Shunzhi (chines. 順治, * 15. March 1638; † 5. February 1661, emperor since 30. October 1644) was the son of the mandschurischen prince Huang Tai Ji (Abahai) and became after the conquest of China by the Mandschu in the age from 6 years to the first emperor of the again justified Qing dynasty.
Up to the age of 12 years the regency was exercised by its uncles Dorgon and Dsirgalang.

The education of the minor emperor left the mandschurische Gentry to the palace Eunuchen from the gone down Ming dynasty, which made it familiar with the Chinese language and culture. Shunzhi should develop to a lover of Chinese novels and dramas.

Nevertheless Shunzhi left no doubt about the requirement for superiority of the Mandschu - people and discriminated against the Chinese Urbevölkerung in various way. Thus the Mandschu was preferred for instance with the assignment of offices, forbidden mixed marriages and forced the Chinese during menace of the death penalty to carrying as entwürdigend felt Zopfes, which should apply in the west long time as characteristic of the Han people. Energetically were fought also the remainders of the Ming dynasty, which had withdrawn themselves into the southwest provinces of the realm and to 1661 a Gegenkaiser placed there.

Unlocked Shunzhi showed up meanwhile opposite European China mission arene: Thus connected it for instance an almost friendly relationship with the German Jesuiten Adam sound of Bell. He assigned it not only the continuation of his astronomical work and the measurement of the realm area, but ordered him even to the imperial councellor and prince educator. Beyond that it permitted the establishment of a catholic church in Peking and bore even the Bekehrung of the empress as well as the Crown Prince to the Christianity.

The emperor meanwhile remained faithful for the Buddhismus. Its last Lebensjahre were coined/shaped, in particular of an intensified occupation with religious things after the death of its young Konkubine, as well as of the Erstarken of the Eunuchen Clicquen. Shunzhi probably died with 23 years at the smallpox.



  • tungsten Eberhardt, history of China, Stuttgart 1971
  • Jacques Gernet, the Chinese world, Frankfurt 1997, ISBN 3-518-38005-2
  • Gisela Gottschalk, of China large emperors, Herrsching 1985, ISBN 3-88199-229-4
  • Jonathan D. Spence, of China way into the modern trend, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-446-16284-4


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