Series of A

of these articles describes the Italian football league; for the volume of the same name see series of A (RWS formation).

The series of A is the highest play class in many Italian sport leagues. There is a series A for example in the Volleyball and basketball. Equivalently there is a series in some kinds of sport also A1 (hand ball, ice hockey). Outside of Italy with it the Italian professional football league is nearly always meant.

The series of A belongs in accordance with the UEFA five Jahreswertung after the Primera División (Spain) and before the Prime Minister League (England) to the three most meaning European leagues. The formal name of the series of A reads „Lega Nazionale Professionisti series of A TIM “. Aligner of the championship, is the Lega Nazionale Professionisti (ital. National professional league), a Unterorganistation Italian of the football federation F.I.G.C. (Federazione italiana giuoco calcio). Usually the federation is called however simply „Lega Calcio “.

Table of contents

participating to the season

2005/2006

, qualifications in the series of A
1. CL
2. CL
3. CL (agony)
4. CL (agony)
5. UC
6. UC
7. UC
18. Series of B
19. Series of B
20. Series of B

for the season 2004/05 consists the league of 20 associations (before 18). The associations at the last three places descend into the second league, the series of B. Accordingly the first three crews of the series of B ascend into the series of A. At point equality, two deciding matches take place at the season end both around the Meistertitel, as well as around the descent. 05 the fiber plastic Parma and the fiber plastic Bologna played a direct duel last around the descent at the end of the season 2004/. After end of the next season this principle is to be abolished however.

Beginning of season is the Italian Supercup, at the end of of August is delivered. This takes place occasionally for advertising purposes also abroad. The actual championship begins usually at the beginning of of Septembers and ends to at the end of of May. After the Hinrunde, which ends in December, the back round begins after short winter break. Beginning of the back round is traditional the 6. January. Each crew plays during the season twice against every other crew in the league, in each case once in the domestic stadium and once outward, in the play place of the opponent.

Play day of the series of A is traditionally Sunday afternoon, two portions for some years however regularly on Saturday is delivered. The point play of the round is usually played Sunday evening. Alternate date, for preferred plays, if the Wochende precipitates because of plays of the national team or UEFA champions League/ UEFA Cup, is Wednesday or Thursday.

Master is that crew, which stands at the end of the 38 play days at first position. Due to the placement in the five-yearly valuation the first two places entitle direct champions to the League participation. The associations at the places three and four rise in 3. Qualification round to champions the League. The following places entitle to the participation in UEFA Cup and UI Cup - their number depends however on several factors, like the results in the Italy cup („Coppa Italia “).

Meistertitel

Der „Scudetto“

of the Meistertitel of the series of A becomes colloquially often Scudetto (ital. „scudetto “= small signs), after which plaque in Italian national colors designated, which the master may carry in the subsequent season on the leotard. The title Albo is called formal d'oro, after, the golden master cup sketched for the end of the season presented and 1960 of Ettore Calvetti (Alessandro Del Piero with the Italian master cup).

For each tenth Meistertitel an association may carry a star in the coat of arms and on the leotard. To the most successful associations to the league Juventus Turin with 28 championships and thus two stars, as well as the citizens of Milan of associations inter ( 13 championships) and Milan ( 17 championships) with in each case a star therefore belong.

A list of the past masters and conclusion tables of past Saisonen are on the list of the past football masters of the series of A.

history

between the introduction of the championship 1898 until the season 1928 was out-played the Italian master in a master round between the winners of the various regional federations, similarly the German system 1962 ago (see soccer federal league). The first Italian championships do not hold for a current comparison. Were small tournaments, at one (!) sunny afternoon were out-played. The first Italian championship found to 8. May 1898 in Turin instead of. In it four crews participate: The later master Genova, as well as the Turiner of associations Internazionale Torino, fiber plastics Torinese and Ginnastica Torino.

Der erste italienische Meister, der Genua 1893 CFC
The first Italian master, that Genova 1893 CFK

ways of the 1. World war pausiert the master round of 1916 - 1919. Already soon the play enterprise is however again taken up and after old mode continues. In postwar confusions, however two football federations stress the Italian Meistertitel for itself. Beside the FIGC, 1919 also the Confederazione Calcistica Italiana (CCI) were formed, in which a championship was likewise out-played. This federation came up however already 1922 again into the FIGC, which results however in the fact that there are completely officially two Italian masters with pro to cellos (CCI) and Novese (FIGC) in that year.

Soon after the war, the interest in the football takes enormously too and slowly is established the professional football. The first documented professional football player is Virginio Rosetta, which changes 1923 of pro cellos to Juventus Turin. Edoardo Agnelli brought capital to the Turiner to association, whereby it was made possible for the Turinern to transfer Rosetta for the record sum at that time of 50,000 lire (rate of exchange corresponds to 25.80 after euro/€lire) to Turin.

The Professionalisierung of the football brings the end of successes to Genova for the series winners at that time 1893 and pro cellos. Since 1924 could achieve neither Genova, nor pro cellos a national title on professional level.

1927 are again denied to the second Turiner association, the AC Turin the titles already won due to a Regelwiedrigkeit.

At the beginning of the championship 1929 the play mode was changed. Since then the master no more is determined among the regional winners, but among all participating crews. The championship extended thereby also, for the first time persists the championship over the turn of the year. Further the Italian dictator at that time Mussolini, which was admitting football fan, forces the pool of the citizens of Milan of associations inter Milan and US Milanese to Ambrosiana inter. The separation takes place immediately after its fall 1942.

Because of the world war, delivering the championship must again be interrupted between 1944 and 1946. Even if there are no official masters in this time, 1944 an unofficial championship are out-played, with which the Freiwillige fire-brigade of La Spezia can achieve the title. The series of A takes 1946 their regular play enterprise for the first time under this name. That accompanies the establishment of the Lega Calcio with seat in Milan . This constituted itself for the first time to 14. May 1946. First only a gestamtitalienische professional league develops; in this 1947 /48 21 crews participate (up to today the highest number of associations). A reform following on it creates the series of A and series of B with in each case 18 crews. Since then the series of A carries also this name.

After the war the AC Turin controls the Italian championship. The crew, which is called „Grande Torino “, is called sometimes today still one of the best crews, which ever played in the series A. Few years later has an accident to 4. May 1949 the entire crew (except for an exception) of the designate master, AC Turin, with an aircraft crash in the Superga mountains with Turin - whereupon the title the Turinern is awarded posthum. With it at the same time also the turn in the Italian football begins. Since then, except for few exceptions, the initially mentioned Italian large clubs the happening dominate national football. Juventus, inter or Milan won the national championship since the Second World War 55 times.

Since 1956/57 may not lead Italian arbitrators portions; the moreover one the first live one takes place - television transmission play, at that time however forced on one Saturday in that year. From today's viewpoint very interesting, the criticism of the president at that time of the Italian olympic committee (CONI) is, Onesti at the Italian football league, at the 3. August 1958. Therein the president accuses to the federation to spend much too much money on the football. Also the term falls „ricchi scemi “(hands fools).

Under the guidance of the league of Aldo Stacchi starting from August 1965 radical changes are made. Starting from the season 1967/68 the series of A from 18 associations is reduced to 16 (until 1987 18 associations one supplements). Very many more drastically is however the second measure. After the scandalous defeat of the twice world champion against North Korea at the WM 1966, may, around which Italian national team to strengthen and Italian successes into the 1930er years repeat between 1966 and 1980 foreigners do not participate in the championship. Ironically Italy became 1982, after abolition of the barrier, world champion. Some associations did not hold however to begin nevertheless foreigner by it these simply in-patriated.

1973 demand the football federation more money of the national olympic committee. The 500-600 billion lire, which the federation from funds of the Totocalcio (football tapping play) receives, are not sufficient, in order to plug 50 billion lire (25 million euro) hole of the associations. Solution is however none in view, then the scandal is eight years later only one of the consequences of the indebtedness of the associations and the league.

Before however the foreigner rule falls. Since May 1980 again foreigners may participate in the national championship.

To scandal finally came 1980/ 81 mention it, when the AC Milan and Lazio Rome had to obligation-descend because of illegal business. The immediate reclimb from the series of B succeeded to the citizens of Milan, however one descended one year later again, before one could settle again in the series of A. Mentioned three-dominance was lastingly broken, so in these years that again strengthens other associations the Meistertitel conquer could. Thus 1983 became as Rome after over 40 years again masters and 1985 for the first time Hellas Verona. The SSC Neapel under Diego Maradona continues to provide starting from center of the 80's for alternation and interrupts northItalian dominance.

In the 80's also profound changes at the financing of the league follow. Since the financial situation of the associations improved little, follow starting from the season 1981/82 further innovations. Since then is the Sponsoring (leotard advertisement,…) liberalisiert and the rights of cession and television move increasing into the interest of the league. Up to then the transmission of the plays took place in the public television of the RAI. Even if Berlusconis Fininvest makes in public an offer for the league, the rights remain first with the RAI - even if the contract is supplemented by 5.8 billion lire (today 2.9 million euro correspond). The situation does not improve however crucially, the debts of the associations sums itself in the middle of the 80's-years on 200 billion lire (100 million euro). 1990 must pay the RAI for the extension of the contract already 162.5 to million euro - it should be the last mark until today that Italian football on the freely receiptable television was to be seen. By the offers of the Italian Pay by View - television fill the cashes of the associations again easily to only receive in order to 1995 again by the bad one judgement a setback. Until today has itself the situation improved, in the last years became not substantial several associations in the consequence also the license extracted (AC Parma, AC Florenz, SSC Neapel). the Italian parliament a law legitimizes 2005, according to which the associations losses can copy by sunk transfer values of the players over years of the tax.

Sportily Meistertitel of Romans the associations Lazio and AS Rome follow for the end of the millenium. Up-to-date the Romans cannot attach to it however (and to stand end of the season 2005 in the lower table third). Master became in the last years Juventus and the AC Milan.

In the summer 2005, the Italian football was again heavily gebeutelt. The football federation, the Lega Calcio, refused to several series A and series of B associations the license. This concerned among other things the fiber plastic Messina, and the series of B-Aufsteiger AC Turin. While the sport Court of Justice in Rome confirmed the association Messina the license which was to blame for with 18 million euro, the sport court of the decision of the Lega Calcio followed and refused the ascent of the AC Turin. The association which was to blame for with 30 million euro, could save however by new investments of sponsors at least the secondary league license. Other nature was the drakonische punishment of the first Italian master, Genova the 1893. Both the league and the sport court saw it proven on as that Genova with at least a manipulated play had acquired the ascent. Of Genova president Enrico Preziosi victory of its crew had bought 3:2, with at that time the Absteiger AC Venice with a bar delivery of 250.000 euro, already being certain. The Lega Calcio shifted Genova to it to the last place in the series of B, which meant actually the descent into the series of c1. The moreover one Genova is punished with a point departure by 3 points for the next season. The presidents of the two associations may not notice offices in their associations for 5 years.

From this decision profited the series of B - associations Ascoli and Treviso, which were allowed to ascend as advancing crews into the series of A.

more jeher

a strong north-south gap exhibits associations the Italian series of A since. The economically stronger north of Italy is also in the football dominance. This shows up still more decided in successes. Except for few exceptions (1970 US Cagliari, 1987 and 1990 SSC Neapel, 1974 and 2000 Lazio Rome, 1983 and 2001 AS Rome) all Meistertitel went to north Italy, particularly into the industrial cities Turin and Milan since 1945 (AC and inter).

Geographically there is pleasing for South Italies to report in the last years however. Goods still before ten years of only three associations from the south in the highest Italian league, are today nevertheless it five. Up to the obligation descent of the SSC Neapel this was a representative of the south in „the fight “against the industrial cities of the north. After the last season however above all US Palermo could convince, which takes more and more the earlier role of Neapels.

The region Toskana is most frequently represented, where four associations play (Livorno, Florenz, Empoli and Siena). Steeped in tradition city duels are delivered at present however only in Milan and Rome, where the Derbys between AC Milan - inter Milan and AS Rome - is Lazio Rome the respective season high points. To earlier times also AC Turin - Juventus Turin and Sampdoria Genova - supplied themselves Genova of 1893 hard duels. The most current league decisions (see history) at least these duels prevent however for the more near future. The remaining associations distribute themselves quite evenly on completely Italy, without salient concentration on a certain area. Only on Sicily (fiber plastics Messina and US Palermo), as well as in the region Veneto (Chievo Verona, FBC Treviso) play two associations.

Some Italian regions, in particular in South Italies are however, partial for decades without association in the series of A. Here the regions Basilikata , Kampanien , Molise and the Abruzzen are mentioned. The autonomous regions Trentino South Tyrol and Aosta did not have ever a representative in the highest play class.

to the season 2005/2006 participating associations

spectator

Spectator extent of utilization of the series of A
year league cut highest extent of utilization record cut
2004/05 26,098 AC Milan 63,595
2003/04 25,675 AC Milan 63,245
2002/03 25,474 inter Milan 61,943
2001/02 25,992 inter Milan 62,434
2000/01 29,441 AS Rome 64,270
1999/00 29,908 inter Milan 66,546
1998/99 30,840 inter Milan 68,459
1997/98 31,161 inter Milan 67,825
1996/97 29,481 AC Milan 55,894
1995/96 29,447 AC Milan 60,973
1994/95 29,154 AC Milan 56,659
1984/85 38,871 SSC Neapel 77,597
1974/75 31,257 SSC Neapel 67,678
1964/65 20,320 inter Milan 45.012


The series of A fights for years with sinking interest of spectator. At best one can speak of a stagnation, which is to due probably primarily to the constantly rising ticket prices. A ticket on the average costs today 17-18€, with the Topvereinen still substantially - more than twice as much to more as before ten years. In the season 2004/05 saw altogether 9.421.549 spectators the 361 plays, which makes a cut of 26.098 visitors per play. The accompanying table shows the league cut of the last years and demonstrates the stagnating visitor development. The largest cut white since years the two citizens of Milan large clubs up; in the season run off 63,245 visitors saw the plays of the AC Milan and 58,352 those from inter Milan on average. Juventus Turin however fights for years with extremely weak spectator numbers (2004/05: 26.429) and lies thereby, which concerns spectator extent of utilization, at present only in the centre zone. The away games of Juventus Turin however are genuine public racers, 9 times represented this play the season high point with highest visitor extent of utilization.

In the 90's still the SSC Neapel before the descent ensured for records (however Neapel has Italy far fifth-highest visitor extent of utilization this very day in the series of c1), today measures the two Romans of associations Lazio Rome and AS Rome around the third position in the interest of spectator.

Further factors, which deter visitors, is the increasing force in the stages. Particularly the Romans of associations, have serious problems with fascist Ultras and hooligan. At present also the league tries to work against, by proceeding radical against excesses and associations punished.

functionaries

since 9. July 2002 is Adriano Galliani, which is also a managing director with the AC Milan, president of the Lega Calcio and thus chairmen of the series of A and B.

Subordinated a family of five advice of functionaries is, in each case one for the series of A and series B. This makes decisions, the defaults for the financing, line and organization concerning the responsible league. It acts with this responsible persons in each case around managing directors, or presidents of associations in the series of A or B.

Position person (EN)
president Adriano Galliani (AC Milan)
vice-president Maurizio Zamparini (US Palermo)
presidency
(series of A)
Massimo Cellino (Cagliari Calcio)
league council (series of A)
federation advisor
sport judge
  • Maurizio Laudi
  • Gianfranco Valente
president
(Disziplinarkommission)
Stefano Azzali

sport-judicial decisions and other nonjudicial punishments such as stadium prohibitions and fines meets the discipline acre committee of the Lega Calcio. The sport court of the Lega Calcio assistance of a representative of the AIA (Associazione meets nonjudicial punishments for players italiana arbitra; ital. Italian arbitrator federation).

President history of the Lega Calcio

past masters

see: Italian football master

resuming information

Web on the left of

  • lega calcio.it - official Website of the league (Italian/English)
  • langerball.de - report to each play day and current results (German)
This article was taken up to the list of the articles worth reading.
 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)