Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar Palacios y Blanco [siˈmɔm bɔˈliβar] (* 24. July 1783 in Caracas, Neugranada, today Venezuela; † 17. December 1830 in Santa Marta, Colombia; called El Libertador) was South American independence fighter and is national hero of many South American countries.
As its loving and combat companion Manuela Sáenz attained sad celebrity.
Table of contents
El Libertador - the Befreier
Simón Bolívar became to 24. July 1783 in Caracas, Venezuela, born. He was son of a rich Kreolenfamilie and enjoyed very good training. Its private teacherwas Simón Rodríguez, with which he traveled later by Europe. To the death of its parents it went 1799 to Spain, in order to continue its training. Later stay in France and Germany followed. In Spain he married María Teresa Rodríguezdel Toro y Alaysa in the year 1802 and returned in the connection with it to Venezuela. Already in the following year its wife succumbed however to the yellow fever. Consequently Bolívar traveled again 1804 to Europe and went only 1807 to Venezuelaback.
the war of independence
increasing national consciousness in the Spanish colonies led in this time to a movement of independence in Latin America. Simón Bolívar followed a resistance junta in Caracas. These announced 1810 the independence of Venezuelaand Bolívar sent to diplomatic negotiations to Great Britain. The Spanish army tried to prevent the independence efforts and it came to engagements in the colonies. 1811 returned Bolívar to Venezuela. Francisco de Miranda, Führer of the junta in Caracas,arose however 1812 the Spanish troops and Bolívar fled after Cartagena. There he wrote „the communist manifesto of Cartagena “.
To 14. May 1813 began the actual liberation struggle. In new Granada Simón Bolívar stated the invasion of Venezuela. To 23. May it conquered Mérida, followed from Trujillo to 9. June. Finally the conquest of Caracas succeeded to it to 6. August, and he proclaimed the second Venezolani republic in such a way. These earnings/services brought it the honour name „ElLibertador “. There it was involved again after new Granada, took over the command over a Colombian unit and took with their 1814 Bogotá .
exile in Jamaica
following it planned the conquest of Cartagena and expected a union alsothere armed forces. This project failed however both because of political disputes and because of military conquests of the Spanish troops, on which Bolívar saw itself forced to go into the exile to Jamaica. On the island it met the Haitian president Alexandre SabesPetión and asked it for support with its campaign. With its assistance Bolívar landed the city Angostura, which takes today's Ciudad Bolívar, in Venezuela and knew, which became the starting point for its further operations.
after the conquest of Boyacá in the year 1819 was also Colombia released from the Spaniards. To 7. September 1821 created Bolívar the Republic of large Colombia, a state, which the territories of the provinces Venezuela, Ecuador released up to then and Colombia (with the area of the today's Panamá due to it) covered. He became immediately a first president of large Colombia, general Francisco Paula Santander became vice-president. Further military victories in Carabobo (1821) and Pichincha (1822) strengthened its position.
To 26. and 27. July 1822 took place the legendary meeting between Simón Bolívar and the Argentine general José de San Martín . Martín led the war of liberation in the south of Latin America and released Argentina and Chile from the Spanish rule. The invasionfrom Peru, where the Spanish resistance was strong, only partly it succeeded to it. The two generals agreed on a common procedure with the remaining conquest of Peru. Bolívar succeeded the release of the province. Martín transferred it the instruction over itsTroops and withdrew itself in the following from the war of liberation. The Peruvian congress appointed Simón Bolívar the dictator, which permitted it a reorganisation of the political and military guidance.
With the assistance of general Antonio José de Sucre it triumphedin Junín to 6. August 1824 over the Spanish Kavallerie. In the battle with Ayacucho (Peru) to 9. December of the same yearly struck Sucre the remaining - however nevertheless in terms of figures superior - Spanish armed forces (in absence Bolívars) andthe Spaniards forced finally to leave the South American Subkontinent. Bolívar saw in Sucre its best general and closest familiar one and the two army leaders connected a lifelong friendship.
At the congress of Alto Peru to 6. August 1825 designated itself the new Republic after their Befreier in Bolivia over. The Libertador prepared a new condition for the country. However it the rule fell over large Colombia increasingly more heavily. National currents in the partial republics and disputes within the government threatened, the community of states toobreak. As attempt to receive the republic large Colombia as a whole it invited 1828 to a condition-giving meeting into Ocaña . He wanted to transfer parts of the bolivarianischen condition to those from large Colombia. The changes would have contained, together a presidency on lifetimewith the right to the appointment of a successor. The suggestions were regarded very sceptically and it formed a strong resistance against it.
the assassination attempt from September 1828
the meeting failed because of large political differences of the participants. Bolívarrated this exit as disaster. Consequently it appointed itself to 27. August 1828 to the dictator. It should be a temporary measure, in order to re-establish its authority within the splintered parties and to ensure the receipt of the republic. However this ledProceed to a still larger discontent among its political opponents and led in September to an assassination attempt on it, in which also Santander was involved. Bolívar remained however intact with the notice.
Its position in the republic remained however furthercontentiously and its influence was undermined increasingly by political opponents. In the following two years it came again and again to rebellions in the large kolumbischen republics. As consequence the Libertador stepped to 27. April 1830 of all its political offices back.It decided to look for exile on the Caribbean islands or in Europe. Before it could leave the continent however, it died at Tuberkulose to 17. December 1830 in Santa Marta, Colombia. It is buried in Caracas 
Bolívars central political guidelines were the political independence of Latin America opposite Europe and the USA, progressive social conceptions as well as the Panamerikanismus. Its more accordingly, on which first Panamerikani conference in Panamá plan of a Konföderation of all Latin American states spoken of 1826 did not leave itself however to carry out. Only for some few months of the yearly1826 was both Neugranada - large Colombia (Colombia with Panama as well as Venezuela and Ecuador) and Peru and Bolivia under Bolivars presidency unite, before it left and in the north was fallen the south to an independent deputy and finally also Neugranada Grosskolumbien 1830broke apart.
The political influence Bolívars has a lasting effect however until today, an example of its current meaning is the Bolivarismus practiced by Hugo Chávez since 1999 in Venezuela. Within its frameworks 2005 with Cuba became the Alternativa Bolivariana paraAméricas ( ALBA) read based. This organization has the economic union of the Latin American states without a dominating role of the USA to the goal. She understands herself thus as an alternative to the totalAmerican FTAA, which particularly of the USA and Canada one prefers.
In South America there is a number of localities and cities, which carry Bolívars name. The State of Bolivia carries the names of the liberty hero and Venezuela calls itself officially Bolivariani Republic of Venezuela, also the currency of the country Bolívar is called. After it is also to 19. March 1911 of max wolf in Heidelberg discovered Asteroid (712) Boliviana designated.
- Gabriel García Márquez: The general in its labyrinth, historical novel, Cologne, Kiepenheuer & Witsch,2001, (KiWi; 657), ISBN 3-462-03057-4
- Ingrid Beutler Tackenberg: Gabriel García Márquez and Símon Bolívar in the labyrinth of history. The political dimension of the historical novel “El general EN CSU mentioned above laberinto”. Berlin, log OS publishing house, 2000, ISBN 3-89722-504-2
- Salvador de Madariaga: Simón Bolívar. Zurich, Manesse Verl., 1986, ISBN 3-7175-8067-1
- Bill Boyd: Bolivar, Liberator OF A Continent, at Historical Novel, Sterling, Virginia 20166, Capital Books, Inc., 1999, ISBN 1-892123-16-9
Web on the left of
|Wikiquote: Simón Bolívar - quotations|
- the Universidad SimónBolívar
- El Discurso de Angostura (independence speech; on Spanish)
- Última proclama del Libertador (parting proclamation; on Spanish)
|ALTERNATIVE NAME||Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar Palacios y Blanco; “El padre de la Patria”|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||independence fighter|
|DATE OF BIRTH||24. July 1783|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Caracas, Neugranada|
|DYING DATE||17. December 1830|
|DYING PLACE||Santa Marta, Colombia|