the Shang dynasty (chin.: 商朝) the second dynasty was in Chinese history. It governed China between that 16. Century v. Chr. to for instance to the 11. Century v. Chr. It followed the Xia dynasty disputed in their existence and from the Zhou dynasty was replaced. The Shang dynasty is the first Chinese dynasty, which left contemporary written documents. Particularly the later period of the Shang dynasty, the Yin time (殷), is meanwhile very well examined. Altogether names of 30 kings from 17 generations are delivered. All these names were regained also on the Orakelknochen, so that most historians assume the kings also actually lived.
Table of contents
the Shang dynasty was justified by a master leader, that had successfully revolted against the last Xia ruler. Its capital was called Háo and probably lay in the today's Shandong - province. Later documents speak for the fact that the Shang rulers shifted altogether six times their capital. The last mark of king Pán Gēng (盤庚) after Yin. There so far, except of Yin, no remnants of the other five capitals to be found knew, apply with some historians the history of Pán Gēng further than unsecured.
The Yin time is considered as the high point of the Shang dynasty, so that occasionally this also the Yin dynasty is called.
The last king of the Shang dynasty Dì Xīn (帝辛, also Zhòu admits, 紂 under the name) was considered as particularly wasteful and sadistisch. It took itself the life, when in a decisive battle its army overflowed to the rebels. The name Zhòu applies until today in China as synonym to tyranny and despotism.
After the fall of the Shang dynasty the members of the king house swore the loyalty to the new Zhou kings. They accepted the surname Yin. This was at the beginning of this surname. They became Vasallen of the Zhou kings and served them also as Ministers in high offices. After later reports, both Chinese and Korean origin, settled a Yin prince with its Gefolgschaft in the proximity of the today's Pjöngjang and created there the first Korean state.
the ruin of Yin
the ruins of Yin became at the beginning 20. Century in the proximity of the city Anyang in the Henan - province discovers. Beside foundations of palaces and temples under other eleven king graves were dug, excavated there over ten thousands of artifacts made of bronze, Jade, stone, bone and ceramic(s) so far, in addition still over 20.000 Orakelknochen, which views of politics, economics, culture, religion, geography, astronomy, calendar, art and medicine of that time to grant. The ruins of Yin are the most important archaeological discoveries in the Shang research.
the territory of Shang extended from the coast of the eastChinese sea up to the west border of the today's Shaanxi - province, to the south extended it to at the Yangtsekiang, northward up to the today's Liaoning - province. Thus it covered the middle and lower run of the yellow river and parts of the Yangtsekiang run.
lay power, but also the highest of religious authority were considered to society old person Chinese coins the kings of the Shang dynasty as representatives of God on earth and enjoyed. The excavated king graves are added richly on for the dead ones, so that one can assume the Shang people believed in a life after death. Under the grave-added were also hundreds of slaves, who were to all appearances alive buried. They should probably further-serve the dead kings after their lives.
The civil servants were divided into lay civil servants and a religious official. Religious one officials were for example responsible for sacrificing and Orakel. Occupied it is also that that was very common shame anise mash and belonged to the religion of the Shang. The religious life was apparent important at the Shang time very. Also the first written Chinese documents, the Orakelknochen, served above all asking a göttlichen judgement instance. Spirit was admired like also ancestors.
Women apparent enjoyed a high position in the society. Thus many Orakelknochen of struggle-high noblewomen came. At least one of these noblewomen was even a military guide.
It is remarkable that at all excavation places in Yin remnants were found by weapons. The Orakelknochen report of arguments with the Nomaden from the north and the west.
Crimes are punished with prison or with cruel punishments.
the agriculture represented the most important industry. It was organized operated wide and. Brewing of alkoholhaltigen beverages with grain is provable. The use of silk is likewise provable.
In the Viehwirtschaft all usual animals were held. There is even a report over holding elephants.
With adjacent peoples and trunks intensive trade was transacted. Until today businessmen in China are called Shang people (商人). A good road system favoured the traffic and the formation of first Chinese cities.
from the Shang time the first Chinese writing certifications were delivered. Many of the characters found on the Orakelknochen survived until today (although in modified way of writing). Apart from Yin Orakelknochen were found also in other areas along the yellow river. Since the writing system on the Orakelknochen had already quite developed, it is accepted that the writing system had already a long development process behind itself.
Excavated figures represented musicians and dancers. Whether it make music and dances however as religious ceremony or to the pleasure was implemented, is not to be examined any longer.
science and technology
the earliest Chinese iron tools were found in Yin. Very refined bronze containers and tools could be already manufactured. Besides containers from white ceramic(s) were excavated.
Notes on mathematical problems and documentations of diseases were found likewise.
rulers of the Shang dynasty
|Sequence||reign *|| Chinese|
|1||29||湯||Tāng||revolted successfully against the last Xia king|
|10||11||仲丁||to Zhòng Dīng|
|12||9||河亶甲||Hé Dǎn Jiǎ|
|19||28||盤庚||Pán Gēng||Pán Gēng created the capital Yin. To some historians the history of the Shang dynasty only starting from here as secured 20|
|6||庚丁||Gēng||Dīng apply||also for Kang thing (康丁 Kāng Dīng) written|
|28||3||太丁||Tài Dīng||also whom thing (文丁 Wén Dīng) written|
|30||33||帝辛||Dì Xīn||紂 (Zhòu) mentioned *|
the yearly indication also originate from documents, which many later developed only, therefore are not reliable it.
** These names are not possibly the actual names of the kings. They seem to be a kind postum lent honour names.
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