Silvio Berlusconi (* 29. September 1936 in Milan) is an Italian entrepreneur and politician. At present he is still an Prime Minister of the 59. Italian government since establishment of the republic and chairmen of the party Forza Italia created by it. According to Forbes it is with a fortune of 12 billion dollar the richest man of Italy.
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it is the oldest son of Luigi Berlusconi and pink Bossi and brother of Paolo and Antonietta Berlusconi. 1965 he marries Carla ElviraLucia Dall'Oglio, with which it witnessed two children: Maria Elvira (*1966) and Piersilvio (*1968).1985 can be separated the pair, 1990 follow the marriage with the actress Veronica Lario (in reality Miriam Bertolini), with which it already for some timea relationship had. The pair has together three children: Barbara (*1984), Eleonora (*1986) and Luigi (*1988).
1954 attains Silvio Berlusconi the school leaving certificate at the Salesianer - High School S. Ambrogio in Milan. Subsequently, it begins law studies at the University of Milan,which it locks 1961 with a thesis (diploma) over advertising contracts cum laude. For its work it wins by the advertising agency Manzoni written out a price over 2 million lire. After the study Berlusconi does not perform at that time still mandatory military service.
Before itsBerlusconi Marcello
Dell'Utri becomes acquainted with political career at the university , which becomes later, than he develops its party Forza Italia, its right hand.
To 7. July 1974 brings Dell to' the young Mafioso Vittorio Mangano from Palermo Utri in Berlusconis mansionin Arcore. This adjusts it officially as manager and a stable master, but Mangano worries also about the security of the mansion and brings Berlusconis of children to the school. 1976 leave Mangano Arcore undisturbed, although he at this time several punishmentsabzubüssen had and were suspected, Luigi D' Angerio, a friend Berlusconis, to 7. December 1974 to have kidnapped.
Berlusconi of the entrepreneurs
in the year 1961 begin Berlusconi its activities in the building industry with the acquisition of a property in via Alcati in Milan; its partner is a building contractor Pietro Canali, his defiency guarantee the banker Carlo Rasini. First enterprise, the Cantieri develops for BerlusconisRiuniti Milanesi.
1963 it creates the enterprise Edilnord Sas. The money necessary for it make available Carlo Rasini and Swiss entrepreneur Carlo Rezzonico with the corporation for real estate situations in residence centers AG with seat in Lugano. The anonymousFunds of Swiss corporation are deposited partially with that internationally bank in Zurich and to arrive over the Banca Rasini to the Edilnord Centri Residenziali.
1964 begin the building of several multistoried buildings in Brugherio. 1968 create Berlusconi Edilnord 2,Milano 2 acquires properties in the municipality Segrate and begins with the building of the enormous housing estate. First questions already at that time emerge, from where the extensive funds come, over which the young entrepreneur obviously ordered.
Berlusconis according to own data is its father helped Luigi, former general manager of the Banca Rasini, to finance the business activities of the son.
Critics assume that the funds were procured in a less legal way. In the time as Luigi Berlusconi with the Banca Rasini, developed business relations were busy to the Cisalpina Overseas Nassau bank, in whose supervisory board in negative connection famous persons become sat later such as Roberto Calvi, Licio Gelli and Michele Sindona. The Banca Rasini became later of Michele Sindona and others pentiti (confessing Mafiosi) accused of Mafia money to have washed. It is obvious that such circumstances and accusations shade throw business success on Berlusconis (particularly with consideration of its presumed contacts to the mafia and its membership in the organization propaganda Due ofLicio Gelli).
1973 create Berlusconi Italcantieri Srl and acquire by switching of his lawyer Cesare Previti the mansion Casati Stampa in Arcore of an heiress under age, who became to represent from Previti, its current main domicile.
1978 creates Berlusconi with the help of that Monte Dei Paschi - bank Telemilano, a local private station. Two years later it tries to go around the prohibition of a non-governmental national television station and expands the transmission on completely Italy. Thereupon intervene several state lawyers, which causes an abort of the transmission.
1980 are delivered a football tournament between the national teams by Argentina , Brazil , Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Uruguay. The Gazzetta comes dello sport to country-wide protests, supported from large daily papers like the Corriere della Sera and,since the national television company RAI does not transfer the plays live. Finally the RAI must permit the use of satellites for a country-wide transmission to the Berlusconi transmitter Canale 5 (the successor of Telemilano).
1982 acquire Berlusconi of the publisher Edilio Rusconi thatTelevision station Italia 1, 1984 of the group of publishing houses Mondadori Rete 4. With these purchases Mediaset , the medium enterprise of the Berlusconi company Fininvest , becomes the large adversary of the former monopolist RAI.
to 6. August 1990 legalisiert the parliament with the legge Mammì in such a way specified the Mediaset Imperium Berlusconis.
Silvio Berlusconimajority shareholder is with two of the most important publishing house houses of Italy, Mondadori and Einaudi, in addition with several small (Elemond, Sperling&Kupfer, Grijalbo, Le Monnier, Pianeta scuola, Edizioni Frassinelli, Electa Napoli, Riccardo Ricciardi editore, editrice Poseidona).
Berlusconi controls the cinema chain Medusa Cinema;in the meantime it is no more involved in Blockbuster Italia. With Publitalia it is active in the advertising business.
The football club AC Milan belongs to it , national and internationally one of the most successful clubs at all since 1986.
It is in the meantime no more inPossession of the chains Standa and Euromercato.
Berlusconi of the politicians
in the year 1993 engages itself Berlusconi for the first time in the policy. Supporting the post office-fascist Movimento Sociale Italiano/Destra nazionale (MSI), by it publicly admits gives, it hesitates no minute, Gianfranco Fini with the ballots for the post of the mayor to 5. To give December in Rome its voice.
To 26. January 1994 announces in a before noted speech in the television its entrance into the policy to Berlusconi. As motive givesit on to want to turn the “communist danger away " i.e. a victory of the center leftist coalition.
In the same year Silvio Berlusconi creates the party Forza Italia.
The entrance into the policy effected at a time, in the Fininvest various problems faces.On the one hand the company is highly indebted, on the other hand gives it several investigations of the law, the incomes from advertising from the television had beyond that sunk.
The annual report according to the Mediobanca 1992 the debts of Fininvest amounts to 7,140 billionLire. Between 1992 and 1993 state lawyers made of Milan, Turin and Rome against Fininvest and Berlusconi because of presumed bribery, falsified calculations of Publitalia and the financing of congresses of party determine. 1993 points the incomes from the advertising business, those up to then constantly grownare, a zero growth up.
The question of the Unwählbarkeit
sound law 361 from the year 1957 has not might actually at all begin Berlusconi, because this law means that persons, those of the State of concessions (in this case of TV-rights of cession) to important financial extentreceived, are unwählbar. The government, also because of the employment of the party secretary at that time of the Democratici di Sinistra and later Prime Minister Massimo D'Alema , does nevertheless without an appeal.
Elections 1994 - Government Berlusconi I
thanks of a gigantic election campaign, in thatBerlusconi its entire media power to its favour begins (in such a way specified becomes only later par condicio - law, which commits the television stations to grant all prominent politicians and parties one approximately equal large period in the transmission time discharges). After the choiceto 27. March 1994 forms for Berlusconi a coalition with the post office fascist Alleanza Nazionale of Gianfranco Fini and the secessionistic right external party Lega north of Umberto Bossi.
After only few months quits the latter alliance with Forza Italia. Onethe principal reasons it was that the Lega north of their master constituency could not mediate, why the secessionistic party suddenly sat now in Rome at the government table. The Ulivo wins the following new elections - alliance and Romano Prodi become an Prime Minister.
Elections 2001 - Governments BerlusconiII and III
in the year 2001 win Berlusconi for the second time the parliamentary elections, again accompanied from an enormous advertising expenditure (e.g. each Italian household gets 128 sides a strong Berlusconi biography sent). After the elections Berlusconi forms again a coalition with thatAlleanza Nazionale, the clearly weakened Lega north, the Christian-democratic UDC and several small parties.
Of the 1. July up to 31. December 2003 is Berlusconi periodically advice president of the European Union.
The government BerlusconiII that Italian government is, since the Second World War to power to adhere longest could and, which concerns the number of the replaced Ministers, a new record also set up. One leads first on the one hand on the broadparliamentary majority back, on the other hand on the guidance strength Berlusconis and the unanimity of the Forza Italia. The frequent changes in the cabinet are to be due mainly to disputes between the coalition parties.
To 20. April 2005 steps Berlusconi in the course of a change in the cabinet after long back and forthback. It concerns however only a formal act, Berlusconi becomes immediately the third time Prime Minister.
The present 14. Legislative period is first, which outlasted the five years without premature dissolution of parliament, planned by the condition.
Berlusconi gives itself gladly as alternative to the old politician class, as an entrepreneur in the service the policy. It packs its politics into simple and salient Slogans, with which it contacts directly the Italian people (e.g. “a worker as an Prime Minister” or“one million jobs”). Its “contract with the Italians” is famous, which it signed on the television before the parliamentary elections 2001.
Berlusconi avowedly, principle of its politics is it to want to use the guidance methods of a large enterprise in the government of a country.It calls the constitutional reform, with which he expanded the power of the Prime Minister in his second legislative period, stabilization of the “chairman of the board of the enterprise Italy'”.
Berlusconi is admits to attach political contacts by friendly relations with other statesmen. As „friends “Berlusconis apply American president George W. Bush, the British Prime Minister Tony Blair and Russian president Vladimir Putin.
A further peculiarity is it to place itself to a direct confrontation on the television rarely. After a TV-duel also Romano Prodi before the elections 1996 it rejected 9 years long to participate in television discussions to it finally to 5. April 2005 after by its coalition lost the regional elections surprisingly in a transmission of RAI Tre (the third Italian program),appeared, in order to discuss with Massimo D'Alema and Francesco Rutelli.
Forza Italia is a political movement, which is extremely cut to their guidance person. No conflicts between party line and personal opinions Berlusconis show themselves in the reason.
ThatParty program of the Forza Italia is particularly affected of liberal ideas. In its reign there were reforms of the training system, the pension system and the law, whereby the training and the judicial reform large protests caused. With constitutional reforms Berlusconi widened power of theItalian Prime Ministers out and strengthened the competencies of the regions. The promised tax revision was not carried out yet.
In the foreign policy Berlusconi leaned to the USA on and it closely supported also the Iraq war fully. However were not Italian troopsinvolved in the fighting, but to conclusion of the official war were only sent. In addition it endorses closer relations with Russia and expresses themselves for an European Union entry of Turkey. The moreover its government issued stricter laws for illegal immigrationand it looks for a co-operation with the other states of the Mediterranean area in this question also.
One of the main points of criticism at Berlusconi is the fact that many laws are obviously cut to its interests, particularly around itself and its Gefolgsleuteto protect against accesses of the Italian law. For example balance falsification was down-gradated to a Bagatelldelikt and it is now also possible to reject a court if the accused has a “justified suspicion” on interest conflict or partyness. Large criticism called also thatLaw out, with which it had eliminated its clash of interest as Prime Minister and a company head according to own statement: Berlusconi had to only withdraw as a president of the AC Milan. Further examples of “Berlusconi laws” are the shorter timetime times for crimes of all kinds, the immunity law, alsowhich it wanted to provide the five highest representatives of the State of protection from accesses of the law (however by the constitutional court yard one rejected), the law for the rescue of Rete 4, one its television station or a medium law, it control also over publicWould have given media to large extent (by president Carlo Azeglio Ciampi in December 2003 was stopped).
multiples to be criticized Berlusconis polarizing statements and “jokes”.
The example surely most well-known in Germany is its appearance of 2. July 2003 in the European Union parliament. One day after it the regular presidency of the European Union advice , became he had taken over from the German delegate Martin Schulz (SPD) also because of its home policy violently criticized. Berlusconi answered:
- “Signor Schulz, so che in Italia c'è un produttoreche sta montando un film sui campi concentramento nazisti: la suggerirò by IL ruolo kapò. Lei è perfetto!“
Translation: Mr. Schulz, I knows that there is a producer in Italy, a film about concentration camps of the Nazismakes. I will suggest you for the role of a Kapos. They would be for it as production.
Probably Berlusconi referred to in the German-speaking countries under the name a cage of full heroes (on English: Hogan's Heroes) admitted TV serial, in thata dümmlicher German custodian, easily of John banner, named Sgt. Hans's George Schultz seems. Although Berlusconi insistierte a joke to have made this Nazi comparison caused itself a short diplomatic crisis between Italy and Germany, however after a telephoneExplanation Berlusconis opposite Federal Chancellor Gerhard Schröder slowly again calmed down.
After the terrorist attacks of the 11. Septembers 2001 provided the following sets of Berlusconis for excitement:
“We must be conscious the superiority of our civilization, which consists of principles and values, the onebroad prosperity for the public brought. The west succeeded further peoples to conquer, as it to it to conquer the communist world and a part of the Islamic world but another part of it stayed by 1,400 years.The western society has values such as liberty love, which liberty of the peoples and the particular, who do not belong surely to the hereditary property of other civilizations, like the Islamic,…“
Other statements, which were controversially discussed, e.g. are. the quotation “conla sinistra aluminium potere, miseria terrore e morte “(translation: With that linking at power, misery, frights and death) or the statement, Benito Mussolini never killed someone and was limited to banish its political opponents into holidays places.
Clash of interest and media power
a large point of criticism at Berlusconi is its clash of interest regarding the media, since it exerts large influence on the national television company RAI as an Prime Minister and at the same time owner of the private competition company Mediaset is. Together the two controlSocieties approximately 90% of the Italian television market.
This circumstance was criticized (beside many other points) by the British weekly paper The Economist (mentioned by Berlusconi in the meantime “The Ecommunist “). The controversy reached its high point, as Berlusconi the magazine in Rome because ofCharacter assassination sued, whereupon The Economist published an open letter to it .
In the year 2004 the Freedom OF the gradated presses 2004 global Survey, an annual report, which is published by the American organization Freedom House, the Pressefreiheitin Italy von Free on Partly Free back [].
Because of Berlusconis of clenched media power would existtheoretically the danger of an extremely parteiischen reporting on all channels, in practice is regulated this however by par condicio - law, which grants to all prominent politicians and parties approximately equal much transmitting time (also in Mediaset programs).
Although a medium law, thatwould have given it control of public media to large extent, in December 2003 by president Ciampi was rejected, exercises Berlusconi nevertheless large influence on the national television, how an incident points out from the year 2002. To 18. April 2002,during a state visit in Bulgaria, Berlusconi in a press conference the following mentions (of its critics in the meantime as “Bulgarian dictation” designates):
“L'uso che i Biagi, i Santoro e i… come SI chiama quello là… ah sì, Luttazzi, hanno fattodella televisione pubblica, pagata con i soldi tutti, è stato criminoso. Preciso dovere della nuova dirigenza Rai è non the permettere più che questo avvenga.“
Translation: The abuse, that the Biagis, the Santoros and… as is called thatagain… oh Luttazzis at the public television committed, paid with tax fundses, are criminal. It is the task of the new RAI guidance to prevent that such a thing once again occurs.
The calling (two journalists and a Komiker) had before in RAI transmissionsCriticism at Berlusconi experienced. Trailers Berlusconis argued that national television had to be always neutral regarding the policy, opponents saw the Pluralismus, which was typical for a public service in a democracy, endangered. Anyhow has since December 2002none three the more for the RAI worked. Luttazzi and Biagi received no more new contracts and to Santoro rejected a new contract, which would have shifted the transmitting time of its program to a more unfavorable time.
Parliamentary elections 2006
before the parliamentary elections to9. and 10. April 2006 gave it numerous controversies about Berlusconi. The Italian enterprise federations practiced open criticism at the economic policy of the past five years, which led nearly to a zero growth (0.1 per cent in the year 2005). According to their opinion threatenTo slip out Italy of the group of the G8-Länder. Berlusconi called the reproaches absurd and warned of the dangers of one „communist “seizure of power by the center leftist coalition. Furthermore Berlusconi ensured for excitement, as it after critical questions of a lady journalist before current camerasTV studio left. For a diplomatic detuning its statement provided, in China in former times under the communist baby was cooked, in order to use it as fertilizers for the fields.
Two days before the elections Berlusconi ensured European-wide again for headlines, ashe said:
- “Ho troppa stima by l'intelligenza degli italiani votano by IL proprio interest of these che essere by credere che ci possono in giro tanti coglioni.“
Translation: I hold too much from the intelligence of the Italians, in order to believe thatit enough complete idiots/ass holes gives, who select against their own interests.
Literally meant “coglioni” [testicle] bags, concerning its expression strength as [insult word] it is to be settled probably somewhere between complete idiot and asshole. Several Italian media expressed the assumption, this statement, those even based onStyle Berlusconis was somewhat deftig, is probably rather counter productive been and rather as act of desperation to be evaluated.
To present splitting of Italy, which deplored Berlusconi several times after the choice and because of which it now the necessity for a large coalition demands, is probably to a weighty part also of it is to blame for. Supported of many of its coalition acres Berlusconi in the course of the election campaign has constantly and urgently to the fears of communism, verwurzelten still deeply in Italy, (particularly at older generations)appealed. By “turning” most reproaches, which were made for him, simply (for example it threw a “linking” forwards to control 70% of the media briefly before the choice spoke it then also of 90%), producing it in this regard oneskillful deadlock in the public opinion, in addition nearly not possibly became thereby a more material discussion in the broad public.
see in addition also to parliamentary elections in Italy 2006
Berlusconis legal proceedings
in Italy Berlusconi already several times one accused, mostly of corruption or balance falsification andregarding events before its entrance into the policy 1993.
Berlusconi sees itself pursued because of the numerous accusations by the law. Several times it accused state lawyers and judges of to be partial and stated, the law works with that linkingHand in hand, in order to fall it, or is infiltrated even by communists (“red robes”).
In order to protect itself against the accesses of the law, several laws were issued, those clearly on current processes gemünzt were and in some cases evenretroactively worked. Examples of such laws are the Verkürzung of periods of limitation, the Herabstufung of the balance falsification to the harmless crime or the prohibition of an appeal of the public prosecutor's office after an acquietal in first instance.
Condemnations with following amnesty
- perjury in the case propaganda Due: BerlusconisName is found on the membership list of the forbidden Freimaurer Loge propaganda Due (P2), its membership number is 1816, its rank the one apprendista muratore, thus a bricklayer apprentice. Berlusconi had before a membership abgestritten.
- Balance falsification in the case mansion di Macherio: Itgoes to mansions approximately around the purchase from properties around one of Berlusconis.
Acquietals because of Verjährung
- three bribe payments to the financial police: Crime falls under the statute of limitations because the industrial tribunal certifies “mitigating circumstances”.
- Balance falsification in the case Lentini: With the purchase of a football player more becameMoney paid as officially indicated.
- Richterbestechung in the case Lodo Mondadori: The industrial tribunal classifies the case as “simple corruption” and not as “corruption under legal proceedings”, therefore is the case falls under the statute of limitations.
- Richterbestechung in the case Sme: It concerns the purchase andSales of the national food company Sme.
- Bribe payment at the former Prime Ministers Bettino Craxi
of acquietals from lack of proofs
- bribe payment to the financial police
- balance falsification with the purchase of the enterprise Medusa Cinematografica
- Richterbestechung in the case Sme (accuse-hurry 2): It concerns the purchase andSales of the national food company Sme, of reproaches raised from it second part of the accusation is freely spoken Berlusconi.
Accusations, those in the meantime no more facts represent
- balance falsification in the case universe Iberian: A law issued by the government Berlusconi II terminates thatProcess.
- illegal appropriation, tax evasion and balance falsification in the case mansion Macherio: It concerns the purchase approximately from properties around one of Berlusconis mansions.
- drug trade: The financial police heard a time long the voice grade channels Berlusconis, without somethingTo get to know suspicious.
- Price-fixing arrangments RAI Fininvest: Berlusconi was accused as an Prime Minister Preisabsprachen during the television commercial between the national RAI and its company Fininvest to have advanced.
- Bribe payment to officials in the Treasury: Berlusconi is to have paid bribes, around a reduction of taxesto reach on Pay TV and receive repayments.
- Mafia notices' 92' 94: Berlusconi suspected clients of several assassination attempts between 1992 and 1994 to have been. The investigations rely thereby on several statements of arrested or overcrowded Mafiosi.
- Suspicion on outside co-operationat a mafiaartigen combination and money laundering in Palermo
- ignoring the anti-trust law in Spain and tax evasion by the Berlusconi enterprise Telecinco: The procedure is postponed, in order not to load the relations between Italy and Spain.
attention excited Berlusconi alsoits cosmetic operations. Thus it appeared in January 2004 only after over one month again in the footlights, after it in December 2003 folds in a beauty hospital be probably removed can had. In August 2004 it left itself in a beauty hospitalin Ferrara hair on its scalp transplantieren. Critics accused to him, he concentrate more on his exterior, instead of on the problems of the country.
Likewise 2004 published Berlusconi CD with songs in the neapolitanischen dialect, those from it togetherwith Mariano Apicella were composed.
- Alexander silence: Citizen Berlusconi. Munich: C.H. Beck, January 2006. - ISBN 3-40652-955-0 (review: )
- documentary film
- Viva Zapatero! - http://www.luckyred.it/minisiti/zapatero
- Bye Bye Berlusconi! / Buonanotte Topolino, Schiwago film GmbH/hessian broadcast, Germany, 2006, 88 ' - http://www.byebyeberlusconi.de
- IL caimano, of and with Nanni Moretti
Web on the left of
|Commons: Silvio Berlusconi - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
|Wikiquote: Silvio Berlusconi - quotations|
| |* Literature of and over Silvio Berlusconi in the catalog of the DDB
- Berlusconis life, a chronology; Berlusconi and its secrets; The processes Silvio Berlusconi
- article in the encyclopedia right-wing radicalism over Silvio Berlusconi
- the phenomenon Berlusconi - book down load underCC license
- Berlusconitalia - the something other democracy (article in Telepolis of 07.07.2003)
- tagesschau.de: Silvio Berlusconi - politicians and entrepreneur
- 3sat stock exchange: Berlusconi/Mediaset (contribution of 14.03.2003)
- autumn of the Freibeuters (article in Telepolis of 07.04.2006)
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||of Italian politicians and Prime Minister|
|DATE OF BIRTH||29. September 1936|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Milan|