|of these articles treats the English city Sheffield. For places of the same name see Sheffield (term clarifying).|
|Town center OF Sheffield|
|region:||Yorkshire and the Humber|
|of ceremonies county:||South Yorkshire|
|surface:||367,94 km ²|
|administrative seat in:||Sheffield|
| homepage of the city|
Table of contents
Sheffield lies in the metropolitan County South Yorkshire, belonged however in former times to the west Riding, to the western third of the county (an organization originating from the time of the Wikinger). The exact position of the city is 53°23' north, 1°28' west.
The city extends over a natural “Amphitheater” from seven hills toConfluence of the five rivers Don, Sheaf, Rivelin, Loxley and Porter. Exactly in the west the peak District national park and the low mountain range of the Pennines lies. A third of the city actually lies within the national park (this applies with no other English city). Sheffield is therefore considered asthe greenest city of England.
the area around Sheffield was already very early settled. In close convenient Creswell the Crags was found traces by stone-temporal cave inhabitants; among other things tools from stone, quartz, bone and giant ivory. In July 2004became in the same place the so-called.Church Cave discovers, a cave with Wandmalereien, which is now already called “Sixtini chapel of the ice age”. Comparable, older caves are still more artful painted in Spain and France, the Church Cave are however due to its situation in the highThe north very remarkably.
1955 a 150 ' 000 years old fist wedge were found to 22 km south of Sheffield, in the northern suburb Deepcar a stone circle. In the suburb Crookes was discovered a grave with two urns from the early Bronzezeit, further graves in the suburb Lodge moorland.
Antique ones and the Middle Ages
in the 1. Century v. Chr. with Wincobank (in the northwest of the city) a fortress was established. It was built by the celtic trunk of the Briganten, which tried in vain to prevent the expansion of the Romans. A smaller Roman road led by the northern part thatCity, but Sheffield did not develop to an adequate settlement, anyhow not up to the time that fishing rod Saxonia.
These created a settlement, which they called Scafield or Escafield at the river Sheaf. In the southwest suburb Dore was created 829 the Kingdom of Wessex, from which itself someDecades later the Kingdom of England developed. Wessex was the only important kingdom on the island, which was not conquered by the Wikingern. In the year 954 Wessex was combined with the Kingdoms of Mercia , Northumbria and East Anglia and formed a part of the Danish rule area, thatso-called.Danelaw. In the local dialect from this time many expressions of the Wikinger remained.
In early 12. Century, under which rule of the Lehensherrn William de Lovetot became, a church established, from which the cathedral of Sheffield developed later. It also let inwooden lock establish, which was replaced around 1270 by a stone construction. In this lock from 1570 to 1584 Maria Stuart, the queen was kept imprisoned by Scotland. During the English civil war Sheffield was conquered several times by both conflict parties and fell 1648 finally inthe hand of the republicans under olive Cromwell, which destroyed the lock.
, industrial age
starting from late 18. Century developed Sheffield to an important industrial city and for the center of the steel processing. Manymedieval buildings were replaced by more modern buildings. At the 11. March 1864 large parts of the city were inundated after the break of the Dale Dyke dam; 800 houses were destroyed thereby and 270 humans died.
The steel industry was coined/shaped by particularly bad conditions of work; it is therefore noneCoincidence that the first trade unions of the country developed here. Around 1860 it came to the so-called.Sheffield Outrages, arguments between factory owners and militant trade unionists, who culminated in bomb explosions and attempted assassinations.
The steel factories of Sheffield were prominent in the advancement of the steel, then 1912 becameby Harry Brearley the stainless steel invented. Sheffield was particularly well-known for steel measurers. Other important branches of industry were coal mines and quarries. Thus e.g. became. the Westminster - palace in London from limestone establishes, which originated from that close convenient village Anston.
Into the 1960er years becamemany steel plants closed and came to mass unemployment. Today Sheffield developed to a friendly, clean city. Meanwhile the service sector is the largest employer of the region. In the year 2003 a study of the Barclays determined bank that the region Sheffield the wealthiest region of theCountry is, exceeded only from London.
Sheffield is an important center of the Pop - and skirt music. Among the most well-known representatives human League, Pulp , Def Leppard and Joe Cocker ranks. Since 1999 the national center stands in Sheffieldfor Popmusik. The museum accommodated there was not successful as hoped for as, therefore there now mainly concerts take place.
Sheffield possesses two theatres, four art galleries and several museums.
in Sheffield gives it to two Universities of, the University OF Sheffield (based 1905), as well as the SheffieldHallam University.
, Nicaragua [work on]. In the year 1857 the fiber plastic Sheffield was created, that world-wide first soccer association at all. Already five years laterthere were 16 associations. Acquaintance of associations are today Sheffield United as well as Sheffield Wednesday (in the Hillsborough stadium plays).
Since 1977 the annual Snooker takes place - WM traditionally in Sheffield in the Crucible Theatre, which is appropriate for final thereby always on first Monday in May, this day is in England a holiday.
Sheffield had once two stations. The station Sheffield Victoria at the railway line Manchester Sheffield Lincolnshire becametorn off. The other station, Sheffield avoiding country, remained and still is also today actively used.
objects of interest
- Attercliffe Chapel - gothical chapel in the suburb Attercliffe, builds 1629 Beauchief Abbey
- - 1178 delighted in the yearMonastery of the Prämonstratenser - medal, Bishops' House keep 1537 after the reformation waived, since that time in the private property
- only partial - the oldest still well received half timbered house, built around 1500, interior arrangement from that 17. Century - opened for visitors on weekend
- Crucible Theatre - 1971 delighted theatre alsotwo halls (980 and/or. 400 seats), since 1977 venue of the Snooker - WM
- Don Valley stage - stadium for Leichtathletik and Rugby
- Millennium Galleries with winter guards - 2001 open form the modern building of galleries together with that to it following winter guards a new attraction. The buildingspart of the “Heart OF is the town center” - project, which is to make Sheffield more attractive.
- National Centre for popular music
- Sheffield Castle - ruins 1648 of the down-burned lock
- Sheffield Cathedral - which became church Saint Peter and Saint Paul 1913 the cathedral raised, monument-protected building
- Town resound -the 1897 build city hall inclusive the park Peace Gardens Sheffield Industrial
- Hamlet lain before it - museum and open air museum from the early period of the industrialization
of sons and daughters of the city
- nod Ainger, member British parliament
- of the Derek Bailey, English guitarist and improvisation artist
- Gordon bank, English Torwart
- Sean Bean, British actor
- David Blunkett, British politician, Minister of the Interior
- Victor Burgin, British artist
- Antonia S. Byatt, English authoress
- Paul Carrack, British Songschreiber, singer and Keyboarder
- harsh ore Chapman, English football player and coach
- Bruce Chatwin,British writer
- Jarvis Cocker, British Popstar
- Joe Cocker, British Rhythm and Blues singer
- Rohan de Saram, Cellist
- Michael Palin, British actor and singer, member of Monty Python
- Rupert Waterhouse, English physician
- Baruch Harold Wood, English chess master
- Arctic Monkeys, skirt volume
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coordinates: 53° 23 ' N, 1° 28 ' W