Siberia

of these articles is concerned with the geographical area Siberia, other meanings under Siberia (term clarifying).

Siberia (Russian Сибирь, Transkription: Sibir) is the name for an area, that the largest part of north Asia and/or. the asiatic part Russia covers. It enclosure approximately half of the Russian territory and measures 9.6 millions km ², is thus surface-moderately somewhat larger than the entire USA.

Branch of the Baikalsees

table of contents

geographical overview

to problem thatFixing of the boundaries

the borders Sibiriens are not clearly defined. The determination of the Siberian territory differs depending upon viewpoint: geographically, historically, politically.

Föderale Subjekte Sibiriens

From Mongolian coming national designation with the meaning “sleeping country” originally referred to the Khanat Sibir in the today's west Siberia, a decay product of the golden horde/hurdle. Today outside of of Russia usually the entire asiatic part of Russia one names.

This extends in westeastern direction approx. 7,000 kilometers far from the Urals to the mountains of the PacificWasserscheide. From the north to the south it re-clamps about 3,500 km of the arctic ocean (Arctic ocean) up to the Kasachi hill country and the border to Mongolia and to the People's Republic of China. The distance the east (Dal'nij Vostok / ДальнийВосток), of Jakutienup to the Pacific coast, which is larger at 6,179.900 km ² surface than the remaining Siberia, outside of of Russia mostly as part this landscape one subsummiert, applies however in Russia as own region. Thus inhabitants understand Kamtschatkas or Sachalins by “Siberia”a region, which several thousand km west their homeland is.

horizontal arrangement

after the horizontal arrangement can be divided Siberia roughly into seven partial region: WestSiberian low country, North Siberian low country, centralSiberian mountain country, southSiberian mountains, Mitteljakuti valley, eastSiberian low country and eastSiberian mountain country. Siberia in the east is limited by the so-called far east and the large peninsula Kamtschatka with their many volcanos.

rivers & waters

the largest rivers are that Whether (whether/Обь, fem.) that drains the enormous level behind the Urals, the Jenissej, the Lena, the Irtysch and the Amur. With Irkutsk is the Baikalsee, the deepest fresh water lake of the earth.

Climate

in most regions Sibiriens prevails a pronounced continental climate: Hot summers (to +40°C) are replaced from extremely cold winters (to -67°C). Often the country up to 9 is covered months by a Schneedecke. The landscape becomes majority of borealenDominated, in the arctic regions treeless tundra prevails to forests (taiga ) forwards. Between them exists with the forest tundra - zones a transition form. In the south the taiga goes into quilts over. Width of parts of Sibiriens are taken by Permafrostböden (durably frozen soil).The cooling pole of the inhabited world is in the eastSiberian Oimjakon (south of Werchojansk).

population

general

with approximately 23 million inhabitants is settled Siberia only weakly, the population density lies on the average with only 2,7Humans per km ². The population concentrates in a relatively narrow strip in the south and southwest, where the Trans-Siberian railway connects important large cities and agriculture is possible.

Nowosibirsk, Omsk, Krasnojarsk, Tjumen ', Tomsk, Irkutsk, Chabarowsk, Tschita, Ulan Ude and the eastern Pacific metropolis Wladiwostok belong to the largest cities in this strip. Important industrial centres, in which further large cities lie, are the autonomous circle of the Chanten and Mansen and the autonomous circle of the Jamal Nenzen, thoseas well as the emphasis of the oil and gas industry the southSiberian Kusnezker coal basins (Kusbass) with the industrial city Kemerowo represent.

in

the last centuries the Russians zugewanderten place historical demographic development the majority of the population. Itoutweighed already in 18. Century the Urbevölkerung. Already to Zarenzeiten the remote and inhospitable areas served Sibiriens and Central Asia for banishing of political opponents and offenders. Terrible celebrity attained the archipelago GULAG, that under the rule Stalins developedSystem of prisons and punishing camps. Only with the decay of the Soviet Union the Deportationen stopped into these areas. Starting from the 1920er years the industry Sibiriens was forced, which fixed the population structure in favor of the immigrants.

Indigene of peoples Sibiriens

The indigenen peoples of the north, Sibiriens and the Russian far east consist of peoples of the altaischen, the Urali language families, the paläoasiatischen languages and further. The larger are the Tuwiner, Burjaten, Chakassen, Jakuten and Altaier. To the smaller Ethnien without own partial republic belong among other things Tschukt, Ewenken, Korjaken, Nenzen, Chanten and Mansen. In the Soviet Union most indigenen peoples Sibiriens affected by obligatory settlement and collectivization in Sowchosen were.

Thosestrongest threat for the indigenen peoples proceeds from the industriellen development with Bodenschätzen such as oil, gas, coal, diamond and gold in the asiatic part of Russia. Besides the alcoholism represents an enormous problem. The languages of many smaller peoples are at the edge of becoming extinct, in particular, where due to industrieller development the surrounding field is lost, in which these it is used.

current one demographic developments

Russia suffers, like many industrial nations, from a decrease of the own population. Densely populated areas growlike Moscow or pc. Petersburg suspended also today further, but the straight regions see themselves such as Siberia or the distance the east to one more strongly becoming decrease in population by drift (into larger cities or abroad), stagnating life expectancy and fewer births. InBorder area to China comes it, since then it for Chinese dealers more easily is between both countries to be oscillated, for frühern the 90's to an intensified commercial activity. Estimations proceed themselves from some hundredthousand Chinese immigrants, often temporarly however sometimesalso for indefinite time on Russian side. ref< institute for Berlin> for population of world and global development Chinese on the way establish to Siberia in: New type character demo, 8.Ausgabe, 14. May 2004< /ref> Ever more of the new immigrants pulls it thereby into the larger cities in Siberia,like e.g. after Irkutsk.< ref> European migration center Berlin Viktor I. Dyatlov among other things: The new Chinese Diaspora and their admission in Irkutsk in: Migration, No. 29/30/31< /ref> The native Russian population faces this development with skepticism, which from official side thatRussian policy one publicises. Prevail fears over an expansive settlement politics from Chinese side, as well as an endangerment of security along the common border long up to 3000km, e.g. by smuggling of raw materials, drugs, weapons, criminality and illegal immigration.< ref> The Carnegie MoscowInstitut Galina Vitkovskaya: Does Chinese migration final meadow Russian Security? In: Briefing PAPER, volume. 1, Issue 08, August 1999< /ref>

see also

sources

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literature

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