|of these articles describes the Japanese title Shogun; other meanings under Shogun (term clarifying).|
Shōgun (jap. 将軍, complete title: 征夷大将軍 Seii Taishōgun, in for instance Besieger of the barbarians and large general) was a Japanese military title for leaders outthe Kriegerkaste of the Samurai. Originally a Shogun corresponded to a European duke , in the course of the time became approximate it however the actual ruler of Japan, who held power in place of the emperor (Tennō).
The Shogunat designated first onlythe household, later also the administrative machinery of the Shōgun. On Japanese it was called bakufu (幕府, wörtl. Tent government in the sense of „military government “).
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to Kamakura Shogunat (1192-1333)
see also: Kamakura time
approximately around 1150 was actual power in Japan in the hand of the monastery emperors, officially resigned regents, who left the acting Tennōs only representative tasks.This entailed arguments between rivaling families of the high aristocracy. The monastery emperor fell back to the support of some Samurai families, showed themselves after the victory however as less grateful, than these families had wished themselves it. This led to the Gempei war (1180 - 1185), after whose the Samurai of the region Kamakura had transferred end actually power to Japan. In the year 1192 Minamoto NO Yoritomo (1147 - 1199) was appointed from the Tennō to the Seii Taishōgun, with which the Kamakura Shogunatwas justified. The title of the Shogun was left to the successors, and the city Kamakura became Residenzstadt of the Shogunats.
In the years 1274 and 1281 the Shogune of two invasion attempts of the Mongols under Kublai Khan resisted off, after the legend alsoAssistance one of the Gods envoys of wind, the Kamikaze. Traditionally the Samurai demanded rewards for its service, however due to the fact that for the Shogunat no profit dropped by the defense of the country (for example land gain or war booty),not or only to small extent one granted. Besides many sparkling wines of the Buddhismus allowances demanded, since they justified the Kamikaze on their reading from Sutren.
In their displeasure above all the Ashikaga - and the Nitta - Klan turned againmore the emperor too. This finally took advantage of the Tennō Go-Daigo (1288 - 1339), in order to fall and begin with a restoration of imperial power (the Kemmu restoration) the Shogunat 1333, however only the few yearsExistence had, particularly due to different interests Go-Daigos and the Ashikaga.
Kemmu restoration (1333-1336)
Tennō Go-Daigo made his son prince Moriyoshi ( also well-known as a prince Morinaga) for 1333 the Seii Taishōgun and transferred it thoseCommand authority over the military. The Samurai Ashikaga Takauji (1305 - 1358) revolted itself however against prince Moriyoshi and entmachtete it. Prince Moriyoshi was killed 1335 by Ashikaga Takaujis younger brother Ashikaga Tadayoshi. The restoration attempt of the Tennō Go-Daigofailed 1336 finally, and the emperor yard split into the north and the south dynasty. The argument lasted up to the year 1392, when the dynasty under guidance was combined of Ashikaga Yoshimitsu.
Muromachi or Ashikaga Shogunat (1338-1573)
Ashikaga Takauji, which resided in the Kyōtoer urban district Muromachi, became 1338 the Shogun and justified thereby the Muromachi - and/or. Ashikaga Shogunat. It is considered as Opportunist, to which its behavior constantly adapted the current situation, and asone of the most controversial figures of Japanese history. The following time is characterized by power losses of the centre government, in whose process the rural Samurai continued to increase. The weakness of the Shogune led in the year 1467 under Ashikaga Yoshimasa (1436 - 1490) to the 11 years lasting Ōnin war. Afterwards both the Shogunat and the Tennō had become politically insignificant. The time period beginning with the Ōnin war became „the period the war prominent provinces “(Sengoku Jidai, 1467 - 1568).
When Portuguese mission acres brought 1543 rifles to Japan, prince Oda Nobunaga ( 1534 - 1582) used this new technology, in order to force a realm agreement at least central Japan. After the pacification of its own province Owari Nobunaga laid also claims on neighbour provincesand 1568 marched into the capital Kyōto. First it supported the 15. and at the same time last Ashikaga Shogun Ashikaga Yoshiaki (1537 - 1597), relieved it however after Illoyalitäten 1573 of all offices, with which the Shogunat expired.
Nobunaga einte 30 thatat that time 68 provinces, died however in the year 1582 by betrayal, without justifying a new Shogunat. In the fight for Nobunagas follow-up became generally accepted the military leader Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536 - 1598 ), originating from simple conditions, one the most outstandingShapes of Japanese history. It reformed the realm to favour of the Samurai.
Tokugawa or Edo Shogunat (1603-1867)
see also: Edo time
after Hideyoshis death arrived the Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543 - 1616), originating from the east of Japan, onthe power, whose Mausoleum is in the city Nikkō. Ieyasu was appointed 1603 from the Tennō to the new Seii Taishōgun. It developed an administrative centre in the before insignificant fishing port Edo ( the today's Tōkyō), that to the actual capital of the Shogunatsbecame and to the Tokugawa Shogunat the name Edo period lent. Its successors completed the realm agreement, and Japan experienced 15 Tokugawa Shogunen under that altogether the longest continuous peacetime of its history. However the country partitioned itself at the same time ever more outward: Strong one Trade restrictions and an absolute departure prohibition for Japanese and entry prohibition for foreigners (with exception of a small Netherlands address on the island Deshima lain before Nagasaki) led Japan into the isolation.
The end of the Edo period became by the arrival of an AmericanFleet squadron rung in under Kommodore Matthew Perry (1794 - 1858) in the year 1854. Its military supremacy forced a gradual opening of the realm for the trade. The apparent indulgence of the Shoguns led to splitting the Samurai: During itself the onefor a driving by force of the strangers out, endorsed others used a reform of the ruling family and the society.
The reform forces became generally accepted finally. The last Shogun, Tokugawa Yoshinobu (1837 - 1913), was fallen after only two rule years 1868, andthe Tennō Mutsuhito (1852 - 1912) was used as 15-Jähriger into the old rule rights. The foreign exchange of its reign read Meiji ( illuminated government), why the time admits after the last Shogunat also as Meiji restoration is.
Web on the left of
- japanlink.de: Kamakura time
- japanlink.de: Muromachi time
- Ashikaga Takauji on Wikipedia (EN)
- “Shogun: A piece of TV-history " in EVOLVER.at
- Wolfgang Schwentker: The Samurai. CH Beck, Munich. ISBN 3-406-47988-X