Singapore

Republic of OF Singapore (English)
新加坡共和国
Xīnjiāpō Gònghéguó (chin.)
Republic of Singapura (malai.)
சிங்கப்பூர்குடியரசு
Ciŋakappūr Kudiyarasu (Tamil)
Republic of Singapore
Nationalflagge von Singapur
(detail) (detail)
Wahlspruch: “Majulah Singapura”
times., “forward, Singapore”
office languages Malaiisch ¹, high-Chinese, Tamil, English
capital Singapore
system of government Republic of
head of state Sellapan Rama Nathan
head of the government Lee Hsien Loong
surface 682.7 km ² (175.)
Number of inhabitants 4.425.720 (conditions July 2005) (119.)
Population density of 6,384 inhabitants per km ² (2.)
Ethnical groups of Chinese: 76.8%, Malaiien: 13.9%, Indian: 7,9%, other one: 1.4% (censuses 2000)
independence 9. August 1965
currency Singapore dollar
time belt UTC + 8
national anthem Majulah Singapura
Kfz characteristic SGP
Internet TLD .sg
preselection +65
river 240 V ~50 cycles per second; British plug system (intl. Type G)
Portable radio standard GSM to 900MHz and 1800 MHz
television standard PAL
(1) Malaiisch is national language
Lage Singapurs auf der Erde
Singapur ist eine diamantförmige Insel südlich von Malaysia, die durch die Johorstraße vom Festland getrennt ist.

the Republic of Singapore (malaiisch Republic of Singapura, chin. 新加坡/新嘉坡 Xīnjiāpō, tamilisch: சிங்கப்பூர்குடியரசு) an island state is in Southeast Asia.

Table of contents

name origin

the name “Singapore” comes of the Sanskrit and sits down together from Singha (“lion”) and Pura (“city”), means thus lion city.

During the settlement in 7. /8. Century got thatprincipality at that time first the name Temasek (“city at the sea”). The legend reports that this was renamed however soon in “lion city”. Cause for it is to have been a feature in form of a lion-similar sea monster. “Merlion”, the landmark of the city state, has hereits origins.

geography

Klimadiagramm Singapur
climatic diagram Singapore
the small State of Singapore is appropriate for Malakka peninsula beyond the narrow Johorstrasse directly before the south end Hinterindi and the Malaii peninsula, also mentioned. There it is between Malaysia in the north and Indonesia in the south on a quite large Hauptinsel, 3 larger and about 50 small islands.

The city Singapore, which takes the majority of the island state, lies with the coordinates
coordinates: 1° 17 ' N, 103° 50 ' O
1° 17 ' N,103° 50 ' O on an island, which is connected in the north by a bridge with the city Johor Bahru and in the west by the Ayer Rajah Expressway with the mainland (Malaysia). The highest collection of the island state is also163,8 m of the Timah in the reservation Bukit Timah.

The climate is damp tropical. The temperature amounts to nearly over the whole year something over 28 degrees Celsius. In the months Octobers until February are the temperatures under the monsoon onlysomewhat lower than in the remaining year, with stronger precipitation.

Sometimes the island Sentosa is called the southernmost point of the asiatic mainland. This is somewhat disputed, since both Sentosa and Singapore are islands, however with dams and bridges alsoare connected for the mainland.

history

the first recordings of Singapore originate from Chinese texts of the 3. Century. The island served as an outguard of the Srivijaya resident on Sumatra - realm. Originally Singapore carried the javanischen name Temasek. After Temasekat first to an important commercial town ascended, lost it soon meaning. Thus it comes that except hardly a more something is received to few archaeological traces from that time.

Statue of Thomas Stamford Raffles of Thomas Woolner, builds to(assumed) point of landing. Raffles is recognized as a founder modern Singapore.

1819 created Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, agent of the British eastIndian commercial company, at the old commercial seat Singapore (“city of the lion”) the first address. The island was before only from 20and a refuge place for pirates populates malaiischen Fischer families.

1824 had taken in the company the entire island, which bought her from the Sultan of Johor for 60,000 dollar and an annuity of 24,000 dollar.

1867 became Singapore in the context of further territoriallyExpansions to the British crowning colony. Soon the meaning of Singapore grew as transshipment port due to its geographical location along the traffic-pregnant navigation ways between China and Europe. The number of inhabitants completely Singapore in the year 1881 amounted to 172.993.
Singapore toward end 19.Century

in the Second World War of Japan marched troops into Malaysia and encircled the island. The badly prepared British soldiers under Arthur Percival were struck despite their numerical superiority by the Japanese in the battle around Singapore and capitulated in February 1942. The Japanese designated Singapore in consequence in Syonan tons („light of the south “) over and held it up to the Japanese surrender in September 1945.

1945 were returned Singapore to the British, and 1959 became Singapore a governed crowning colony,which after of the People's Action party (PAP) won elections was governed 1959 of Lee Kuan Yew as first prime minister.

After a country-wide referendum 1962 Singapore became into a federation with Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak to dismiss and thusat the 1. September 1963 independently of Great Britain.

Shenton Way around 1970, which period, in which Singapore took an immense economic development under the guidance of Lee Kuan Yew.

In the autumn 1964 it came to substantial unrests between Chinese andnon-Chinese inhabitants. After violent ideological conflicts between of the PAP government placed and the federation government in Kuala Lumpur as well as because of fears on Malaysian side that unrests could expenditure-mature beyond the city, Singapore became to 7. August 1965impossible from the federation. Two days later, to 9. August 1965, was recognized of Singapore sovereignty as the first of Malaysia. Since that time this is the national holiday.

The recent and territorially limited nation had to fight for its economic independence and saw themselveswith problems such as mass unemployment, scarceness at dwelling, field and at raw materials (z. B. Oil) confronts.

During Lee Kuan Yews term of office as prime ministers from 1959 to 1990 became successfulthe mass unemployment fought, the standard of living increases and of Singapore resource strengthened. Asone of the four tiger states created Singapore within a generation the jump of the developing country to an industrial nation.

To 26. November 1990 took over Goh Chok Tong the office of the prime minister. Under its government the country was busy with new problems: 1997 came an economic break-down with the Southeast Asia crisis, 2003 absorbed SARS the economic development, in addition came the threat of terror by the Jemaah Islamiah (JI).

To 12. August 2004 became Lee Hsien Loong, the oldest son of Lee Kuan Yew, in still from the PAP dominated parliament to the third prime minister of Singapore selected.

Until today there are disputes with Malaysia, under it:

  • Controversy over the water supply and the accounting of the developed costs. Water is supplied from Malaysia andfrom Singapore prepares. By skillful negotiations Singapore could sell the prepared water for a higher price at Malaysia, than it had to pay for the fresh water at Malaysia. Singapore is urgently dependent on water imported goods.
  • Controversy over the possession thatIsland Pedra Branca (Portuguese) /Pulau Batu Putih (malaiischer name), as well as the islands Middle of skirt and South Ledge. A clarifying before the international Court of Justice is aimed at.
  • (Bordering) disputes over of Singapore land reclamation, bridge construction and sea-borders.

politics

Singapore are a parliamentary republic after the Westminster system similarly Great Britain. The head of state is a president, who with veto - rights within some key ranges is equipped and which highest judge designates.

Parliament

the legislation is the parliament, and the executive becomes by that Cabinet in an educated manner, which is led by the prime minister as government head.

The policy of Singapore was dominated since independence 1965 of the People's Action party (PAP). Singapore is arranged of critics therefore partly also as a party state, and the PAP becomes partial rigideActions against the opposition parties accused. The PAP is to partly influence manipulating or to create by civil complaints (slandering) unpleasant opponents from the way. Also the strict Mehrheitswahlrecht carries dominant factors for the position of the PAP with (obligation to vote).

Likewisestate critics that of Singapore would stand courts on sides of the government, even if some procedures were won by the opposition. Western democracies regard of Singapore system of government therefore sometimes the authoritarianism more near as a democracy in the western sense.

Despite these reproaches hasSingapore what many call a very successful and transparent free-market economy. The policy of the PAP contains socialist aspects, like z. B. a large-scale public dwelling program, and a dominance of national enterprises in the local economy. The PAP knows western democratic valuescontinuous back. The former prime minister Lee Kuan Yew quoted the Inkompatibilitäten of western democracies with “asiatic values” in this connection. In recent past the PAP loosened some parts of its socially conservative policy and supports business attitudes.

Interaction out konfuzianisch more oriented,national-publicly communicated ethics, strict laws, a high degree at monitoring, small corruption and high transparency a society let develop, which has one of the lowest criminality rates of the world.

March station Dover

infrastructure

due to the British colonial past prevailsLeft-hand traffic. 2 land connections with Malaysia exist. The Causeway in the north, open into the 1920er years, connects Woodlands (Singapore) with Johor Bahru (Malaysia) for motor vehicles and course. In addition it is the highway circuit for the water supply of Singapore. A second bridge existsin the west of Singapore, which 1996 were finished. It connects Tuas (Singapore) with succeeded to Patah (Malaysia).

There were considerations to up-fill up the channel, which separates Singapore from Malaysia, and to connect so the island with the mainland. This plan became however due togiven up by border problems. Singapore would have carried the main costs, insisted Malaysia however on the retention of the today's fixing of the boundaries in the center of the channel.

Light rapidly transit course

Singapore has a well developed underground - net, called March (measure rapidly transit) operated ofthe SMRT Corp and Sbs transit.

In the east of the city state is the international airport, which is approached by 64 international airlines. The Changi air haven consists at present of two terminals. A third terminal is until 2008 inBuilding. A connection of the terminals is guaranteed with an a rail course. In terminal 2 is the March stop, with which one comes low-priced into the city center.

It exists the moreover one a single-railed railway connection (not-electrified) with Malaysia, claimant of the KTM (KeretapiTanah Melayu). The main station of Singapore is in the southern part of the island. The entire railway plant is exterritorial, D. h. Property of Malaysia. Therefore one passes the malaiische border control briefly before entering the course and enters to Malaysia, leaves howeveronly with reaching the Singaporean border control at the Causeway the city state. The travel duration from Singapore Hbf after Kuala Lumpur Sentral amounts to approx. 7 hours, the average course speed of 40-60 km/h. Malaysia had the intention of extending this connection to two tracks as well asto electrify, so that express trains can drive on it. The new malaiische Prime Minister stopped these plans only once.

The suburban traffic bus system is excellent. There is no firm timetable, but it becomes at the stops the average clock rate (z. B. 10 minutes),when the next bus drives past, indicated. The stops stand in the distance of few hundred meters apart. They are only if necessary started, D. h. a signal (hand movement downward) must be given to the bus driver from the road.

ThoseConcert-resounds at Singapore River: The Esplanade

it gives air-conditioned like also still not-air-conditioned penalty, these is slightly more favorable in the price of transportation. Payment by cash does not have to be suitable, it change is given change. The payment with the EZ-left-map is very comfortable.

Taxis are far common and extremely favorable. However it comes to strong bottlenecks during the Rush Hour, Saturday and with rains.

The possession of a private-car is very expensive (a simple small car costs, including all fees, approx. 150% more than upthe European market), so that only wealthy Singapurer possesses one. Regularly the national country transport Authority (airworthiness directive) decides on the distribution of licenses, which in a Bieterverfahren climbing ore to become to be able. This is an effective instrument, by the number of passenger carto limit in Singapore. A license has a validity of ten years and is bound to the Kfz.

One to 17. February 1974 open aerial ropeway (Cablecar) connects the tourist island Sentosa in the south with Mount Faber on the Hauptinsel.A stopover is on the Harbour front Centre (the former World trade center) in the port of the city. It is daily from 8:30 to 21:00 clock in enterprise.

The port of Singapore is one the geschäftigsten of the world and rankedin second place of the places of transshipment for containers, most meaning world-wide.

economics

characteristic data

GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (2001): 71,37 billion euro, of it 32% industry and 68% services

gros domestic product/head (2001): 17,277 euro

persons employed (2004): Agriculture nearly 0%, industry 32.6%, services 67.4%

unemployment (2004): 3.4%

foreign trade (2002, provisionally): 208.3 billion SGD (123.17 billion Euro) import and 223.9 billion SGD (132.39 billion Euro) export

general

Singapore ranks among at the strongest deregulierten and national economies of the world denationalized. A large exception forms the strongly adjusted housing market, which has a nearly socialist character. Singapore is anxious to become a biotechnological center in Asia. The A*STAR, the Agency for Science, Technology and Research, a government authority,supports research capacities in Singapore. In the again-created Biopolis ([1]) are settled private and national institutes, Biotech and Pharmaunternehmen.

Singapore has great importance as international Finanzplatz and also in the trade: the port is one of the most modern and largest places of transshipmentthe world.

Rate of exchange: 1 EUR = 1.97 SGD/1 SGD = 0.51 EUR (of 01/2006)

hotel

the best hotels in Singapore is the Raffles hotel ****** with 103 rooms, the Conrad Centennial hotel ***** with 509 rooms and the Oriental Singapore ***** also524 rooms. The largest hotels against it are the Shangri La hotel ***** with 780 rooms, the Orchard hotel **** with 672 rooms and the Marina Mandarin Singapore with 575 rooms. In Singapore all large hotel chains reside, like Hilton, Sheraton, Hyatt,Shangri La and Mandarin Oriental.

between

1992 and 2000 the portion of the public expenditures for the health service

culture

Chinese church
the fat bird,a well-known sculpture in Singapore

in Singapore the following religions are represented: Buddhismus, Taoismus, Islam, Hinduismus, Christianity, Judentum, Sikhs.

there

are holidays in Singapore eleven holidays, from those three laily andthe remaining culturally, religious or are ethnical.

the Islamic holidays after a moon calendar determine themselves there, give it in each case every 32-33 years a holiday in the yeardoubles. But Hari Raya Puasa can coincide with the Chinese New Year celebration.

The Chinese New Year holidays determine themselves according to the Chinese calendar. Hari Raya Puasa is on the first day of the tenth monthly in the Islamic calendar, Hari Raya Haji on tenthDay of the twelfth monthly. The Vesak day takes place at the first full moon in May, Deepavali on the last day of the monthly Asvina after the Indian calendar.

Universities of

Singapore has three national universities:

  • The Nanyang Technological University (NTU)is in the extreme west of the Hauptinsel of Singapore in Jurong, about 25 km outside of the city centre. The university became at the 1. July 1991 by vote of parliament based. It came out from the former Nanyang Technological of institutes (NTI), that in August1981 were created. The university is attainable over March to Boon Lay (last stop), from there out drives two Buslinien directly to the Campus of the NTU. To the NTU that is national attached institutes OF Education (NEVER). There the teachers becomefor the High Schools of Singapore trained.
  • National the University OF Singapore (NUS) is about 12 km outside of the city centre in Kent Ridge.
  • The newest University of, Singapore management University (SMU), has its new town center Campus in Bras in the summer 2005Basah, March stop Dhoby Ghaut, referred.

Beside the national universities there is a whole row more privately, to a majority of also foreign universities and educational facilities, as for instance the French INSEAD.

tourist attractions

of housings in Singapore
Merlion mit Skyline von Singapur im Hintergrund
Merlion with Skyline of Singaporein the background
Singapore river from the bird perspective
Esplanade

for tourists is predominantly Singapore a stop Over goal, at which on the average 3.67 days one stays. This city nevertheless offers numerous attractions, which one can visit:

  • Jurong Bird park, a bird park with partially. enormous Volieren
  • that1883 created, 165 hectars large Bukit Timah Natural Resort, a nearly primary piece of jungle (coastal mountain Dipterocarpus - forest) with the highest collection of the island state
  • Mohamed Sultan Road, one for its night life well-known road
  • Geylang District, the only red light quarter of Singapore,in that legally the prostitution to be followed zoo
  • and Night safari
  • of the 1822 know of Sir Stamford Raffles created Botani garden with Orchideensammlung west the Orchard Road,
  • the Financial District
  • Boat Quay and Clarke Quay at Singapore River
  • Singapore kindMuseum
  • Singapore Science center
  • Sentosa, a leisure island, among other things an accessible aquarium worth seeing with many large fish
  • Arab Street
  • Chinatown
  • The Raffles hotel and Raffles town center
  • Suntec town center
  • of the East Coast park with its very recommendable Foodcourts
  • shopping centres to the OrchardRoad, are above all considerable:
    • Ngee Ann town center (Orchard Road 391A)
    • The armies
    • Paragon
    • Wisma Atria
    • Cathay Cine Leisure
    • Apple Centre Orchard (545 Orchard Road)
    • the basement of the Lucky Plaza at the Orchard corner Scott Road for cameras, clocks andDipping accessories (latter also in The Concourse Shopping Mall).
  • Sim Lim Square - a sechsstöckiges shopping centre in close proximity to Little India, with several hundred small electronics and PC dealers
  • the relatively new Funan The IT Mall, 109 North Bridge Road, alsoextensive offers to photo and electronics articles.
  • Mustafa Centre - a 24/7 department store with supermarket in Little India (145 Syed Alwi Road)
  • Lau Pa sows festival Market lies between Robinson Road and Raffles Quay in the heart of the business quarter. The former market hallsare converted to a Foodcourt. There one can satisfy 365 days in the year 24 hours long its hunger. During the day for small prices over 100 conditions specialities offer local. Starting from 19.00 o'clock to deep into the night becomes additionally oneRoad closed and approx. a dozen of conditions mostly Muslim dealer sells on charcoal grilled mirror-image-eats marinierten meat, the speciality Satay.
  • Little India the close Serangoon Road with Little India kind Belt as well as in the proximity of Kampong Glam, thatMalaii quarters
  • of landmarks of Singapore are the Merlion and the Esplanade, one 2002 open cultural center in form of a stinking fruit, therefore in Singapore better admit under the name Durian.
  • The island Pulau Ubin the Hauptinsel of Singapore is northwest inContrast to remaining Singapore still almost completely vacant and nature-leave. The small island is visited frequently by native ones for week final trips and bicycle routes into nature.
  • The lookout point Mount Faber of where out one a 360 degree view over Singapore has

sons and daughters of the city

legal

work on []

High measures of punishment

the laws are often very strict. An English proverb says, “Singapore is A “fine” town center” (“fine” has the meaning “beautifully”, in addition, “fine”).

examples of the high measure of punishment


  • the sales of chewing rubber was of1992 until May 2004 absolutely forbade. Reason for this was that young people with chewing rubber the sensors March - doors blocked, which entailed disturbances in the flow chart of the metro system. Meanwhile the sales is permitted by chewing rubber, however further strongly reduced.The buyer must present a physician prescription and its identity card. If the pharmacist misses it to note the names of the buyer a fine can be imposed by 3.000 SGD against it. Over the reasons for the abolition there are different opinions.Some sources mean, the abolition of the chewing rubber prohibition are the result of an investigation to be owed, which found out that the teeth of the Singapurer are rather bad because of the prohibition. More probable it is however that for effective anti-smoker campaigns also the sales of nicotine chewing rubbers makes possiblewill had. On pressure of Wrigley also different sugar-free was released and “to the health helpful” chewing rubber places.
  • High money and social work punishments (e.g. with a neon-bright waistcoat and the label “ORDER FOR corrective work” the beach clean) against persons are imposed, thoseGarbage (also cigarette dumps) eightless on the road throw.
  • Autopossession is subject likewise to restrictions. As measure of the government each potenzielle autobuyer must first an authorization (Certificate OF Entitlement, COE) ersteigern (costs around the 30,000 SGD of 10 years). In addition a car may maximally 10 years old its; afterwards it must be scrapped or exported either.
  • Meals, drinking, smoking as well as the transport of dangerous goods in public traffic means are subject to high punishments (500 to 5,000 SGD).
  • The transport of the smell-intensive Durian fruits is likewise forbidden,however from a penalty clause one refrains.
  • Vandalismus and Graffiti can flog with the tubing stick to the consequence to have.
  • The import of tobacco goods is forbidden; thus the campaign against smoking is to be supported.
  • It prevails general prohibition of smoking in public buildings, publicMeans of transport and restaurant (exception: Bars and Discos) as well as in person's groups with more than 5 persons (z. B. Queues).
  • With entry from Malaysia there is no duty-free border for abroad acquired goods. With entry from Indonesia the duty-free borders are graduated, everafter that, how long one (24/48/72 hours) left Singapore.
  • With departure the fuel tank must be filled still at least to 75%. Background for this regulation is that in Malaysia the fuel price is only half so high.
  • It prevails onefor western conditions extremely censorship:
    • Some foreign newspapers and magazines, like the Asian Wall Street Journal and far the Eastern Economic Review, are reduced in their spreading. Newspapers from Malaysia are forbidden (in reverse in Malaysia).
    • Pornography is forbidden; the representation of Sex and nakedness is reduced, D. h. the Playboy and other “adult magazines”, like the Cosmopolitan of magazines, are forbidden. If Sex and nakedness are to be permitted, it must fit the context. Films, the nakedness, Sex or excessiveForce to contents, received normally the age release Mature 18 (M18) have.
    • The government shows however interest to up-soft these restrictions and therefore recently the age release M18 created, in order to make accessible for over 18-Jährige more adult materials. Remain howeverthe existing releases NC16 (“NO Children”) and R21 (“Restricted”) exist. To age releases in Singapore see also publication of the “Media development Authority”
    • the private property of satellite dishes is forbidden. International transmitters (like German wave, BBC, CNN etc.) can only overCable to be received.
    • Certain politically sensitive material is forbade
    • writings and media, which disturb a living together of the subpopulations and insult religious feelings, is forbidden.
  • The regulations for beta exercise means are very strict. Everyone, that with more than 15 g heroin,28 g Morphium or 500 g Cannabis one gets, must count on the death penalty. 400 humans were executed from 1991 to 2004 by the strand, mainly because of drug trade, - possession and - smuggling. In comparison to the population rate of the country this is thosehighest execution rate world-wide. The severity opposite drug smugglers ensures that in Singapore no drug syndicates are established. This is a particularly important goal for Singapore, since the city lies near the golden triangle.
  • Sexual practices, those of the government as “unnaturally”are regarded, and. A.Oralsex and homosexual Sex, are illegal.

measures of punishment in the year 2003

the Censorship Review Committee recommended efforts for loosening to that to waive the prohibition of the magazine Cosmopolitan of magazines. However the prohibition for that remainsPlayboy exist, since the Singaporean society is not yet ready for the generous photos.

In the last years the Singaporean government loosened some the strict laws. For example Bungee Jumping was legalisiert and the film censor was loosened. There are also indications thatthe government considers to loosen legal restrictions of the Sexualität to improve with the thought, the demographic situation. This applies in the rest of also to homosexual ones. In Singapore meanwhile likewise a small “scene” was established as in other large citiesSoutheast Asia. Not in the extents and openness as for instance in Bangkok, however just as proudly (as exterior indication with more blowing “rainbow flag “).

death penalty

as answer to a report of Amnesty internationally has the SingaporeanGovernment in January 2004 an overview publishes, in which the number of executions of the last 5 years is represented [2]. The execution takes place via Erhängen. Relatively based on the number of the inhabitants Singapore has one of the highest execution ratesthe world. Between 1990 and 2005 about 420 humans were hung. Projected on Germany about 8,000 humans would have to be executed, in the USA 28,000 in the same period (actually: 884).

literature

  • Bonn internationally centers for Conversion (BICC) (Hrsg.): Landhaven-guesses/advises Singapore (on-line)

Web on the left of

Commons: Singapore - pictures, videos and/or audio files
Wiktionary: Singapore - word origin, synonyms and translations
 

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