Serbs achieved the southern areas of Greece, where them in someParts, like e.g. in the Taygetosgebirge of the Chalkidiki, to in 14. Century as language islands remained received.

Serbia stood from its beginnings to its final independence 1878 long time under the influence of the Byzantine and/or Osmani realm - partly was it vassal state, partly that osmanischem realm completely incorporates. An exception formed the time of the independent Serbian realm (1180 - until approximately 1389).

Balkans wars 1912 and 1913

in the first Balkans war 1912 - 1913 defeated the alliance from Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece and Montenegro the Osmani realm. This lost its European possessions by the contract of London from May 1913 nearly everything. Bulgaria on and Serbia and Greece on the other side came however into violent controversyaround the allocation of them conquered Macedonia. Thereupon undertook to 29. June Bulgaria, it is to have concerned an however act generals without instruction, an attack on Serbia. Thus it came to the second Balkans war, in thatSerbia together with Greece, Romania and the Osmani realm Bulgaria into a Gegenoffensive turned into. Confronted with this supremacy Bulgaria remained only the surrender. It had in the contract of Bucharest from August 1913 its in the first Balkans war won territories partlyagain transfers.

Due to the Balkans wars the northwest part of Macedonia became Serbian.

The First World War

in the First World War the Serbs had to deplore 1/3 of their population as victims.

At the end of the First World War 1918 became the kingdom of the Serbs, Croats andSlovene under the guidance of the Serbian king Alexander I. Karađorđević based, which renamed itself 1929 in Yugoslavia (Südslawien). It consisted of Serbia, the up to then independent Montenegro as well as most of Südslawen populated countries of Austria Hungary, like Bosnia-Herzegovina, Dalmatien, Croatia, Slawonien and Slovenia. Internal conflicts in the Yugoslav monarchy led to a Erstarken of national movements. In consequence the Serbian king Alexander I. fell. and the French minister of foreign affairs Louis Barthou together in Marseille to 9. October 1934 an assassination attempt of Croatian Ustaša - trailers to the victim.

The Second World War

during the Second World War annektierte the Ustaša movement starting from 1941 with the assistance of the Axis powers far territories of north Serbia, including the city Novi Sad and all predominantly from Serbssettled areas in Bosnia-Herzegovina.

Had preceded this development the entry of Yugoslavia to the three-power pact. The present Treaty with the German Reich, Japan and Italy was signed by the government at that time under Cvetković and Maček. The alliance solved at the end of March1941 large demonstrations in Serbia out, which finally culminated in a rising of the people in Belgrade. Briefly after it, to 6. April 1941, let Hitler Belgrade under instruction of the Austrian general Alexander Löhr bombard, which demanded approximately 20,000 civilian victims within fewer days.Serbia was subordinated to the regime of the Serbian Nazi Kollaborateurs general Milan Nedić. During the Second World War Serbia was ideologically divided between communist and western-monarchistic movements. By the communists, under Prime Minister Nedić was accused to the monarchistic movement uncritical the Serb murder of the Germansand Croatian Okkupatoren adds and even openly with the Nazis to kollaborieren. It applied the rule that the death of a armed forces soldier was repaid with shooting of 100 Serbian civilians. With the secondarymost important Tschetnik - leader Ljotić was the point that Quisling - groups erklommen, because Ljotić took part even in military actions of the armed forces to the damage communist partisans and their numerous supporters in the people. During the Second World War 1/4 of the Serbian population the war fell to the victim.

at the end of the Second World War stood for communist partisans there under guidance of the Croat Tito as winners on the area of Yugoslavia. Serbia became of six equal partial republics in new socialist Yugoslavia. Serbia Syrmien kept territorial after thatWar, had to do without for it however around some larger Macedonia. Montenegro became likewise its own partial republic of the socialist federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRJ). In the year 1974 a division of Serbia into three parts took place on decision of the communist guidance under Tito,from the two autonomous provinces (in the north the Vojvodina and in the south the Kosovo) followed, in order to weaken this largest partial republic of Yugoslavia politically.

The decay of Yugoslavia 1991

at 1991 began Yugoslavia to in ruins, all partial republics, up to Serbiaand Montenegro, explained the independence from Yugoslavia on more or less legitimate way. Serbia and Montenegro formed the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ( SRJ) for 1992. With the detachment of Croatia and Bosnia a civil war broke out in these two partial republics. Only intervenedthe Yugoslav People's Army, which was steered from Belgrade. It had to leave however after the international acknowledgment of Croatia and Bosnia these no longer Yugoslav territories. Serbia supports first the Serbian minority in the theaters of war of Croatia and Bosnia, interrupted theseSupport however after against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia introduced the UN sanctions. With support of Serbia it succeeded to achieve the Croatian and Bosnian Serb large area gains. Most of these areas placed with the help of Serbia until 1992 under control went however to1995 again lost. Since the areas controlled by Serbs in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegowina corresponded mostly to the residential area of the Serbs, it came in the course of the large area losses of 1995 also to large streams of refugees. Many refugees followedSerbia and remained until today there. While from Serbs populated and areas of Croatia controlled again completely under Croatian administration fell, the Bosnian Serbs could implement the acknowledgment of its partial republic (Republika Srpska) within Bosnia and Herzegowinas. ThoseBosnian Serb aims at nevertheless a connection at Serbia. The Republika Srpska may maintain special relations with Serbia and Montenegro according to the contract of Dayton. Details to international conflicts under the succession states of former Yugoslavia, see international conflicts of the succession statesYugoslavia.

The war in the Kosovo

after the completion of the fights in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina 1995 concentrated the political and military guidance around Slobodan Milošević on unrests in the Kosovo. The Albanian group of peoples, those in the Kosovo thoseMajority of the population places and the independence from Serbia and/or. the connection at Albania demanded, felt suppressed. The annual report 1996 reported of amnesty internationally of numerous politically and ethnical motivated arrests, abusing and torture incidents with searches of the apartment. In addition it cameto unsettled deaths of Albanian prisoners in Serbian prisons.

In the year 1996 the UÇK began with act of terrorism ions and attacks on the Serbian military and the civilian population. After the Serbian presidency elections 1997, which were nearly closed boycotted by the Kosovo Albanians, those escalatedSituation, and in the process of the yearly 1998 came it to several Serbian large offensives in the Kosovo, which accompanied with heavy violations of human rights.

After the distribution NATO - of the employment instruction by Javier Solana to 24. Air forces of the NATO member states began March 1999 with thatBombardment of goals in Serbia. The situation of the Kosovo Albanians was intensified meanwhile, because the Serbian armed forces did not withdraw themselves like expected immediately from the area. After long negotiations the Serbian army began to 10. June 1999 with the retreat. InConsequence left a majority of the Serbs the area, many was driven out.

The era after Milošević

with the presidency elections to 24. September 2000 was selected Vojislav Koštunica to the Serbian president, which introduced the end of the era Milošević. This had itself firstas the choice winner avowedly, however finally giving way had after strikes of several days and the occupation of the parliament. To 29. June 2001 was delivered Milošević to the international criminal court for former Yugoslavia (ICTY) into the Hague.

Until 2003 Serbia remained part of Yugoslavia, since 1992 only together with Montenegro, with which it forms the confederation of states Serbia and Montenegro since 2003.

Politics

Lage Serbien-Montenegros in Europa
situation of Serbia Montenegros in Europe
Serbien
Serbia

Serbia are one of the two last states come out from Yugoslavia. After the decay of the socialist ones Serbia and Montenegro formed federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRJ) starting from 1992 first the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. This became by vote of parliament of the federal parliament at that time to 4. February 2003 dissolved and by the loose confederation of states of two independent states named Serbia and Montenegro (Srbijai Crna Gora) replaced.

Parties in Serbia are the SRS (Serbian radicals a party, right-national), dss (a democratic party of Serbia, center), G17-Plus (liberal), DS (a democratic party, liberally), SPS (a socialist party of Serbia), SPO (Serbian renewal movement, parliamentary monarchistic), LV (new Serbia, center) and other one.With the elections to 28. Decembers 2003 stood as a candidate altogether to 19 lists, some of it consisting of several parties.

In the autumn 2003 the past government coalition under the name DOS (democratic Oppositition Serbia) broke apart, so that it to 28. December 2003to new elections came. With scarcely 28% of the voices and/or about 35% of the seats in parlament the SRS, led of Vojislav Šešelj, against into the Hague since 24. February 2003 one legal proceedings runs, a strongest party, remained however in the opposition.

Because after two-month negotiations the democratic block formed a minority government consisting of dss, G17+, SPO-NS (under exception of the DS). First this government was partially dependent on parliamentary support by Miloševićs SPS, what was seen also as destabilization factor. To stabilize could itself the government coalition at the end of of September 2005, as which Muslim Sandžak - a party the cabinet joined.

March 2004 ethnical Albanians heavy Pogrome committed in the middle of against the Serbian minority living in the Kosovo. Over 4.000 humans driven out, 19 was killed, 1,000 houses inFire put, 27 Serbian-orthodox churches and monasteries destroys.

To 30. March 2004 was issued a controversial law, by which the Republic of Serbia has obligated to replace to accused before the war crimes tribunal into the Hague all expenses. However three days became aftera decree publishes, according to which this law does not extend to the family of Slobodan Milošević.

President Boris Tadić

to 27. June 2004 was selected a new president, after several preceding attempts had failed because of to low election turnout. The participation hadover 50% amount to; this ratio was however never reached. After abolishment of the 50%-Hürde the liberal and Europe won turned Reformer Boris Tadić of the DS against Tomislav Nikolić of nationalistic radicals the party with 53,24% of the voices the presidency election.

To 17. August 2004 has the Serbian national assembly unanimously the earlier royal coat of arms and the hymn Bože Pravde 19. Century as national symbols which can be used suggested, however only provisionally, until a final solution is determined. The hymn and the coat of armsfrom times of the Serbian monarchy the last communist symbols are to replace. The coat of arms shows a doppelköpfigen silver eagle, a silver cross and a crown.

To 8. November 2005 beginning of discussions with the European Union for the approximation of Serbia Montenegros onthe European union and later admission into these.


Military

Serbia has a common army with Montenegro since 1876. The army counts about 65,000 men, about which 6,500 to the Air Force and 3,500 is allotted to the navy. The military service applies toall men between 18 and 60 years and lasts nine months. Women can carry military service out since 1983 voluntarily. Since 2003 also the civil service is possible , for these takes however 13 months in Serbia and Montenegro.

Political arrangement

Politische Gliederung Serbiens
political arrangement of Serbia

withinSerbia exist the autonomous provinces (serb.: autonomne pokrajine) Vojvodina and Kosovo (Albanian: Kosova, official Serbian designation: КосовоиМетохија/Kosovo i Metohija, German: Kosovo and Metochien, as short form Kosmet), thosefrom 1974 to 1989 possessed a large independence within Serbia and Yugoslavia. Under Slobodan Milošević the autonomy of the two provinces on the status before the constitutional amendment of 1974 one back-gradated, which led particularly in the Kosovo to protests. Since then becamethe province governments no longer selected, but appointed by the centre government.

With the turn of 5. October 2000 was decided that the regional parliament of the Vojvodina can be selected by the citizens Vojvodinas directly and democratically.

Kosovo is subordinate since June 1999 UN - Administration (UNMIK), is however according to international law further a part of Serbia.

That part of Serbia (more than half of the country), which to these two provinces does not belong, forms no own political unit, therefore there is also no official designationfor it. The designations closer Serbia are informal (Serbian: Uža Srbija) and central Serbia common.

For administrative purposes Serbia is into 30 districts (serb.: Okrug; pl.: Okruzi) arranged (including the city Belgrade). 18 districts liein closer Serbia, 7 in the Vojvodina and 5 in the Kosovo. (details see: Districts of Serbia)

the local autonomy units in Serbia are the opštine (Sg. opština, literally municipality, the size after often rather district). Of thesethere are 108 in closer Serbia, 54 in the Vojvodina and 30 in the Kosovo.

Districts

Bezirke im Engeren Serbien
of districts in closer Serbia
Bezirke in der Vojvodina
districts into the Vojvodina
Bezirke im Kosovo
districts in the Kosovo

in closer Serbia:

in the Vojvodina:

in the Kosovo:

Population

Bevölkerungsdichte in Serbien
population density in Serbia
Ethnische Mehrheitsgebiete
ethnical majority areas

the composition of the population is very different in the three regions.

In closer Serbia live to the all-largest part Serbs, besides also Roma and Vlachen. In the region of Stari race and/or. Sandschakalso a larger minority of Bosniaken, in the Preševo valley in the southernmost Zipfel of the closer one lives of Serbia an Albanian minority.

The Vojvodina is already for centuries coined/shaped by a multicolored people mixture - particularly from Serbs, Hungary, Slowaken, Croat, Roma, Jew and in former times also about 200,000 to 350,000 Germans, after that the 2. World war were driven out to a large extent.

The Kosovo is dominated by Albanians. In the year 1981 the accomplished census resulted in still another Albanian population portion of80%, proceed the estimations after the Kosovo war from over 90%. Many Serbs, like also member of other minorities, living before there, about Roma, Bosniaken, Goranen (Muslim Mazedonier) and Turks moved away or were driven out, to a part alsoas act of revenge for before Repressionen exercised of national (Serbian) side.

Into the Vojvodina and closer Serbia came in the last years about 490,000 (within) - refugees from the theaters of war into Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegowina and the Kosovo (about 180.000from Croatia, 90,000 from Bosnia and Herzegowina, 220,000 from the Kosovo).

Nationalities

composition of the population after nationalities according to official result of the census from April 2002 (in of the UNMIK administered province Kosovo this census for political reasons could not take place; for 2006 a census is intended in this province. The numbers specified here apply for entire closer Serbia Vojvodina amount of per cent of amount of per cent of amount of per cent

of TOTAL 7.498.001 100 5.466.009
100 2.031.992 to the province Vojvodina
and closer Serbia . ) 100
Serbs 6.212.838 82,86 4.891.031 89,48 1.321.807 65,05
Montenegriner 69,049 0,92 33,536 0,61 35,513 1,75
Yugoslavs of 80,721 1,08 30,840 0,56 49,881 2,45
Albanians 61,647 0,82 59,952 1,1 1,695 0,08
Bosniaken 136,087 1,82 135,670 2,48 417 0,02
Bulgaren 20,497 0,27 18.839 0.34 1,658 0,08
Bunjewatzen 20,012 0,27 246 0 19,766 0,97
Germans 3,901 0,05 747 0,01 3,154 0,16
Goranen 4,581 0,06 3,975 0,07 606 0,03
Croats 70,602 0,94 14,056 0,26 56,546 2,78
Mazedonier of 25,847 0,35 14,062 0,26 11,785 0,58
Muslims inSenses of the nationality 19,503 0,26 15,869 0,29 3,634 0,18
Roma and Sinti 108,193 1,44 79,136 1,45 29,057 1,43
Romanians 34,576 0,46 4,157 0,08 30,419 1,5
Russians 2,588 0,03 1,648 0,03 940 0,05
Ruthenen 15,905 0,21 279 0,01 15,626 0,77
Slowaken 59.021 0,79 2,384 0,04 56,637 2,79
Slovenes 5104 0,07 3,099 0,06 2,005 0,1
Czechs 2,211 0,03 563 0,01 1,648 0,08
Ukrainer 5,354 0,07 719 0,01 4,635 0,23
Hungary 293,299 3,91 3,092 0,06 290,207 14,28
Vlachen 40,054 0,53 39,953 0,73 101 0
other 11,711 0,16 6,400 0,12 5,311 0,26
without indication 107,732 1,44 52,716 0,97 55,016 2,71
unknown 75,483 1,01 51,709 0,95 23,774 1,17

the comprehensive total result of the census from April 2002 is here (English).

Largest cities

the largest cities of Serbiaare (estimated numbers of inhabitants for the actual cities for 2004, followed of the number of inhabitants of of the respective (large) municipality according to the census of 2002):

in closer Serbia:

  1. Belgrade (Serbian Beograd) about 1.290.000 (1.576.124)
  2. Niš about 175,000 (250.518)
  3. Kragujevac about147.000 (175.802)
  4. Čačak about 74,000 (117.072)
  5. Kruševac about 65,000 (131.289)
  6. Leskovac about 64,000 (156.252)
  7. Smederevo about 64,000 (109.809)
  8. Valjevo about 62,000 (96.761)

in the Vojvodina:

  1. Novi Sad about 192,000 (299.294)
  2. Subotica about 101,000 (148.401)
  3. Zrenjanin about 81,000 (132.051)
  4. Pančevoabout 77,000 (127.162)

in the Kosovo:

  1. Priština about 200,000
  2. Prizren about 127,000
  3. Peć about 83,000
  4. Đakovica about 79,000
  5. Kosovska Mitrovica about 77,000
  6. Gnjilane about 71,000

see also: List of the cities in Serbia, list of German designations of Serbian places

culture

thatSerbian national theatres in Belgrade

Serbia one of the most varied countries of Europe is cultural. In the past Serbia was repeatedly borderland of important Imperien. Thus once the border between west Rome and east Rome of the Danube ran along by Serbia, likewise ran there thoseBorder between the Osmani realm and Austria Hungary. All of this left its traces. While the north of Serbia is still Central European coined/shaped, the south is more eastern.

The Byzantine realm had the largest influence on the Serbian culture. That leaves itselfrecognize in the religion of the Serbs. Therefore also the many monasteries of Serbia have a special value in the Serbian culture, by which a large part was already built in the Middle Ages.

The area of Serbia ranks among at the oldest settled andcultivated in Europe. Thus finds in Serbian area were excavated, which are from great archaeological and historical importance.

The oldest well-known writing system is to originate from the Vinča culture and not as before accepted from Mesopotamien. A further important discovery siteistLepenski Vir an der Donau, wo eine neolithische Siedlung entdeckt wurde. The special meaning of the culture of Lepenski four lies in the fact that its inhabitants were the so far oldest well-known established population of field farmers and cattle breeders in Europe.

Holidays

Date designation Serbian name note
1. January & 2. January New Year new facts Godina
7. January Christmas Božić orthodox Christmas
15. February national holiday Dan državnosti Srbije
- Easter Uskrs Easter
27. April day of the BR Yugoslavia Dan Savezne Republike Jugoslavije establishmentthe Federal Republic of Yugoslavia 1992
1. May day of the work Praznik rada
9. May day of the victory Dan pobede end of the Second World War 1945
28. June Vidovdan Dan Srba palih za Otadžbinu day of the Serbs 29 pleased for
the native country. November Day of the Republic of Dan Republike establishment of Yugoslavia and the Republic of Serbia 1943;

Art

beside Paris and Munich was Belgrade in the first half 20. Century one of the European centers of the Impressionismus. The numerous Fresken has large valuein Serbian monasteries and churches, the bedetendste by which „the white angel is in the monastery Mileševa.

Literature

the Serbian literature 19. and 20. Century takes a guide roller in the südslawischen area. The only Literaturnobelpreisträger of the former Yugoslavia is the Serb Ivo Andrić. Further important personalities are Vuk Stefanović Karadžić, Petar Petrović Njegoš, Meša Selimović, Miloš Crnjanski, Milorad Pavić and Mihajlo Pupin. Vuk Stefanović Karadžić translates the Bible for the first timeinto the Serbian people language and he reformed the Serbian orthography and language.

Music

the Serbian music is one the most popular in South-east Europe. The rule of the Osmanen left influences also in the Serbian music. 2004 occupied Serbiaand Montenegro the 2. Place with Eurovision the Song Contest. Famous Serbian singers are Lepa Brena, Željko Joksimović, Aca Lukas and Svetlana Ražnatović Ceca. A further modern music direction, itself in Serbia and other areas of the former Yugoslavia interspersed, is the turbo Folk.

Largest annually taking place music festival in Serbia the “ Dragačevski is sabor trubača” in Guča and the Pop festival “EXIT” in Novi the Sad.

One of the most well-known and most beautiful music pieces from Serbia is that “Marš well Drinu” (march to the Drina; Military march from the time of the First World War.)

Serbia has also a long folklore tradition. The so-called “Kolo” (a dance) is differently specified from region to region. The most well-known Serbian Kolo is the “Užičko kolo” (Kolo of Užice)

in the Serbian music finds v.a. the accordion use. For the traditional music national instruments become main like e.g. the Gusle uses.

Film

the Serbian film art is one the prominent in Eastern Europe. Serbian one Actors, directors and producers received prices on the most important international Filmfestivals. The most well-known Serbian director is Emir Kusturica. Famous serbischstämmige actors in Hollywood are Karl Malden, Milla Jovovich, Lolita Davidovich and Rade Šerbedžija.

Media

in Serbiaand Montenegro gives it to 18 daily papers, Politika has the highest edition. The moreover one there are two national (RTS and RTCG) and several independent television stations and three national as well as several independent Radiosender. The daily newspaper edition is with 106Newspapers on 1.000 inhabitants.

Education

the elementary school and concomitantly the compulsory schooling lasts starting from that 7. Lebensjahr up to 15. Lebensjahr. Afterwards the possibility remains open of visiting either a High School or a vocational school (medical, commercial, technical, etc.). This secondary schoolfour years last. The conclusion leads to the university-level graduation.

Cyrillic writing


in Serbia gives it altogether to five universities:

  • University of Belgrade
  • university of Kragujevac
  • university of Niš
  • university of Novi Sad
  • university of Priština


of the Alphabetisierungsgrad lies in Serbiawith 93%. About 7% of the population are illiterates. This has different causes. On the one hand it depends on the social status, on the other hand one the illiterate rate lies in certain regions (v.a. in the south and in the remote villages there are most illiterates)and with different Ethnien (in such a way the illiterate rate is with the Slowaken in Serbia with 1,4% at the lowest and with the Roma with approx. 27% most highly) differently highly.

Architecture

Detail vom Kloster Kalenić
detail of the monastery Kalenić

architecture in Serbia is just as variouslike the history of the country. Prevailing the Byzantine architecture, particularly in the numerous Serbian monasteries, is by which some to the world cultural heritage list of the UNESCO were taken up. Further prevailing architectural styles in Serbia are the baroque in the north of theCountry and the eastern architectural style in south Serbia (Sandschak and Kosovo).

Serbian kitchen

major item: Serbian kitchen

UNESCO Weltkulturerbe

  • 1979 - culture - to city Stari race, monastery Sopoćani, Petrova crkva (Peter church; oldest in completely Serbia)
  • 1986 - culture- Monastery Studenica (“cradle of the Serbian kingdom” in the Middle Ages)
  • 2004 - culture - monastery Dečani (with the Sarkophag of the king Stefan Uroš III. Dečanski)

science

meaning Serbian scientists:

Albert Einstein said once to Mihajlo Pupin, it is to him a new proof of the high gift of the Serbian people.

Sport

Serbia and Montenegro is one of the most successful sport nations of the world, although the country only approx. 11Millions inhabitants counts. The most popular kind of sport in Serbia is the basketball. Many Serbian basketball players play in the American basketball league (NBA).

Basketball

Serbia and Montenegro is still with five gold medals before the USA record world champion. With eight gold medals is Serbia and Montenegro to the former Soviet Union the most successful team with basketball European championships.

Serbian basketball players:

the native Serb Marko Pešić plays for the German national team. Its father, Svetislav Pešić, trainedboth the German and the Serbian national team. With both teams it was very successful.

So far were Serbia and Montenegro (and/or. Yugoslavia) four times hosts with European championships (the last times 2005) and 1970 hosts of the basketball world championship.

The formerNational player and coach Borislav Stanković were from 1976 to 2002 Secretary-General of the FIBA. It 1991 to “resound to OF Fame” taken up.

Volleyball

also in the Volleyball registered Serbia and Montenegro large successes. 2000 got the national team with that Olympic plays in Sydney the gold medal. 1998 became Serbia and Montenegro vice-world champion. With European championships the team became so far three times third (1995, 1999 and 2005) once second (1997) and once first (2001). The current FIVB- World rank list (of 15. January 2005) after occupies Serbia and Montenegro the third place.

Serbian Volleyballspieler:

Serbia and Montenegro was together with Italy host of the Volleyball European championship 2005.

Wasserball

Serbiaand Montenegro is the most successful team in this kind of sport. As in the basketball Serbia and Montenegro are record world champion in the Wasserball. 1986, 1991 and 2005 one won the world championships, 2001 became one second and 1973, 1978, 1998 and 2003 third. 2003,2001 and 1991 Serbia and Montenegro European champions and 1997, 1989, 1987, 1985, 1977, 1962, 1958 and 1954 vice-European champions became. With the olympic plays the team got three times , four times silver and twice bronze to gold (the last times 2004 in Athens). So far only the water ball world championship became 1973 in Serbia and Montenegro (and/or. Yugoslavia) delivered.

Serbian water ball players:

the water ball European championship 2006 is delivered in Serbia and Montenegro.

Hand ball

largest successes registered thoseNational team Serbia and Montenegros 2001 and 1991 with the reaching of the final. 1996 became the team third with the European championship.

Until 1992 Yugoslavia could celebrate the following successes:

  • Two gold medals with olympic plays (1984 and 1972) and once silver (1988)
  • world champion1986, vice-world champion 1982, third 1970 and 1974.

Tennis

acquaintance and successful Serbian tennis player inside are Monika Seleš (since 1995 it plays for the USA) and Jelena Dokić. For Serbia and Montenegro Seleš 1991.1992 and 1993 won the Australian open, 1990.1991 and 1992 the French open and 1991 and 1992 US open. Jelena Dokić occupied occasionally the 4. Place of the WTA tennis world rank list.

Football

the largest success of the Serbian football after the decay of Yugoslavia was the victory of the Fiber plastic red star Belgrade with the Cup of the national masters (UEFA champion League 1991). The national team could do itself for the soccer world championships 1998 and 2006 as well as qualify for the football European championship 2000. Also the U-21-Nationalmannschaft with the reaching of the final obtained large successesthe U-21-Weltmeisterschaft 2004.

Yugoslavia could exhibit to the 1992 following successes in the football:

  • Once 3. and once 4. with the soccer world championships 1930 and 1962.
  • Twice vice-European champions (1960 and 1968).
  • Olympia winner of 1960, as well as Olympia second 1948, 1952 and 1956.

These successes becameafter the decay of Yugoslavia the legal successor of the Yugoslav football federation (FSJ), the football federation of Serbia and Montenegros, credited.

So far only the football European championship was delivered 1976 in Yugoslavia.

Serbian football players:

infrastructure

By its central situation on the Balkan Peninsula Serbia forms an important traffic junction. All important traffic routes of South-east Europe cross in Serbia. Road-wetted altogether 40,845 km are long, about which 2/3 are asphalted. Serbia possesses 422 duty-requiring motorway kilometers and 213 km duty-requiringHalf motorways. The road system contains 2,638 bridges and 78 of tunnel, by which however only very few are lit.

Serbia is an important transit country in the traffic of Hungary/east Central Europe to Greece, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Albania and small Asia.

That Tourism is of great importance therefore for Serbia.

The Serbian railway operates connections from Belgrade to bar, Thessaloniki, Istanbul and into the European Union countries. Serbia possesses railroad lines over 4.000 km. 1,364 km of it are electrified. In Serbia it givesthree international airports, in Belgrade, Priština and in Niš, which are served by many international air lanes.

At the Danube, Sava and Theiss there are many river ports, which serve also recently a routistic route. Over the Danube givesit a water connection to the black sea. Along the Danube are some dockyards.

Traffic regulations

of speed limit:

Overhauling procedures:

  • Child and school penalty may not be overhauled, if they hold.
  • To be flashed must during of theentire overhauling procedure.

Other:

  • Blood alcohol limit: Its

GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT

has 0.5 economics Serbia because of the sanctions and NATO in the last 15 years - Bombardements of 1999, by which half reduces.

Serbia received in the year 2005 over 1.5 billion € direct investments, alsopartially from the privatisations of the bank nature and other national enterprises rose. The privatisation of the national enterprises should be final at the end of of 2006.

The foreign trade balance deficit could be lowered compared with 2004 around scarcely 16%. The exports 2005 amounted to 3,666 millions€, the imported goods 8,533 millions €.

The incomes by the tourism rose to 305 millions $ and the location advantage from geostrategic view (Serbia has 7 neighboring countries) attract meanwhile large foreign companies.

The average net wage in Serbia amounts to about., € the inflation is to 200 (2005) about 13,8% (2004) and it prevails to 20% unemployment (without Kosovo).

The free trade agreement of Serbia with the Russian federation particularly stings thereby in the eye and could be a large incentive for foreign investors, if there not thosestill flowering corruption and juridical insecurity would be.

In the middle of September 2005 a published report of the World Bank, is designated Serbia and Montenegro as prominent reform country within the range of the development promotion of enterprises and job creation. This leaves itself also on the basisthe ever more numerous Joint ventures with foreign enterprises occupy.

Serbia and Montenegro belong also to the countries, which introduced a Flat Tax. The income tax amounts to overall 14% and body-expensively the 10%.

Agriculture

about 40% of the entire surface of Serbia are agrarian usable.The agriculture makes approx. 18% Serbian GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT out. Due to the favorable climate there are good conditions for the agriculture in Serbia. The most fruitful region is the Pannoni lowlandses in the north of the country (province Vojvodina). Approximately 17% of the total populationare active in the agriculture. Main cultivation products are sugar beets, corn, potatoes, wheat and fruit (v.a. Plums, raspberries and apples). Serbia ranks world-wide among largest the export your from raspberries. Besides also animal husbandry is operated (v.a. Pigs and Cattle, in the southwest of sheep). The viticulture plays also a large role.

Tourism

Yugoslavia was up to its decay 1991 one of the most popular vacation goals at the Mediterranean. After the decay the tourists remained v.a. because of the military conflicts in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegowina and the political situation as well as the Kosovo war out. While 1987 still 4.5 million tourist Serbia visited, were in the year 2005 only somewhat more than 400,000 foreign tourists. However is since the political turnto note in the year 2000 a rise of foreign tourists. Due to its central situation in South-east Europe is Serbia v.a. for the tourism of importance.

The routistic principal purposes in Serbia are the large cities Belgrade and Novi Sad, the numerous health resorts, thoseMountains Kopaonik and Zlatibor and the Danube. The moreover Serbia offers historicalpregnant fortresses and monastery plants, impressing ravines ( the iron gate at the Danube is the largest ravine of Europe), some national park and protected areas, lakes and Grotten. Due to its different topographyif one can follow to a small place close Belgrade in Serbia numerous kinds of asset haven (mountain pastes , sails , Rafting , wheel driving , fishing rods, riding

,

Literature

  • painted Olschewski: The Serbian myth. The late nation., Herbig 2000, ISBN 3776620277.
  • Steven W. Sowards: Modern history of the Balkans. The Balkans in the age of the nationalism, BoD 2004, ISBN 3-8334-0977-0.

See also

Web on the left of

Commons: Serbia - pictures, videos and/or audio files


coordinates: 42°-46° N, 19°-23° O

 

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