Sicily

(see also: Portal: Sicily)

Sicilia (Sicily)
flag Siziliens with Triskele
base data
capital: Palermo
arrangement: 9 provinces
surface: 25,709 km ²
inhabitants: 5.015.943 (30. June 2005)
Population density: 195 inhabitants for each km ²
Website: www.regione.sicilia.it
ISO 3166-2: IT-82
president: Salvatore Cuffaro
map
Karte der Provinzen Siziliens
satellite photograph
NASA-Satellitenbild: Geographie Siziliens 2002 (mit Rauch, der vom Ätna aus nach Osten treibt)

Sicily (ital. Sicilia, in former times Trinakria) is the largest island in the Mediterranean. It is an autonomous region of Italy and lies southwest before „the boot point “of the Italian mainland.

Table of contents

traffic 6 history 7

literature 8 Web on the left of [it works on] region ² and approximately 5 million inhabitant, with which itsomewhat is more closely settled than average Italy.

The island forms now with it pre-aged the smaller islands the region Sicily, whose capital is Palermo (686,722 Ew.). Further important cities are Catania (313,110 Ew.), Messina (252,026 Ew.), Syrakus (123,657 Ew.), Gela (72,774 Ew.), Trapani (68,346 Ew.), Caltanissetta (61,438 Ew.), Agrigent (59,056 Ew.), the rising up USA (68,956 Ew.), Marsala (50,000 Ew.) and Enna (28,983 Ew.).

Politically the region is subdivided in nine provinces: Agrigent, Caltanissetta, Catania, Enna, Messina, Palermo, the rising up USA, Siracusa and Trapani.

geography

Sicily is an island with a triangular form, to which it owes its antique name Trinakria. Before their approximately in east west direction that is appropriate for running north coast Tyrrheni sea, before the east coast the Ioni sea. Between the south coast (or better southwest coast, there it diagonally runs) and the Tunisian coast the road of Sicilies lies (ital. Stretto di Sicilia). Is from the Italian mainland Sicily throughthe road of Messina (ital. Stretto di Messina) separately, a strait, which is broad in the narrowest place about 3 km.

Before the north coast the äolischen or liparischen islands ( Isole Eolie) lie, in the northwest the island Ustica. ThoseWest point is gesäumt by the ägadischen islands (Isole Egadi), during itself between the south coast Siziliens and the Tunisian coast the island Pantelleria and the pelagischen islands (Isole Pelagie) to find.

In the north and the east the country rises steeply from the seaup, there are sand beaches in the numerous bays, which interrupt the rock coasts. Southward the country drops flat, here gives it larger flat of sand beaches.

Sicily is altogether very hilly, more even areas gives it only in the south. In the northcontinues the Monti Peloritani, the Monti Nebrodi and the Monti Madonie the mountain chain of the Apennin . In the southeast the Monti Iblei rises, in the interior the Monti Erei and the Monti Sicani.

The highest mountain Siziliens is the Ätna (3,345 m), the largest and most active volcano of Europe. Weiterere active volcanos are Stromboli and Vulcano on the islands of the same name, which belong to the Inselgruppe of the liparischen islands.

The rivers Siziliens are not very long. The longest is thatSimeto at 113 km. It rises in the Monti Nebrodi and flows south of Catania into the Ioni sea. It follows at 77 km of the Belice in the west of the island. The Alcantara is admits because of its ravines, which it throughthe lava of the Ätna dug.

mediterranes climate,

with warm spring and autumn, has climate and vegetation Sicily hot summer and mild winter. There are regionally strong fluctuations. From June to Septembers it rains very rarely.November is the heaviest-rainfall month. The temperatures at the coast are moderate as in the interior. In January the middle temperature 11 amounts to °C, in July is it 27 °C. In the summer it can by hoist (Scirocco) outthe south to temperatures of up to over 40 °C come. Despite the warmth there are winter sports areas on Sicilies, for example at the Ätna.

The vegetation on Sicilies is subtropically, partly prospers even tropical plants like for example Gummibäume orBananas. Frequently to find are Olivenbäume, which play like generally speaking Mediterranean area also on Sicilies a large role in the economy. In addition Zitrusbäume are cultivated. The natural vegetation is already destroyed for centuries to a large extent by Rodungen and in their placenow if the Macchia stepped, a low Gestrüppvegetation, which predominantly from small, at the most 2 meters high, thorn-reinforced, evergreen plants exists.

population

the population majority Siziliens speaks the Sicilian variant of the Italian, which often as own languageone regards. The majority of the population belongs to the Roman-catholic church . About two million Sicilian live abroad.

Besides there are some places with Albanian stämmiger population, who calls itself Arbëresh.

Famous Sicilians are and. A. Archimedes, Vincenzo Bellini, Leonardo Sciascia, Andrea Camilleri, Giovanni Falcone, Paolo Borsellino, Giuseppe Tornatore and Salvatore Schillaci. Further well-known persons Siziliens are specified in the list of well-known persons Siziliens.

economics, traffic

main source of income of the Sicilians is thattertiary sector. For this also the tourism contributes . Besides the warm climate offers favorable conditions for the agriculture, which plays a stronger role than in north Italy. The industrielle sector is however of comparatively small importance.

In the hilly, water-poor interior becomes extensive agriculture in the form of pastoral industry, wheat and cultivation of bean operated. At the coast can be cultivated by there the better ensured irrigation Zitrusfrüchte , common grape vines , almonds , olives and even cotton, so that the production of wine and olive oila further important industry Siziliens is.

Coastal and Hochseefischerei claimant from Sicilies, which particularly foresaw it on Thunfisch and anchovies, constitute a quarter of the entire Italian fishery.

Beside these branches of the primary sector of the economy it givesin addition, petrochemical industries in the east of the islands, in close proximity to Catania, Syrakus, the rising up USA and Gela. In Catania are besides some high technology enterprises represented, as outriders and a largest representative the electronics company STMicroelectronics, the 4,600 coworkers inResearch and production employ. Besides is also the promotion of stone - and potash salts as well as of marble in Sicilies spreads. The once important sulfur mining industry (at the beginning 20. Century was the island as world monopolist) is as good into that 1980er years completely been stopped.

Sicily is at present connected with the mainland by ferries. After discussion for many decades a bridge is to make a land connection to the Italian peninsula over the road of Messina (IL Ponte sullo stretto). It becomeswith 3300 m length the up to then longest suspension bridge of the world become. It is appropriate for 140.000 vehicles on six driving strips and 200 courses for two tracks per day. The project is because of earthquake danger, influencing control of the mafia and effectson the environment disputed.

At present Sicily under several structure problems suffers like e.g. high unemployment, corruption, traffic infrastructure lacking, environmental damage, water scarceness, internationally active Verbrechertum (mafia, Cosa Nostra).

history

here is only more brieflyÜberblick über die Geschichte Siziliens gegeben werden, eine ausführlichere Darstellung bietet der ArtikelGeschichte Siziliens.

Sicily looks in its last three millenia, which are historically comprehensible, on a very changeful history back. Already in before-historical time the inhabitants becamefrom always new immigrants displaces. Only short time was Sicily politically in each case independently, usually it by other peoples was controlled.

Around the year 1000 v. Chr. around Sicily was mainly settled of three peoples, the Sikanern, the Sikulern and the Elymern. It followed starting from approximately 750 v. Chr. one period of the Kolonialisierung by Phöniker, Greeks and Karthager and/or. Punier, which established their settlements primarily at the coast. In this time Sicily was as part of large Greeceparticularly coined/shaped by the culture of Greek settlers.

During the first Puni war Sicily became the first province of the Roman realm. After the fall of the west realm Sicily was controlled first by the Vandalen and Ostgoten and came then to Byzantine realm. In 9. Jh. it was conquered by the Arabs.

A bloom time experienced Sicilies, after it had been conquered by the Normannen and its own kingdom became. The symbiosis from Byzantine, Arab and normannischen Taditionen brought manyimportant works of art out. Also under pilotfar from, which followed after the Normannenkönige, this bloom still persisted.

Afterwards Sicily turned out again under control of foreign powers. Aragon, Spain, Savoyen and Austria followed each other. Under the Spanish Bourbonen developed the kingdom of both Sicilies, which covered Sicilies and Unteritalien, whose capital was however Neapel.

With the combination of Italy, which began with Garibaldis invasion in Sicilies, also Sicily came 1861 to the new Kingdom of Italy. Also today still belongsSicily politically to Italy. Since 1946 it has the status of an autonomous region with comprehensive rights of self-government.

literature

  • EH Gründel, Heinz Tomek: Sicily, DuMont book publishing house, Cologne, 5.Auflage 2001, ISBN 3-7701-3476-1
  • Brigit Carnabuci: Sicily - art travel guide, DuMont book publishing house, Cologne1998, ISBN 3-7701-4385-X
  • polyglot APA Guide Sicily, Langenscheidt kg, Berlin and Munich 2003, ISBN 3-8260-1919-5
  • Ralf Nestmeyer: “Sicilies. A literary landscape. “Island publishing house, Frankfurt/Main 2000. ISBN 3-458-34337-7

Web on the left of

Commons: Sicilia - pictures, videos and/or audio files
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