Simbabwe

Republic of OF Zimbabwe
Republic of Simbabwe
Flagge von Simbabwe Wappen von Simbabwe
(detail) (detail)

Wahlspruch: Unity, Freedom, Work
(English for: Unit, liberty, work)

office languages English, to be spoken predominantly Shona and Ndebele
capital Harare
system of government of diktatorisches Präsidialregime, nominal Republic of
president Robert Gabriel Mugabe
surface 390,759 km ²
number of inhabitants 12.671.860 (conditions July 2004)
population density of 32 inhabitants for each km ²
gros domestic product/inhabitant $1,045 (130.) Conditions: May 2005< /small>
Independence from Great Britain to 18. April 1980
currency 1 Simbabwe dollar = 100 cents, galloping inflation, approx. 104,000 Simbabwe dollar corresponds to a euro (conditions: 9. January 2006)
Time belt UTC +2
national anthem Kalibusiswe Ilizwe leZimbabwe
Kfz characteristics ZW
Internet TLD .zw
preselection +263
Lage von Simbabwe in Afrika
Karte von Simbabwe

the Republic of Simbabwe [zɪmˈbapvə] (English: Zimbabwe [zɪmˈbɑːbwɪ]; translated: „large house from stone “in the language of the Shona), the former Rhodesien and/or Südrhodesien, is a state in the southern Africa. The name Simbabwe decreases/goes back to a historical realm on the today's national territory, the word Rhodesien led itself from the name of the colonialists Cecil Rhodes ago. National holiday is the 18. April.

Table of contents

30° east are appropriate

for 11

Web on the left of [work on] geography Simbabwe and are completely enclosed by the land masses of South Africa ( 225 km), Botswanas ( 831 km), Zambia ( 797 km) and Mozambique ( 1231 km) with 20° (altogether 3066 km). The Sambesi formsthe northern border to Zambia. Simbabwe has a surface of 409.542 km ² about which 3,910 km ² water is.

Simbabwe also moderated a subtropical to tropical climate, in higher situations. The rain time is from November to March.

The highest mountain Simbabwesis the Inyangangani.

population

the largest part of the population is placed by the Shona (approx. 80 %). Besides still the Ndebele plays an important role. Since that 19. Century moved white dealers and Farmer from Europe and South Africa , those around the center 20. Century scarcely 5% of the population placed. But already soon their number decreased/went back first relatively, then however soon also absolutely strongly. There this subpopulation an important, however not undisputed rolein the economic life, led their drift played for the 1980er years to the aggravation of the economic problems once for African conditions rich of country. Beyond that there is also a subpopulation, those come out from connections of Europeans with the native black populationis and a small minority coming from the Indian Subkontinent.

The once strong population growth was stopped since the turn of the century due to the extreme economic difficulties of the country and that AIDS - epidemic disease practically. In all most recent time (2005) it seemsto come even to a decrease in population, whereby also drift plays a role. Simbabwe is one of the countries with the world-wide highest HIV Infektionsrate - between 24 and 35 per cent of the 12.7 million inhabitant are HIV positive. In no country in the world is the life expectancy within so short time in such a manner dramatically decreased/gone back: in less than one decade around twenty years - of 55 to 35 years. On the human development index of the yearly 2004 slipped Simbabwe meanwhile to place 147 (of 177compared countries).

In the year 2000 Simbabwe with 10% had the lowest Analphabetismusrate in Africa, even still before South Africa.

The life expectancy belongs to the world-wide lowest (conditions 2006).

politics

Simbabwe are actual since 1965 (white settler revoltagainst Great Britain, “Rhodesia “), legally as” Zimbabwe “since 1980 independently and is today state-legally a Präsidialrepublik, at whose point since 1980 Robert Mugabe stands.

administration

Province surface in km ² inhabitants altogether inhabitants everkm ²
Manicaland 36459 km ² 1,566,889 43
Mashonaland cent ral 28437 km ² 998,265 35
Mashonaland East 32 230km ² 1,125,355 35
Mashonaland west 57,441 km ² 1,222,583 21
Masvingo 56,566 km ² 1,318,705 23
Matabeleland North 75,025 km ² 701,359 9
Matabeleland South 54,172 km ² 654,879 12
of avoiding country 49 166km ² 1,466,331 30
Bulawayo 479 km ² 676,787 1 413
Harare 872 km ² 1,903,510 2 183


see also: List of the cities in Simbabwe

history

major item: History of Simbabwe

recent history

the government Simbabwes is confronted with a large number of economic problems to attribute those to the predominant part to a completely missed policyis. Thus since 2000 white farmers are systematically expropriated and partly even murdered. Trip for this politics was the effort of the government to prevent oppositional currents in principle and to cement the political claim to sole representation - also with means of the force -.As one of the first target groups of the political opposition - mostly with white farmers employees - the farm workers were identified. As the Farmer was expropriated and the workers were driven in unemployment and pauperization, the government knew its direct influence upthe Landbevölkerung again strengthen and the workers (political) the influence of the white ones extract. Since the opposition, which united in the meantime in the party MDC (Movement for Democratic CHANGE), nevertheless at popularity continued to win, the government under Robert Mugabe hasa consistent dictatorship establishes. Thus law and media were dramatically limited coordinated, freedom of reunion and opinion and established - under the eyes of European Union, the USA and the neighbour states - a perfides terror regime against politically other-thinking one. According to estimate of the few certified independentChoice observers were consequently both the results of the last two parliamentary elections and those the presidency election 2002 to substantial extent falsified. This still led in the same year to suspending Simbabwes from the Commonwealth.

economics

The conditions for the once prosperierende economy worsened general due to the diktatorischen political surrounding field substantially. Thus the alleged Landreform fell the agrarian sector into a heavy crisis. In particular the cultivation of tobacco, important for the export, is dramaticdecreased/gone back. In addition, tourism and almost all Subsektoren of the processing industry had to accept substantial turnover losses. Unemployment becomes on about. 80% estimated.

With the alleged target to drain the ausufernden black market the government seized 2005 drastic measures in May/June, byin the context of the action with the zynischen designation “action refuse disposal” roughly 750,000 humans and their often only source of income, activities in the context of the informal sector became shelterless, to give up had. Besides their dwellings were destroyed and seized it (often more completely) possession. Actuallyit concerned to the Mugabe regime with this also from the UN condemned measures however a purposeful attenuation of the opposition, which has its voters in particular in the cities. Thus these “are punished” not only for their support of the MDC but alsoforced, - to pull so far this at all possible actual back into the rural areas of the country controlled by the government. From the poverty quarters of the cities, in which the black market flourished, humans were driven out, afterwards their dwellings were destroyed.

Over itoutside the war entangling with the democratic republic the Congo of the economy several hundred million extracted from urgently necessary euro. The inflation with an annual growth rate of 32% in the year 1998 increased in the year 1999 on 101%. 2003 laythe inflation with 600%. The resource besides due to the loss of the workers by AIDS is weakened. Simbabwe has the highest infection rate of the world, which represents one of the Hauptprobleme of the country.

Both the lack of foreign exchange and the differencebetween the official exchange rate and the unofficial (officially 1 US Dollar to 6200 ZWD, on the black market one 20% to 30% higher course) led to the fuel shortage and lack at basic supply. In the year 2003 Libya supplied at Simbabwe fuel andreceived for it partly than exchange of Simbabwe land surfaces. Since Simbabwe could not keep the payments, the supplies were stopped.

between

1992 and 2000 the portion of the public expenditures for the health service

infrastructure

  • Airports
altogether: 404 (2005)
of it GET ore: 17 (2005)
of it longer than 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
,914 to 1,523 m: 8
of ituntarred: 387 (2005)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
,914 to 1,523 m: 186
under 914 m: 196
  • road system
altogether 97,440 km
of it GET ore: 18,514 km
of it untarred: 78:926 km
  • water ways
only on the Karibasee between the ports Binga and Kariba
  • To Eisenbahnnetz
see Railways OF Zimbabwe communication
  • telephone network
the telephone network national was once one the best in Africa. 100,000 connections wait at present for to be switched.
Fixed net: 317.000 (2004) connections
of mobile telephones: 423.600 (2004)
  • Internet
two international digital gateways, one inHarare, one in Gweru
of Internet host: 6,582 (2005)
computers on-line: 820.000 (2005)
  • sow elite down on the left of: 2

culture

to literature

environment

see major items of national parkin Simbabwe

acquaintance of national park in Simbabwe the Hwange national park, the Mana pool national park and the Victoria of case are national park.

see also

Wiktionary: Simbabwe - word origin, synonyms and translations

Web on the left of



coordinates: 16°-22° S, 25°-33° O

 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)