Victory mouth Freud

victory mouth Freud (* 6. May 1856 in free mountain (Mähren); † 23. September 1939 in London; originally Sigismund Schlomo Freud) was a neurologist and a depth psychologist, who attained admittingness as a founder of the psychoanalysis and as a religion critic.Its theories are today controversially discussed. Freud is considered as influential philosophers 20. Century.

Sigmund Freud - anonyme Fotografie von 1907
Victory mouth Freud - anonymous photography of 1907

table of contents


childhood and youth

Freud becomes to 6. May 1856 as a son of Jewish parents in free mountain born, where the family in 14. /15. Century had come from Cologne due to Jew pursuits. Although Freud of late Atheistbecame, it always stressed the meaning of its Judentums for itself.

Its father Kallamon Jacob Freud (1815 - 1896), a become impoverished Wollhändler, is with victory mouth birth already nearly forty years old and for the third time married. Freud has two olderHalf brothers from the earlier marriages of its father as well as sieve younger physical brothers and sisters. 1859 draw the family from economic reasons first to Leipzig and short time later to Vienna. There Freud is taken up 1865 to the Leopoldstädter Communal Realgymnasium, where he 1873 thoseMatura with honor exists.

After initial plans to study law it registers 1873 at the medical faculty of the University of Vienna. 1876 it is concerned among other things during a research scholarship at the zoo-logical research station in Triest with Aalhoden. In the sameIt changes year in Vienna to physiological Institut under Ernst Wilhelm bridge.

1879 it start its one year's military service and attains a doctorate 1881 with the topic “over back Marks of low fish types” to the doctor of the medicine.

Work as a physician

1882Freud a place in the Viennese general hospital under Theodor Meynert start , which he holds until 1885. 1884-87 it is concerned with research to the cocaine. The study “over Coca” appears after self experiments. The attempt, a morphiumsüchtigen friend with cocaineto heal, fails.

During a study trip to Paris it visits 1885 and others the psychiatric hospital at the Hôpital Salpêtrière, where Jean Martin Charcot works, in as a “Napoleon of the Hysteriker” well-known professor for pathological anatomy, it visual instruction over hysterische cases andthe effect of Hypnose and Suggestion mediate. Some years before the young Freud also the physician Josef Breuer had already become acquainted with. The case the “Anna O.” (Bertha pasteboard home), which is with Breuer since 1880 in treatment, leads tocommon development of the “speech therapy in such a way specified”, a kind preliminary stage of the psychoanalysis.

After its Habilitation 1885 Freud receives a Privatdozentur for neuropathlogy at the University of Vienna in September.

To 25. April 1886 it establishes as a physician and leads themselves thoseneurological department in first public Kinder-Krankeninstitut von Max Kassowitz until 1897. Its in October 1886 lecture held “on male hysteria” pushes at the public, the “society of the physicians”, on refusal.

Freud in Nancy ( France) visits 1889 Hippolyte Berne home, the attemptswith the posthypnotischen Suggestion in such a way specified operates. From these attempts Freud that there must be an unconscious, concludes which for a majority of human actions is responsible.

1886 Freud

Martha Bernays marries private ways (1861-1951). From the marriage the children becomeMathilde (1887-1978), Jean Martin (1889-1967), olive (1891-1969), Ernst August (1892-1970), Sophie (1893-1920) and Anna (1895-1982) come out. 1891 move Freud within Vienna into the mountain lane 19, where he will live the next 47 years.

The birth of the psychoanalysis

in oneLetter at William flow formulates Freud 1897 after analytic views for the first time the thesis of the “Ödipus complex “, thus the phenomenon of libidinöser connections to the own nut/mother with a simultaneous rivalry relationship to the father.

In November 1899 Freud publishes its on 1900 predatedWork „the dream interpretation “. Traditionally one sets the beginning of the psychoanalysis with the publication year of this book.

1902 he is appointed the extraordinary professor and creates the psychological on Wednesdays combination, which is visited beside Ferenczi and others also by Alfred eagle.It has their name from the weekday, at which regularly newest research results are discussed and which new art of the interpretation is practiced.

1908 it calls up the first international psychoanalytischen congress to Salzburg , it follows further congresses 1910 in Nuremberg, 1911 in Weimar, 1913 in Munich, 1918 in Budapest and 1920 in the Hague and Berlin. 1910 create Freud the “international Psychoanalyti combination” (IPV), it follow 1911 the “American psychoanalytische combination” as well as 1919 the “British psychoanalytischeCombination ".

1913 appear the writing Totem and taboo, in which Freud argues with the culture-historical phenomenon of the Inzestverbots.

Religion critic Freud

already during its work on the psychoanalysis justifies Freud a religion criticism based on it (psychoanalytischer atheism). It calls itselfeven as an enemy of the religion “in each form and dilution” and thus Ludwig of fire brook (regards its theses he as his philosophical basis) and Karl Marx lines up 'as a religion critic into the tradition.

Their philosophical and social beginningssupplements Freud with a psychological emphasis, which religion explains as obligation neurosis. Here it argues anthropologisch, ontogenetisch and masterhistorically:

The anthropologische argument defines the religion as infantiles (= childlike) defense behavior against the human inferiority: humans have thoseNatural forces personalisiert and to protecting powers raised. Thus they help it in its helplessness. The underlying behavior pattern ties those of the father to the earlychildlike experience of protecting parents, particularly.

With the earlychildlike experiences also Freuds ontogenetischer beginning deals:the ambivalente relationship of the child opposite the father continues in the faith of the adult. It recognizes that it can resist also as such not completely stranger of over powers, why it looks for its protection in the God faith. The Gods is afraidit, nevertheless transfers it them its protection.

The motive of the father longing continues with the masterhistorical explanation. Freud sets their master father with the Urhorde after Charles Darwin, as an absolute the poet dear of the sons both and hatedbecame, in particular due to his requirement to possess all women of the horde/hurdle. From jealousy they would have killed their head together (Ödipuskomplex). A follow-up was not possible due to the mutual blockade of its enemy and simultaneous ideal. As community are it on a statute informed themselves, which should exclude similar acts and which possession of the women unlocked, so that women of strange trunks and kinships were only married (Exogamie). Following meals are to remind of the preceding murder. ThatGuilty knowledge of entire mankind (“hereditary sin “) is thus the culture-keeping at the beginning of social organization, religion as well as moral restriction.

Freud and young

1906 begin Freud an exchange of letters with his professional colleague Carl Gustav young. With a meeting 1907 one talks 13Hours long without only one interruption. Young of Freud as “Crown Prince” one regards. 1909 travels the two Psychoanalytiker with Ferenczi to the USA.

Freuds 1914 published disputation “for the history of the psychoanalytischen movement” however leads together with preceding differences toBreak with C. G. Young, which withdraws from the international Psychoanalyti combination created by Freud.

On the high point of the work

in the twenties appear numerous of Freuds central works, which justify its international fame as Psychoanalytiker. To call are in particular:

1930 lends the city Frankfurt Freud against the protest of anti-Semitic circles the Goethe price, 1935 becomes it honour member that British Royal Society OF Medicine.To Freuds 80. Birthday holds Thomas's man 1936 the commemorative address “Freud and the future”.

Strokes of fate

1920 Freuds daughter Sophie in Hamburg at the flu dies. Two years later Freud gets sick itself with palate cancer, that despite two 1923accomplished operations with distance of parts of Kiefer and palates up to his death aggravates steadily. 1930 die Freuds nut/mother.

After the seizure of power of the national socialists also Freuds of works of the book burn from May 1933 fall. After the invasion of the GermansTroops in Austria to 12. March 1938 and cross-examine his daughter Anna by the Gestapo emigriert Freud to 4. June 1938 to London, where he buys a house in the quarter Hampstead (20 Maresfield Gardens).

To 23. September 1939 over3 o'clock places Dr. in the morning. , Freuds family doctor, after a deadly dose Morphium, stirs up its death wished by Freud firmly.


inherits work became among other things by its daughter, the people lady teacher and Kinderanalytikerin Anna Freud, resumed. It is considered as a founderthe modern psychoanalysis and influence on almost all representatives of this subject exercised. The today's psychoanalysis is characterised by a Pluralität of the concepts and Konstrukte. In psychoanalytischen discussions and publications it is custom itself also with deviating conceptions upto refer the work Freuds as common reference. In this way Freuds writings have high meaning despite numerous corrections, modifications and advancements also today still another.

1964 were created in Frankfurt an Sigmund Freud institute. A Sigmund Freud museum became 1971 in Freuds olderDwelling in the mountain lane 19 in Vienna opens. In the Londoner Freud museum, which after his death by his daughter Anna was opened, is the majority of Freuds books, pieces of collection and furniture (including the famous couch).

Also became into the 1990erField yard in Graz in “national mental hospital established victory mouth Freud “to years of the 1874 renamed; it concerns a mechanism for humans with psychological, neurological and psychosomatischen illnesses.


Freud investigated first the Hypnose and their effect, over psychologicallyto help ill persons. Later it turned from this technology and developed a treatment form among other things, those away on free associations and dream interpretation was based, in order to understand and treat the mental structure of humans (psychoanalysis). After it„the freudsche speaker is designated “as the most obvious example of a Fehlleistung.

der psychische Apparat nach Freud
the psychological apparatus after Freud

over to explain, how the human psyche functions, developed Freud a then unusual technology, with which it its patients and their free associations analyzed and hermeneutisch (text-laying out) interpreted. From these observations and interpretations he developed his idea of the three-part psychological structure. According to its suggestion the structure of the psyche of humans consists it, which I of three parts (instances ), that and Über-Ich. It held the opinion that approx. 90% of the human decisions are unconsciously motivated and only a small part „“are visible.

Its “three-instance model “of the psyche developed Freud in two steps. Thus it published inRun its research different topische models over the structure and the dynamics of the psychological apparatus.

I, it and Über-Ich

in the first Topik differentiated he the “conscious” from the larger and more influential “unconscious one” and stated, like the unconscious consciousnessaffected. In the second Topik, which he developed particularly in its writing which I and it (1923), Freud described for the first time its theory about it, which I and Über-Ich.

  • That steps it to thosePlace of the unconscious one. It forms the driveful element of the psyche and knows neither negation nor time or contradiction. Freud names that psychological structure, in that the impulses (e.g. Meals, Sexualtrieb), needs and Affekte (envy, hate, confidence, love) base. ThoseImpulses, needs and Affekte are also sample (psychological „organs “), by means of which we to a large extent unwillentlich and/or. notice unconsciously and our acting lead.
  • Which I: Peripheral area “it”; marks that psychological structure instance, by means of critical thinking and by means of critical-rationally securedStandards, values and conception of the world elements reality-fairly arrange “between the requirements it, Über-Ich and for the social environment with the goal of dissolving psychological and social conflicts constructionally (to bring = to disappearing). ” (Rupert Lay, of the sense of the life, 212)
    • Think, a reminding, a feeling, an implementing of arbitrariness movements;
    • Mediator between impulsive desires it and Über-Ich;
    • looks for for rational solutions
    • is mostly consciously
  • Über-Ich designates that psychological structure, in that from the educational environment the internal-lightAction standards, Ichideale, roles and conceptions of the world base.
    • “Consciences”
    • moral instance, value conceptions
    • of requirements and prohibitions of parents and subjectively felt authorities serve as model
    • conceptions of property and bad
    • of the Gegenpart for it

which I and Über-Ich develop from that it. The displacing conceptions are attributed Über-Ich. It is a part I and judges the thoughts, feelings and actions I. Über-Ich develops after Freud with the dissolution of the Ödipus complex (approx. in 5. Lebensjahr). After Freud developsa majority of the motivation of human behavior from the unconscious conflict between the driveful impulses it and the strict evaluating Über-Ich (see. the concepts for the defense & sublimation). After Freud also some aspects are subject to the society of such a impulse dynamics.

Development model of the psyche

after the first life months experiences a newborn child ever more clearly that it is distinctive of things and other humans. It develops a first consciousness of the own body borders and self feelings. “Trains in the following four LebensjahrenTo answer child (before linguistic and therefore also unconscious) the questions: “Who am I?” - “Which I can do?” to fill and thus its self-confident its also contentwise. “(Rupert Lay, ethics for economics and politics, 68) around it becomesthus a zone developed, which one early I can call. The early I, who put like a covering around it, is thus formed by the early body representative offices and the early self representative offices. The early body representative offices are childlike thosebasicput consciousness and feeling contents over body regions. Among the early self representative offices childlike basicput consciousness and feeling contents rank concerning the own person. They determine the social character and all our self conceptions acquired later (which are we, which we are afraid and expect, whatwe think themselves capable of…) in different way also. Unfortunately it became in 21. Century by the cognitive neuro sciences disproves.

Social valuation and criticism

is victory mouth Freuds large earnings/services, the meaning of the subjectivity (personality, feelings, conflicts) and the unconscious one recognized toohave. The psychoanalysis is regarded of many trailers as a comprehensive theory, which can describe and explain complex human experiencing and acting exhaustively.

The Freud theories are nontheless to also exposed numerous points of criticism. Vorausgeschickt will should here however that thosePsychoanalysis in its modern form in various directions was developed further and no more in all points with the Freud views agrees. To mention the psychoanalytische theory Jacques Lacans is, those by Melanie small v.a. in Great Britain object relations theory spread, the self psychology of Heinz Kohut and the I psychology prevailing in the USA. In addition, fact is that numerous and above all central acceptance of the psychoanalysis could not be confirmed empirically, so for example also the Ödipuskomplex as central modelthe development crisis of the childhood. With the Ödipuskomplex it concerns not a universal development phase, but at best over one of many childlike development samples. This Sammelsurium at mistakes and misinterpretations pulls itself by the entire history of the psychoanalysis.

Thus e.g. became. thoseExistence of a death impulse not only by scientists of other fields of activity, but also doubted by most PsychoanalytikerInnen, on the other hand developed by the sociologist Franz Borkenau for the starting point of a theory of the dynamics of the cultures. Also the classical impulse theory, which of an antagonism betweenLibido and aggression went out, became around additional human basic needs, like e.g. Connection, Individuation and exploration extend. The Pansexualismusvorwurf, which means into nuce, the psychoanalysis attributes everything to Sexualität, surveys on the one hand that Freud a very much more comprehensive term of“Sexualität” as we today had, and on the other hand that the Sexualtheorie in some versions of the modern psychoanalysis holds only one edge position.

  • For positivistic oriented scientists the statements Freuds are too little “scientifically” founded, i.e. empirically. Nevertheless one must admit,the fact that numerous attempts failed to examine the acceptance of the psychoanalysis empirically and naturally knows statements of the psychoanalysis is falsifiziert, therefore they are submitable an empirical examination. This became also straight of Psychoanalytikern in connection with the success of the therapytried.
  • A something similar criticism at the psychoanalysis means that it not in sufficient measure (nature) is scientifically formulated, in order to be empirically examinable at all.

Freuds work shows clear coinages of its childhood and youth time in the civil Vienna outgoing 19. Century and its human education. Thus it designates many internal-psychological complexes after models of the Greek mythology. Some of its descriptions over the Zwiespalt between the driveful and as threateningly experienced impulses it on and the hard moral defaults of the Über-Ich on the other side, are understood from today's viewpoint than expression of the social requirement prevailing at that time.

Its theories and also its working methods excited attention later in the course of the time increasingly, so that it in the course of the time also different onePhysicians in his psychoanalysis trained. Among them was also C.G. Young, of its teacher and with the analytic psychology a changed form of the psychoanalysis turned away later developed.

Freuds statements for the topic of sexual abuse, on which itin his analyses was again and again by memories, dreams and other references of his female patients pushed, were criticized from the outset. It arranged the statements of its female patients in later publications than “ödipal colored desire fantasies”. Since in the process of the 90'sthe topic child abuse and PTSD into the public interest moved this thesis strengthened was passionately fought. But straight in this point differs the psychoanalysis from other theories: unconscious sexual fantasies, conceptions and desires no smaller value is eingräumt thancommunist manifestos experiences.

One of the usually doubted theories Freuds is from the “Penisneid so mentioned “: This faces the fear of castration of the boys in the psychological development of girls symmetrically. In Freuds analyses it resulted it that psychologically misdirected actionsfrom women on the unsatisfactory psychological processing of the observation often it decreased/went back that the Penis of a boy is missing to them unattainablly, from which a feeling of the envy results. (The criticism misjudged pretty often that “envy” somewhat completely different one than” having craze“.) although

Freuds theories and working methods were criticized again and again in later decades by other physicians and Psychotherapeuten, its contribution describes to understand human experiencing and acting as unusual achievement is mostly arranged. Many of it the coined/shapedTerms like “the unconscious “or the Ödipuskomplex were transferred in the course of the years to the general linguistic usage.

Publications (selection)

  • 1887 study “over Coca”
  • 1893 “over the psychological mechanism of hysterischer phenomena” together with Breuer.
  • 1895 “draft of a psychology” (manuscript;together with Josef Breuer)
  • 1895 “studies over hysteria “.
  • 1896 for the etiology of the hysteria (essay; first use of the term “psychoanalysis”)
  • 1900 “the dream interpretation”
  • 1901 “to the Psychopathologie of the everyday life life”
  • 1905 three papers to the Sexualtheorie
  • 1908 ““the cultural” Sexualmoral and the modernNervousness "
  • 1913 “Totem and taboo
  • 1914 “for the history of the psychoanalytischen movement”
  • 1915 “up-to-date over war and death”
  • 1916 “mourning and melancholy”
  • 1917 “lectures for introduction to the psychoanalysis”
  • 1920 “the other world of the desire principle”
  • 1921 “mass psychology and I analysis
  • 1923 “which I and it”
  • 1925 “self-manifestation”
  • 1927 “the future of an illusion
  • 1930 “the uneasiness in the culture
  • 1933 “why war? (Exchanges of letters with Albert Einstein) “
  • 1933 “new consequence of the lectures for introduction to the psychoanalysis”
  • 1937 “the finite and the infinite analysis”
  • 1939 “the man Moses and the monotheistische religion”

Freuds patient

Freuds sofa

this are an incomplete list of patients, whose treatment process was published by Freud. The correct names became by the indicated aliasesreplaced.

  • Cäcilie M. = Anna von Lieben
  • Dora = IDA farmer (1882-1945)
  • Mrs. Emmy of N. = Fanny Moser
  • Ms Elizabeth of R.
  • Ms Katharina = Aurelia Kronich
  • Ms Lucy R.
  • Small Hans = harsh ore count (1903-1973)
  • rat man = ErnstLanzer (1878-1914)
  • wolf man = Sergius Pankejeff (1887-1979)

published psychoanalytische observations at people, which were not patients Freuds:

further patients:



  • Collected works. Fischer publishing house, Frankfurt. 1999. Everything in 19 volumes. 8759 sides. ISBN 3596503000 .
  • Which I and it. Fischer publishing house, Frankfurt. 1992. 354 S. ISBN 3596104432 .
  • The dream interpretation. Fischer publishing house, Frankfurt. 1991. 662 S. Originals appeared 1899. ISBN 359610436X .
  • Outline of the psychoanalysis. Einführende representations. ISBN 3596104343 .
  • Inhibition, symptom and fear. ISBN 3596104432 .
  • Writings over love and Sexualität. ISBN 3596104416 .
  • New consequences of the lectures for introduction to the psychoanalysis. Fischer publishing house, Frankfurt. 1991. 205S. ISBN. Freud over Freud (s work).
  • The reader. Fischer publishing house, Frankfurt March. 2006; 350 S. ISBN. Commentated collection of the shorter writings,
  • victory mouth Freud, Anna Freud: Exchange of letters. Fischer publishing house, Frankfurt April. 2006; 750 S. ISBN. Father and daughter.

To the Biografie:

  • Peter Gay: Freud. Fischer publishing house, Frankfurt. 2001. 904 S., ISBN 3596129133 .
  • Peter Gay: Freud - a Biografie. Fischer publishing house, Frankfurt. 2006. 928 S., ISBN 3596171709
  • Lisa Fischer, Regina complete one: Victory mouth Freud. Viennese of scenesthe psychoanalysis. Böhlau publishing house, Vienna. 2005; 221 S. ISBN.
  • Birgit Lahann: As psyche on the couch came. The mysteryful life victory mouth of the Freud., Structure publishing house, Berlin March. 2006; 192 S. ISBN 3351026315
  • max stirs up: Victory mouth Freud, SuhrkampPublishing house, Frankfurt/M. 1982; 701 S. Was Freuds physician stirs up.
  • EH Weissweiler: The Freuds. Biografie of a family. Kiepenheuer & Witsch, Cologne. 2006; 320 S.
  • Christian Moser: Victory mouth Freud - the whole truth Carlsen publishing house GmbH, Hamburg 2006
  • Hans Martin Lohmann: Victory mouth FreudNew edition Rowohlt paperback publishing house, Reinbek 2006. 159 sides.ISBN 3-499-50693-9
  • lime tree Salber: The dark continent. Freud and the women. Rowohlt paperback publishing house, Reinbek 2006. ISBN 3-499-62138-x
  • Irving Stone: The soul of dark paths - a novel around victory mouth Freud, RowohltPaperback publishing house, Reinbek 2001, ISBN 3-499-23004-6, translation from the American one of Norbert Wölfl

to the work, for meaning in the psychology and medicine:

  • Micha Brumlik: Victory mouth Freud. The philosopher 20. Century. Beltz publishing house, Weinheim. 2006, 280 S.
  • Samuel weber: Freud legend. Four studies for psychoanalytischen thinking Vienna: Passages publishing house 2002.
  • F. - W. Eickhoff: Victory mouth Freud. Outline of the psychoanalysis. Year, publishing house? ISBN 3596104343
  • Werner Greve and Jeanette Roos: The fall of the Ödipuskomplexes - arguments against a myth 1996, Berne.
  • Han Israel: ThatCase Freud Hamburg: European publishing house, 1999.
  • Thomas Kornbichler: Freud - a civil revolutionary. Its thought world and its influence until today. Stuttgart. 2006. ISBN 3-7831-2710-2
  • Hans Martin Lohmann: Victory mouth Freud for introduction. Hamburg, Junius. 2002, 5. Aufl., ISBN 388506362X .
  • Harsh ore Selg: Victory mouth Freud - genius or Scharlatan? - A critical introduction to lives and work 2002, Stuttgart.
  • Victory lime tree EH Tömmel: Who has fear of victory mouth Freud? As and why the psychoanalysis heals Frankfurt/Main 2006.
  • Eli Zaretsky: Freuds century. ThoseHistory of the psychoanalysis. Of Zsolnay publishing house, Munich. 2006. 620 S.
  • Dieter E. Room: Depth swindle. Rowohlt publishing house, Reinbek 1990, ISBN 3499187752 . Very critically.

In magazines:

see also

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