Seychelles

Republic of OF the Seychelles (English)
République of the Seychelles (frz.)
Repiblik Sesel (Seselwa)
Republic of the Seychelles
Nationalflagge der Seychellen Wappen der Seychellen
(detail) (detail)
Wahlspruch: Finis Coronat Opus.
Latin, “the work crowns the work”
office languages Seselwa, English, French
capital Victoria
system of government Republic of
president James Alix Michel (since 14. April 2004)
Surface 455 km ²
number of inhabitants 80,832 (conditions July 2004)
population density of 177 inhabitants per km ²
independence 29. June 1976 (of England)
currency Seychelles Rupie
time belt UTC +4
national anthem costs Seselwa
Kfz characteristics SYSTEM
Internet TLD .sc
preselection +248
Seychellen in Afrika
Karte der Seychellen

the republic of the Seychelles (dt.: [zeˈʃɛlən], English: [seɪˈʃɛlz], frz.: [seˈʃɛl]) an island state is in the Indian ocean (Indik). It lies east of Africa and north of Madagascar and Mauritius.Between Africa and Seychelles lie the Comoros.

Table of contents

geography

the republic existsfrom 115 islands and is divided into 32 mountain islands (main granite stone) which the actual Seychelles represent, and into numerous small Koralleninseln, the so-called Outer Iceland, which lie distributed on a sea surface by over 400.000 km ².

The Inselgruppeover Mahé with Praslin and La Digue, which is called “internal Iceland” or “Seychelles bank”, is the most closely populated and thus most important Inselgruppe of the country. Like most other inhabited areas their islands also belong to the mountain islands.On Mahé also the highest point of the country is to be found, the Morne Seychellois, which rises up 905 m over the sea level. Approximately around these three large islands are several small islands, which partly inhabits, in the possession of hotel operatorsor for reasons of the nature protection to be left completely uninhabited. All are popular trip goals for tourists on the three large islands. Somewhat of it remotely, thus zuordenbar, and nevertheless belonging to no nut/mother island to the “Seychelles bank”, the islands Shilouette, Île you lieNorth (Northern Iceland), Frégate, Île arid, Île aux Vaches (Bird Iceland) and Île Denis.

Outside of the “Seychelles bank” the Outer Iceland extends, with the Inselgruppen Aldabra group (Hauptinseln in the Aldabra atoll), that Cosmoledo atoll, the Farquhar - group with the Hauptinsel Providence Iceland, the Alphonse group with the Hauptinsel Alphonse Iceland and the group of Les Amirantes with Desroches as Hauptinsel. From the other groups the islands Île Plate (about 160 km are remotesouth of Mahé) and Coetivy (280 km south of Mahé).

On the numerous Koralleninseln there are only few, small settlements because of the small height (highest points with 9 m over the sea level) and the drinking water lacking. The climate is because ofthe proximity to the equator tropical and quite constantly, the temperature varies between 24 °C and 30 °C. Also the amount of precipitation varies between 2,880 mm in the capital Victoria and 3,550 mm in the mountain regions.

See also: List of the placeson Seychelles

the population

the large majority of the population (over 90%), often as „Kreolen “designation, and mixed descent from African and Malagasy slaves and European settlers and speaks Seselwa is rather dark membranous as native language. Besides it gives somePer cent of humans of purely European descent as well as small Chinese and Indian minorities. The large majority of the population (90%) is catholic, about 8% is Protestanten. Chinese and Indian are trailers of the religions of their countries of origin.

History

it becomesassumed that the islands were discovered by Arab dealers, the earliest logged discoverers were the Portuguese, who mentioned the islands for the first time 1505. Although it admits of the western world was, the Seychelles became only 150 years after their discovery ofthe Frenchman settles.

From 1794 to 1811 it came between the Frenchman and Englishmen to the conflict around the islands, from which the Englishmen came out as winners. The Seychelles became under the English rule part of Mauritius. To 31. August 1903 received the Seychelles the status of their own colony.

The Seychelles attained independence 1970, the first Republic of in such a way specified, however only 1976 were based and 1979 in favor of an in party regime, the second republic, again set off. Only 1993 steppedthe current condition, which third republic, into force, which permits again several parties. Government party is the former unit party SPPF (Seychelles People's progressive front).

Politics

the president of the Seychelles are since that 14. April 2004 James Alix Michel (*1944). It solved France Albert René off, who was confirmed last 2001 with 54% of the voices in its office and in March 2004 its office as a president of the Seychelles laid down. Michel held so far the office vice-Pa simmering ducks. The presidency elections find all 5Years (since 2001 separately from the parliamentary elections) instead of. The head of state is in Seychelles at the same time also the head of the government and uses the judges of the two highest courts.

The parliament (national mentioned assembly or Assemblee national one) consists of 34 delegates, ofthose 25 to be selected directly, the remaining 9 seats are distributed proportionally to all voices to the parties, which received at least 10 per cent of the voices. -

The Seychelles have 23 governmental districts

  • Anse aux pin
  • Anse Etoile
  • Anse Louis
  • Anse Royale
  • Baie Lazare
  • Baie Sainte Anne
  • Beau Vallon
  • Bel air
  • Bel Ombre
  • Cascade
  • glacis
  • Grand Anse (Mahe)
  • Grand' Anse (Praslin)
  • La Digue
  • La Riviere Anglaise
  • Mont Buxton
  • Mont Fleuri
  • Plaisance
  • punchline La Rue
  • haven Glaud
  • Saint Louis
  • Takamaka

economics

Tourism

Die Hauptstadt Victoria
the capital Victoria

the tourism is the main industry of the Seychelles, in it is about 30 per cent of the working population busily and 70 per cent of the income of the country comes from this range. In the past years much money becameinto the development of the hotels and the other routistic services invests. On the other hand the government tried also to reduce the dependence from the tourism industry to there these itself in the first Gulf War and after the notices the 11. September 2001 very vulnerably shownhas and heavy losses to accept had. The efforts of the government concentrate thereby mainly on fishing and the agrarian range, in addition, on small industrial enterprises.

Currency

the economic system is limited free; it prevails to acceptance obligation for the inconvertible currency “Rupie”, of themOn the free market only about a third of the officially determined course amounts to worth.

Between

1992 and 2000 the portion of the public expenditures for the health service

environment

Luftbild: Anse Source D'Argent - ein typischer Seychellenstrand
aerial photograph: AnseSOURCE D'Argent - a typical Seychelles beach
the beach Anse Lazio on Praslin
sunset of Seychelles

the preservation of natural and cultural resources is request of the tourism politics. Buildings may not tower above the Kokospalmen and a harmonious and nature-connected building method e.g. ofHotels great importance is attached.

The Seychelles have two places, which were explained of the UNESCO as the world nature inheritance. The environmental protection program proves 20 protected areas and marks further 370 places, whose nature requires special protection. Dipping is into thatWaters of the Seychelles an experience - however only for looking at. Divers may not carry anything forward from the sea and harpoons are forbidden. Segler find special anchorages, in order to protect the corral reefs against damage from anchors to.

Behind all the tendency standsconsciousness that the Seychelles are sea oases, which hardly changed in millions of years. There are neither tropical diseases nor eddy towers, hardly poverty or crime and no poisonous organisms. Probably the Seychelles are the only place of the earth, onthat twice as live many turtles such as humans.

The Seychelles are homeland of 75 plant types, 12 amphibian and 11 kinds of bird and over 1.000 kinds of eddyless animals, which require all of a special protection. The government of the country has therefore 230 km ²Water surface and about 49% that altogether 455 km ² land surface (210 km ²) proven as protected areas, among them also some islands in their whole. Based on the surface area the Seychelles thereby have the largest portion of protected areas in the whole world.

On Seychelles are there one rich endemic Flora and fauna, however three kinds of giant turtles. Particularly on the Aldabra - one finds the world largest colony of giant land turtles, with 150.000 Aldabra Riesenschildkröten to atoll. Also the last survivor flight-unableBird of the Indian ocean, the Weisskehlige Ralle, is here resident. The Vallée de May (“May valley”) on Praslin - of the UNESCO explained as the world nature inheritance and of „the Seychelles Iceland Foundation “(SIF) administer, the 1979 particularly toothis purpose one based - the homeland of the Wasa parrot and the famous Seychelles nut is, „the Coco de Mer “. On the Hauptinsel Mahé as well as on silhouette is to be found the there endemic family of the Seychelles frogs. Besides one can also on thatprotected islands arid ones, cousin and Curieuse rare animals and plants observe.

The Department of the Environment is responsible for the administration and the protection of threatened kinds and their habitats and for national park. The 1982 in the life called environmental commission (SNEC) supervisethe observance of regulations and provides status reports for soil, water, Flora and fauna as well as over air water and noise pollution in regular intervals.

Already early in the still recent history of the country the republic of Seychelles closed the environment as Unterpunktthe chapter tourism into „the national development plan (NDP) and sketched „environmental management plan “(EMPS) to one, that up to the end 2. Millenium is enough. The latter describes a multiplicity of environmentalpolitical projects within ranges such as monitoring of pollutant emissions, recycling of waste, administration of natural resources, energy conservation,Protection of threatened animal species, environmental legislation as well as information, out and further training about environmental protection with the native population. In these plans the Seychelles explain that they obligate itself to retain and guarantee their environment and its nature that itself the needs afterDwelling and infrastructure into the natural environment insert. The Seychelles, then it is called there further, might not not permit that the tourism develops at expense of the environment, as this happened in another place. For this reason the Department of the Environment already is inthe early planning phases in tourism projects takes part and demands environmental compatibility studies for all larger projects.

Under the keyword „sustainable development “all places involved are directly responsible for the fact that none of their measures harms the environment, but, on the contrary, to a development, those contributesboth under ecological as well as economic criteria is portable.

More than 120,000 tourists the Seychelles visit each year. Although the country achieved an amazingly high standard of living, it is hardly possible for the only 81,000 inhabitants, the protection of environment andTo finance nature all alone and without support from the outside. Therefore the government of the Seychelles appeals to all, which enjoy the natural advantages of the country taking part also financially in their receipt.

For this reason the Seychelles have incomprehensive environmental and nature protection concept develop. Environmental protection enjoys condition rank since June 1993 in the new constitution „of the third republic “of the Seychelles. Article 38 guarantees the right of the citizens to one „clean, healthy and ecologically balanced environment “, during article 40 (e) to everyoneCitizen obligated to protect the environment to receive and improve. The small state would like to present itself as model for one ecologically tourism, which attaches greater importance to a durably healthy environment than short term visitor increases to responsible persons.

The natural landscape is the wealthcountry the poor in raw materials and the Seychelles understand themselves not as owners, but as guardians of this treasure. Vacation in a singular environment, is coined/shaped by geological nature miracles and a various Flora and fauna is an unforgettable, irreplaceable andfor many unique experience. In order to guarantee that this valuable property, which the Seychelles guard is not exhausted, is necessary extensive measures and initiatives for preservation. The Seychelles have millions of euro in the past two decades with regard to the future into the developmentenvironmentalcompatible and durably lebensfähigen tourism - and leisure industry invests and at the same time into the receipt of rare animal and plant types.

National park:

  • Ste. Anne navy (1973)
  • Morne Seychellois (1979)
  • Baie Ternay navy (1979)
  • Curieuse navy (1979)
  • haven Launay navy (1979)
  • Praslin (Vallede May, Maital) (1979) UNESCO World Heritage Site
  • silhouette navy (1987)

Special Reserves:

  • Arid Iceland (1975)
  • cousin Iceland (1975)
  • Aldabra (1981) UNESCO World Heritage Site
  • La Digue Veuve (1991)

projects for the protection of the nature

of 455 km ² land surface thatSeychelles is about a quarter wooded. Sieved national park take altogether a surface of 43,8 km ², the four special reservations again 154.8 km ². Among these areas also the two rank „World Heritage Sites “the UNESCO. In addition comestill 6 further protected areas. Altogether one identified on Seychelles 4,000 the animal and 850 plant types; of it 60 becomes and/or. 13 kinds as threatens classified. In the first two decades of their national independence the Seychelles ratified international agreements, thoseand. A. the trade with threatened kinds, which whale-catching, as well as the production, testing and stationing of ABC weapons in the territory of the Seychelles forbid, the handling and disposal of poisonous wastes regulate and the protection of the seas, the coastal regions, the ozone layer, the naturalResources and world nature and cultural heritage ensure.

Beside the government of the Seychelles also numerous independent organizations on Seychelles environmental protection used up themselves: ENVI.R.O, the Nature Protection Trust, the Seychelles Geosociety and the many would game-run clubs,those already the children at environmental topics advance.

Here are shown some to examples, into which measures the Seychelles will continue to invest to have invested and to protect in order to secure the receipt of nature, natural resources and turn away or repair damage.Even if the goal is high-put, the consciousness of the world-wide joint responsibility for the limited number of the still remaining natural resources on this planet becomes obsiegen at the end - of it the government of the Seychelles is convinced -.

In the year 1903 became alreadythe today still existing Botani garden with Victoria opens. It served for not only to building, but also research already at that time at agriculturally usable plants. With the time however became the area of the garden to the Mont Fleuri Road toosmall. One already began 1985 therefore with planning for a modern and larger center of this kind. With bar baron at the west coast Mahés develops now a new Biodiversity Centre, which will cover a by far larger botanischen garden, nursery gardens and a nature park.In the information center the interested visitor everything will be able to experience over the meaning and the use of the plants, while in the laboratories the research is advanced.

The Herbarium, which is at present still in the Obhut of national archives, helpsthe identification of plants. The entire mechanism will be equally interesting for recovery-looking for and point-avid, for adults as for school children, for native ones as for visitors from the foreign country. The center will offer assistance for blind ones and will be accessible for visitors,are dependent on a wheelchair. While one finds exotic plants from all world in the old Botani garden, the new Biodiversity Centre will present mainly the native Flora of the Indian ocean generally and the Seychelles in the special. By all vegetation zonesthe Seychelles on small area to be copied, all endemic plants can be settled here and be protected becoming extinct in such a way.

During one period of 10 years this project, carefully estimated, will devour about 12 million euro. At the end of the longConstruction period one for it a pflanzenkundliches center to visit will probably be able, which does not need to be afraid a comparison with the best mechanisms of its kind in the whole world. But not always the use of the moneys for the nature protection is so spectacularand obviously: In the year 1997 the Seychelles provided one first on five years (1998-2003) to plan of action put on of the diversity of species (national Biodiversity Strategy and Action plan = NBSAP).

The native bird world of the Seychelles belongs to the species-richest in the entire western Indian one Ocean. By the isolated situation of the archipelago here 15 kinds and 18 subspecies developed, which there are only on Seychelles. By this characteristic both the granite islands and the Aldabra atoll rank among the 218 Endemic Bird AREAs(EBA), which one identified world-wide.

In the year 1998 the organization BirdLife Seychelles was brought into being and took over projects and programs, those before under the Obhut of BirdLife international, under it the special reservation cousin Iceland, that already since 1968by BirdLife one administers. On this island the coconut plan days put on by humans again by the originally existing jungle one replaced. Since then the existence of the Seychelles grass mosquito (Acrocephalus seychellensis) were here very successfully extended again - by only 29 copies on in the meantimeagain over 1.000!

In addition the Seychellendajal (also Schamadrossel called) was introduced by the island Frégate, where also the population of this kind of bird had already decreased/gone back to 20 copies. There the existence were likewise extended again substantially, after one of humans introducedRaubtiere of the island had banished. The entire construction work at the hotel plant on Frégate was supervised by the Naturschützern, in order to guarantee that the birds did not take damage.

The resettlement programs between the Seychelles islands belong to the few successful projects of this kindin the world.

A large-scale project to the ecological system management is to help not only rare, kinds of bird threatened by becoming extinct like the Seychelles dwarf ear owl (Otus insularis), the Seychellendajal (Copsychus seychellarum) and the Paradiesfliegenschnäpper (Terpsiphone corvina) of increasing the populations again but altogether the diversity of speciesextend in the three ecological systems, in which these kinds of bird are domestic, again.

The project with the designation management OF Avian Ecosystems into the Seychelles will cost altogether million euro to 0.95, from those the environmental rear of the World Bank 0.61 million euro, BirdLifeSeychelles 200,000 euro and the government of the Seychelles 90,000 euro carry.

Corral reefs belong, beside the tropical rain forests, to the species-richest habitats of the earth. With a yearly catch of over a megaton fish hangs the economy of the Seychelles in large measure ofthis habitat off. In addition the reefs serve as breakwaters and protect coasts against erosion. In the year 1998 alone 100,000 euro (of it 70,000 euro in foreign exchange) were invested into the building by pollution free anchorages (embedment MOO ring), those the Korallen before damagesprotect by anchors. By the natural heating up of the sea water in the Southern Hemisphere in the last years, whose causes are not yet completely investigated, three quarters of the Korallenbestandes of the Seychelles were possibly drawn by fading and dying in. In pilot studiesfor the re-establishment of the reefs is now by a new technology („mineral accretion “) to be tried to animate the ecological system reef again. In the proximity of damaged natural corral reefs for this purpose steel art reefs are embodied, on those after artificially accelerated limestone formation Korallen„“become cultivated. The progress is constantly supervised by underwater cameras. During one period of four years (1999-2002) the project becomes approx. 250,000 euro cost. The steel stands must be imported from the foreign country, to which the country needs approximately 60,000 euro at foreign exchange.

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Wiktionary: Seychelles - word origin, synonyms and translations


coordinates: 4°-10° S, 46°-56° O

 

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