|spoken in:||Serbia and Montenegro, Bosnien and Herzegowina (in particular in the Serbian administrative territory, the Republika Srpska, countries with large Serbian immigrant portion, as for instance Austria, Switzerland, Germany, the USA, Australia or Canada|
|office language in:||Serbia and Montenegro, Republika Srpska (by it also in Bosnia and Herzegowina)|
|ISO 639 -1:||SR|
|ISO 639 -2:||scc||srp|
table of contents
According to grammatical criteria the Serbian language of the Croatian and Bosnian language is similar. All Serbian speakers can inform themselves easy with speakers of the Bosnian one and Croatian one. These two languages leadhowever since the 1990-er years ever more new words in their vocabulary (Turzismen and/or. Germanisms), so that it will be somewhat more difficult for future Serbian generations to understand these.
variants of the Serbian language
the Serbian languageexisted in two discussion variants.
- EastSerbian: Strictly speaking this ekavische discussion variant is due to the high population portion prevailing, in particular in the majority of Serbia.
- WestSerbian: As office language in Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegowina and/or. Serbian republic and the Serbs living in Croatiahowever the ijekavische discussion is used, which is similar to the Bosnian one and Croatian language. For the explanation of some differences is referred to the article to the differences.
Serbian native speakers
Serbian becomes by approx. 10 million humans in Serbia, where it is office language, as native language spoken. Serbian also office language is in Montenegro and in Bosnia and Herzegowina. Besides a large Serbian Diaspora exists, to their number with descendants on approx. 7.000.000 to be numbered can do.
Serbian is written with the cyrillic as well as with latin alphabet. The use of the cyrillic writing, the Serbian original depends thereby of several factors: Geography (particularly in central Serbia and in former times Montenegro, less of the Serbs of Croatia, Bosniaand in north Serbia, of the political adjustment (traditionally aligned newspapers rather cyrillic), and of the text article (religious and traditional texts rather cyrillic, formerly communist, modern contents rather Latin).
Quotation of the Internet side of the Serbian government (http://www.srbija.sr.gov.yu/pages/article.php?id=36 "Home > Facts about Serbia > Basic Facts > population, LANGUAGE and religion "):“The official language in Serbia is Serbian and the officially used writing is cyrillic, while also latin is writing used. In the areas. by ethnical minorities to be inhabited, the languages and writings of these minorities are official inUse, as legally secured. “
Becomes quite apparent in the daily life. While in some newspapers both writings occur still multicolored mixed or are present at shop windows times latin, times the cyrillic writing, official documents are to a large extent cyrillic written.
In Montenegro against it the reverse tendency prevails forwards, it still until recently (about 2004) almost exclusively the cyrillic writing in all company forms was used. Nowadays however everywhere the cyrillic is replaced by latin.
alphabet and discussion
The Serbian alphabet has 30 letters:
A, b, C, č, ć, D, dž, đ, e, f, g, h, i,j, k, l, lj, m, n, nj, o, p, r, s, š, t, u, v, z, ž.
A, Б, Ц, Ч, Ћ, Д, Џ, Ђ, E, Ф, Г, X, И, J, K, Л, Љ, M, H, Њ, O, П, P,C, Ш, T, Y, B, З, Ж
the Serbian ABC (Latin) runs in this order:
A B C Č Ć D Dž Đ E F G H I J K L Lj M N Nj O P R S TU V Z Ž
A b C č ć D dž đ e f g h i j k l lj m n nj o p r s t u v z ž
the Serbian alphabet (cyrillic) runs in thisSequence:
the letters q, w, x, y occur only in fremdsprachigen names. The Digraphen dž, lj and nj becomesspecified in the alphabetical order in each case as an individual letter. There is only a very small number of words, in which these indication characters mark two separate sounds and therefore as two letters must be treated. Foreign names become in the Serbian,usually, written like one her e.g. speaks:Grace Kelly - Grejs Keli. That is in such a way handled even by magazines. In the Croatian one however names and names are transferred in their original form.
The majority of the letters become on the wholeas expressed in German.
|а||/A/||like German A|
|б||/b/||always be correctful|
|ц||/ts/||always /ts/, like German z|
|ћ||/tɕ/||similarly how tch or tj in rolls or tja; often with difficulty of č to differentiate|
|д||/D/||always be correctful|
|џ||/dʒ/||dsch as with respect to jungles|
|ђ||/dʑ/||very soft dj; often with difficulty of dž toodifferentiate|
|е||/ɛ/||(in the comparison with the German) always openly|
|ф||/f/||like German f|
|г||/ɡ/||always be correctful|
|х||/x/||always rear “oh” - H, quite weak friction|
|и||/i/||like German i|
|ј||/j/||often like short, unbetontes i expressed|
|к||/k/||aspiriert less than duller/mustier in|
|German||л/l||/(more velarer) than in German; German l is often measure-interpreted as lj|
|љ||/ʎ/||into a sound merged: palataler lateral Approximant|
|German||n њ/||ɲ/ into|
|a sound merged m||/like German m: be correctful palataler Nasal|
|o||/ɔ/||(in the comparison with the German) always openly|
|п||/p/||aspiriert less than in German|
|р||/r/||rolled tongue r. Even if a syllable can form and long or briefly as vokalisches (syllabic) R, stresses orunbetont its. Example: /krŉk/(Krk)|
|с||/s/||always be correctless like German ss|
|т||/t/||aspiriert less than in German|
|у||/u/||like German u|
|в||/ʋ/||always be correctful like German w|
|з||/z/||be correctful s|
|ж||/ʒ/||be correctful sch|
differences to other südslawischen languages
Web on the left of
|Wikipedia on Serbian|
- http://www.krstarica.com/dictionary/serbian-german/ Serbian-German dictionary