Serbia and Montenegro

СрбијаиЦрнаГора
Srbija i Crna Gora
Serbia and Montenegro
Flagge von Serbien und Montenegro Wappen von Serbien und Montenegro
(detail) (detail)
office languages Serbian
capital Belgrade
system of government national community
head of state /Pr Svetozar Marović surface
102,350 km äsident ²
number of inhabitants 10.829.175 (July 2005)
population density 105Inhabitant per km ²
gros domestic product/inhabitant 5,348 US-$ (2005)
currency Serbia: Dinar
Montenegro and Kosovo: Euro
time belt UTC +1
national anthem Hej Sloveni (September 2004)
Kfz characteristic SCG
Internet TLD .yu (.cs reserved)
preselection + 381
¹ actually a Federal State with reduced authority consisting ofthe two republics Serbia and Montenegro
Lage Serbien-Montenegros in Europa

Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian СрбијаиЦрнаГора/Srbija i Crna Gora) is a “national community”, which consists of the Republics of Serbia and Montenegro. Administrative and military control of the provinceKosovo lie with the UN and/or. NATO.

Table of contents

geography

Serbia and Montenegro lies in South-east Europe; it becomes by the traditional transit distances from Central Europe to Greece and into Turkey pulled through. In addition come 591 km portion of the Danube, which forms the water route between the black sea and central and Northern Europe. Serbia andMontenegro borders on Albania, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, Bosnia and Herzegowina and Croatia. In addition over the montenegrinische coast an entrance to the Adriati sea exists.


nature area

the north of the country becomesin an educated manner by the province Vojvodina, which belongs to the Pannoni basin and forms a fruitful low country. The Vojvodina is separated from the save (Sava) and a part of the Danube (Dunav) from the remainder of the country. The Danube andthe Theiss (Tisa) splits the province into the three regions Batschka (Bačka), Banat and Syrmien (Srem). In Syrmien the hill chain Fruška Gora high up to 539 m extends on the south bank of the Danube.At the border to Romania the western Ausläufer of the Banater of mountain country up to 641 m rises.

The areas south of Danube and save are considerably coined/shaped by a hill land and a mountain character contrary to the Vojvodina. However the Morava forms- Valley in Serbia a flight corridor between the Dinari mountain system in the west and the Karpaten Balkans Gebirgsbogen in the east. Thus Serbia and Montenegro has natural traffic routes to Greece over the valleys of the southern Morava (Južna Morava) and the Vardar inMacedonia, and in Turkey over the Nišava valley and the Thraki lowlandses in Bulgaria. Also the province Kosovo is connected to valley by the Ibar - with the remainder of Serbia.

Der Glazialsee Crno jezero auf 1450 m im Durmitor
The Glazialsee Crno jezero on 1450 m in the Durmitor

differently holds back ititself with the connection between the two Republics of Montenegro and Serbia. While the Šumadija - between Belgrade, which Morava and the western Morava (Zapadna Morava) convenient - still by gentle hills is characterised, forms direction southwest more highlybecoming mountain chains and deep valleys and ravines with difficulty surmountable barriers between Serbia and Montenegro. The tare ravine in the north Montenegros is also over 1000 meters the deepest ravine of Europe. South the Wasserscheide is appropriate for this ravine between Adria and black sea. Itrun over more than 2000 m of rising mountain courses Golija, Sinjajevina and Komovi. From approximately 1900 meters the dinarische mountain system drops into the fjord-like bay from Kotor to the Adria. Due to the wide-spread Kalkgesteins is it showna strong Verkarstung of the mountain landscape. The highest collection of the country is the 2,656 m high Đaravica at the border between Albania and the province Kosovo.

The few even surfaces south of Danube and save are limited to the northern Morava valley,the blackbird field (Kosovo polje) and the Podrima in Kosovo and the level of Zeta in the south Montenegros.

climate

at the montenegrinischen coast prevails mediterranes climate with a middle temperature of 25° C in the summer and5 to 9° C in the winter. The inland is against it from a continental climate with hot summers (middle temperature 22° C) and cold winters (middle temperature - 1° C) determines. The average yearly precipitation in the low country amounts to about 500 mm, in higherSituations of 800 to 1,600 mm.

population

Bevölkerungsdichte
population density
Ethnische Mehrheitsgebiete
ethnical majority areas
Verbreitung der Serben
spreading of the Serbs


Serbia and Montenegro is an ethnical various state. However in the province Vojvodina are counted over 26 nationalities. Only 67.6% of the population belonged 1991one of the two state-characteristic nations (Serb 62.6%; Montenegriner 5%) on.

The Albanians, those form the most important minority in the country particularly in the province Kosovo and Metochien, in addition, in adjacent municipalities in closer Serbiaand along the Albanian montenegrinischen border live. They place 16.5% to the total population Serbia and Montenegros.

As further large minorities dip Yugoslav (3.37%), Hungary (3.32%), Bosniaken or Muslims (3.23%), Roma (1.38%) and Croat inclusive Bunjewatzen (1.28%)up. In addition there is minorities of Slowaken, Romanian, Macedonians, Bulgaren, Ruthenen, Vlachen, Turk, German, Czech and. A.


the census there

2002 the province Kosovo standing under UN - administration andMetochien from the census from 2002 remained excluded, first still data of 1991 was called. In the comparison with the results of 1991 the census of 2002 a dramatic decrease of persons is noticeable, concerning its Ethnizität as “Montenegriner”designate. Shows up a splitting into such, which hold to the montenegrinischen nationality and into those, which do without these in favor of the Serbian nationality.

A further very obvious change points itself to east Serbia. The number of so-called Vlachen inSerbia rose from scarcely 18,000 in the year 1991 to sayful 40,000 in the year 2002.

Apart from this exception the numbers are with the ethnical minorities generally declining - a process, that already whole 20. Century persisted itself, butwith nationalistic pressure, above all however by desolate economical conditions of the last years, to have accelerated likes.

In addition a shift of ethnical majority conditions comes by the immigration of several hundredthousand Serbian war refugees from Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegowina in some areasbetween 1991 and 1995 and from the province Kosovo and Metochien after 1999.

Therefore also the ethnical picture of the province Kosovo and Metochien, in which the census could not be accomplished, might have changed strongly. Straight one in the areas,in those already before 1999 the Albanians the population majority placed, might the ethnical composition toward an Albanian homogeneity have developed. 1999 ago there was a strong minority of Roma, two settlement areas apart from the Serbian minority alsoof Croats with Lipljan and Vitina, as well as a group of Turks. The population portion of the Goranen, a serbischsprachige Muslim group of peoples, might have remained stable at least in the greater Gora.

politics

the state State of Serbia and Montenegrohas to 4. February 2003 the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia existing up to then replaces. This transformation came into force by vote of parliament.

The member states of the confederation of states are not independent members of the UN, but have in the general assembly the common seat of the pastFederal Republic of Yugoslavia.

There is a common parliament, in such a way specified “скупштина”, with 126 delegates and some further common institutions like a common president and a common Council of Ministers, who cover five Ministries (defense, foreign policy, externaleconomical relations, domestic economic Harmonisation, citizen andMinority rights). The common parliament meets in Belgrade, the constitutional court has its seat in Podgorica. The today's state flag and the state coat of arms were taken over by the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which is Staatshymne further the same one as those the socialist federal republicYugoslavia.

To 4. March 2005 ran out the mandate of the delegates of the union meeting. The partial republics had not been able themselves to unite before on a new election. Since then the status of the parliament is unsettled; anyhow thereby a part of the condition Charter of 2003 is actually repealed set.

The partial states have in each case their own economic policy, and also in each case their own currency. In the course of the conversion the former „Yugoslav new dinar “(YUM) was renamed in Serbian dinar (CSD) and by Serbia with unchangedExchange rates as national currency taken over. Montenegro introduced the euro after use for many years of the German Marks now as legal tender.

Between both countries customs inspections exist.

To 21. May 2006 will take place in Montenegro a popular vote over the independence of the country.If 55% of the co-ordinations for independence should votieren, this would mean the end of the state union. Details to current conflicts under the succession states of former Yugoslavia, see international conflicts of the succession states of Yugoslavia.

administrative arrangement

Politische Gliederung
political arrangement

the twoRepublics of Montenegro and Serbia were divided altogether into 197 greaters (opštine, singular opština). of it 176 lies in Serbia while Montenegro consists of 21 greaters. Serbia is additional into 30 districts (okruzi, singular okrug), thosein each case several greaters cover, divided. In addition to Serbia the two autonomous provinces (autonomne pokrajine, singular autonomna pokrajina) belong to Vojvodina and Kosovo and Metochien.

economics

Serbia and Montenegro is economically one of the weakest countrieson the Balkans. The net average income amounted to in July 2005 250 euro monthly (3000 euro yearly incomes). The foreign debt amounted to 2004 about 9.75 billion Euro.

Agriculture is usually operated owing to that the high mechanization in the supplementary income. The rich Bodenschätze (brown coal, Kupfererze, bauxite,Oil and - gas) are the basis for the heavy industry damaged sensitively by 1996 the waived embargo. The unemployment ratio is at 20% (conditions: 2005). Since the year 2004, Serbia and Montnegro attracts very strong foreign companies like z. B.Mercator (retail trade), DM drugstore market, Metro AG as well as numerous banks. Representatives of the Serbian and Italian automakers Zastava and Fiats signed an agreement over the license and manufacturing of the Punto in the Zastava work in Kragujevac in Turin.

pictures

Web on the left of


coordinates: 43° 51 ′ 18 " N, 20° 35 ′ 24 " O

 

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