Itself SCN

四川省
Sìchuān Shěng
abbreviation:(pinyin: Chuān)
capital Chengdu
surface

- entire
- Portion of
the VR China

rank 5 of 33

,485,000 km ²
5.05%

Population

- entire 2004
- Density

Rank 3 of33

87 000,000 inhabitants
179 Einwohner/km 2

administrative type province
Lage von Sìchuān Shěng in China
ISO 3166-2 - code CN-51
district level of 18 cities, 3 autonomous districts
area level of 120 circles, 43 urban districts, 14 cities, 4 autonomous circles
district level 2,816 municipalities, 1,882 greaters, 211 road quarters, 102 nationality municipalities

Sìchuān (chin. 四川 „four rivers “) is a centralChinese province with Chengdu as capital. Itself SCN became traditional also as country of the abundance (天府之国; Pinyin: Tiānfŭ zhī guó) designates.

Table of contents

geography

itself SCN lies eastern the TibetanHigh plateau at the upper run of the Chang Jiang (Yangtse).

The red basin, a fruitful forms the core of the province itself SCN level surrounded by mountains. The level has a north-south gap of 700m on 300m.

The west becomes from high mountain chains like thatLarge snow mountains (大雪山; Dàxuěshān) controls, which has the highest collection of the province with the Gongga (7.556m). Northward the basin is locked by the Qinling mountains (秦岭山), which go into the 4.000er. Direction the south and southeast lies the Dalou mountains (大娄山) alsoSummits around the 2.000m.

further important mountains: Attain beautiful (二郎山; 3.437m); Emei beautiful (峨眉山; 3.099m), Siguniang beautiful (四姑娘山; 6.254m)

The Chang Jiang (Yangtse) is the largest and water-richest river, which crosses itself SCN. Its process forms the majority of the west andSouth border of the province, whereby it still to Yibin the name Jinsha Jiang (金沙江; Gold and river) carries. To itself SCN it takes up four supplies, which gave their name to the province. These four rivers are the min Jiang (岷江), Tuo Jiang (沱江), Jialing Jiang (嘉陵江) and Wu Jiang (乌江). Before it already took up the Yalong Jiang (雅礱江) with Panzhihua.

Neighbouring provinces are Tibet, Qinghai, Gansu, Shaanxi, Chongqing, Guizhou and Yunnan.

climate

thatA subtropical climate has red basins of itself SCN despite the continental situation. The protected situation in the valley gives 350 frost-protected days in the year and thus the possibility to the level all year round agriculture to operate. An important border becomes thereby by thatQinling mountains northward mark. In January north of it the average temperature 0°C amounts to, southern in of it the convenient itself SCN 8°C. The summer average temperatures are with 30°C. The amount of precipitation is appropriate for itself SCN with 1000mm and because of strong formation of fog and cloud only arises25-30 sun days per year.

The climatic conditions in the gebirgigen regions, which enclose the red basin and to the west to the Tibetan high plateau rise, are clearly colder and drier against it.

Flora & fauna

Pandabären in Wolong/Sichuan
panda in Wolong/Sichuan

the various Geomorphologie and the different climate created favorable conditions for a rich plant world. The province has 7.46 million hectar forest. A fifth of the so-called “living fossils “of China like the Urweltmammutbaum and the pigeon tree are endemic in itself SCN. The Panda, one of the national symbols of China, is domestic in four mountains Sichuans and in protected zones is particularly preserved. The most important protected area is Wolong.

population

apart from a majority of Han Chinese (95%) live in itself SCN memberthe minorities of the Yi (2.6%), Tibeter (1.5%), Qiang (0.4%) and Miao. The largest part of the population lives in the level and is dominated of the Han, while the gebirgigen areas are thinly settled and strongly by the minorities coined/shapedbecome.

1997 were the average life expectancy about 69.7 years.

Itself SCN is an important output region for internal migration, i.e. many migratory workers originate from this province.

administrative arrangement

history of the administrative arrangement

the western part of Sichuansalso over a third Xikang (西康省) belonged to the surface of the province until 1955 to the province, which corresponded to the Tibetan culture region Kham theoretically to a large extent. In the reality however west Kham, the today's governmental district Qamdo , became until 1950 (invasion of the VBA) of Lhasa out administers, while east Kham, which belongs today to itself SCN, had already come during the empire under Chinese administration. The province Xikang was dissolved 1955, to west Kham went at Tibet, east Kham at itself SCN, with which historical conditions were restored.

The city Chongqing with the pertinent administrative district was separated at the 14.März 1997 as government-direct city from the province itself SCN.

today's one administrative arrangement

itself SCN consists today of 18 district-free cities and three autonomous districts:

  • City Chengdu (成都市),
  • city Zigong (自贡市),
  • city Panzhihua (攀枝花市),
  • city Luzhou (泸州市),
  • city Deyang (德阳市),
  • city Mianyang (绵阳市),
  • city Guangyuan (广元市),
  • city Suining (遂宁市),
  • city Neijiang (内江市),
  • city Leshan (乐山市),
  • city Nanchong (南充市),
  • city Meishan (眉山市),
  • city Yibin (宜宾市),
  • city Guang'an (广安市),
  • city Dazhou (达州市),
  • city Ya'an (雅安市),
  • city Bazhong (巴中市),
  • city Ziyang (资阳市),
  • autonomous district Ngawa of the Tibeter and Qiang (阿坝藏族羌族自治州 Ābà Zàngzú Qiāngzú Zìzhìzhōu),
  • autonomous district Garzê of the Tibeter (甘孜藏族自治州 Gānzī Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu),
  • autonomous district Liangshan of the Yi (凉山彝族自治州 LiángshānYízú Zìzhìzhōu), capital: Xichang (西昌市).

language

in itself SCN is spoken a Chinese dialect: Sichuanhua (四川话)

settlements

existed themselves to history since the Shang dynasty, from those in the 9.Jahrhundert v.Chr. in itself SCN the Kingdoms of Shu (蜀)and Ba (巴) developed, to them 316 v. Chr. by the rising realm of the Qin were annektiert. An archaeological discovery site for the realm Shu lies in the village Sanxingdui (三星堆).

In the 3. Century v. Chr. became with the establishment of the irrigation system of Dujiangyan an important basis for the agrarian wealth of the province put.

If the rule of a Chinese dynasty broke down, the inhabitants Sichuans always belonged to first, which used confusions, in order to create their own kingdom. This was in the year 24 the case, when Gongsun Shu could be proclaimed during the rebellions of the red brows to the king of Shu. Its rule existed to 36, as it of Guangwudi (光武帝) was smashed.

As the rebellion of the yellow Turbane the end that Han dynasty rang in, established Zhang Lu (张鲁) from 186 to 216 in itself SCN and south Shaanxi a daoistische Theokratie, which was based on the theories of its grandfather Zhang Daoling (张道陵).

In the decay of the realm of the Han Liu based with (刘备/劉備) 221 Shu Han (蜀汉),one three realms, which were named-giving for the following period.

In the early 30's the northern parts of Sichuans were already controlled communist. 1935 led the route being enough of the march by itself SCN; was the conquest of the bridgeof Luding one of the most daring actions.

1936 experienced itself SCN an extreme Dürre with the following hunger emergency.

After the conquest of Wuhan by the Japanese the nationalists shifted 1938 their headquarters under Chiang dock shek after Chongqing.

1949 became after proclaiming the VRChina the southwest office under the guidance of the native Sichuanesen Deng Xiaoping furnished, in order to strengthen the rule of the KPCh in this region. In December 1949 the communists with Chongqing conquered the last mainland base of the KMT.

1975 became Zhao Ziyang party secretaryin itself SCN and introduced first free market reforms in the agriculture.

economics

the province itself SCN is altogether still predominantly agrarian coined/shaped. The government strives however for an active economic policy and has in Chengdu and Mianyang special economic zones furnished.

Under the inland provinces itself SCN is considered as relatively wealthy, can however not with coastal regions such as Guangdong measure

to 2002 amounted to the gross national product of the province 488 billion RMB. 2000 were attached an urban average income with 5.894 RMB and a rural2,768 RMB. 1999 were the official unemployment ratio about 3,7%.

in addition,

agriculture itself SCN is predominantly considered as area of cultivation of rice, is important producer of corn, sweet potatoes, wheat, Raps and Soja. The cultivation of fruit and Zitrusfrüchtenis likewise common. At animal products are above all Schweinefleisch and Seidenkokons meaning. The moreover one in itself SCN dte by international rank one produces. This dte is exclusively intended for the export.

The value of agricultural production rose from 1994 to1999 annually around on the average 5.6% on 144,5 billionRMB.

mining industry

in itself SCN iron (with Panzhihua), titanium, vanadium and cobalt are diminished.

industry

in the year 1999 amounted to the value of the industriellen production ofItself SCN 390 billion RMB. Apart from heavy industry (iron, steel, energy production) light industry with wood working, Seidenweberei and food production exists.


infrastructure

itself SCN was integrated into the 1950er years into the Eisenbahnnetz of the VR China and since that time is Chengdu the most importantJunction in of China western region. The connections with the other regions run northward over Baoji after Xi'an, to the west over Chongqing and to the south over Xichang after Kunming. 1998 amounted to the overall length of the distances 2693 km.

After Tibet inDirection the west leads only a developed road across Kangding. The motorway net still is in the development. 1998 had it from 550 km route distance between Chongqing, Chengdu, Mianyang and Xinjin.

Chengdu possesses an international airport with Shuangliu.

tourism

In the UNESCO - list of the world cultural heritage and/or. World nature inheritance are listed from itself SCN:

  • Jiuzhaigou (九寨沟): 440 km a protected area lain north of Chengdu, which has to offer Wasserfälle and minority culture.
  • Huanglong (黄龙)
  • Emeishan (峨眉山): The Emeishan is appropriate for 165 km southwest ofChengdu. It is one of the four the Chinese Buddhismus of holy mountains. After the legend the Bodhisattva Samantabhadra on the Emei is to have taught. The mountain is with temples surveyed and a popular Pilgerziel.
  • Leshan - Buddha (乐山大佛): The large Buddha ofLeshan became between 719 and 803 from a rock cliff of the min river in accordance with ice ELT. With a height of 71 meters it is the largest sitting Buddhastatue of the world.
  • Qingchengshan (青城山)
  • Dujiangyan (都江堰)

other

itself SCN is nominal action place of Bertolt Brechts play good humans of Sezuan not to recognize as such however.


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