ski jumping are olympic kind of winter sports, with which the sportsmen on Skiern a Sprungschanze down-driven, at a ramp (digging table) jump off and as far as possible fly. Apart from the width also the flight attitude and landing are evaluated.
Ski-jump as solo sport one implements, is together withthe ski long run at the same time in addition, a part of the Nordi combination. Likewise crew jumping are held, in which for each country usually four Springer start. The result corresponds to the crew of the sum of the scores of four single Springer.
The ski jumping on particularly large digging (starting from one Point of construction of 145 meters, so-called. Flight-dig) ski flies is called.
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Like all modern nordischen kinds of ski haven also the ski jumping in Norway developed. The first larger annually delivered ski jump match took place starting from 1879 on the Husebybakken in Oslo . 1892 moved the competition on the Holmenkollen, which applies until today as Mekka of nordischen winter sports. Ski-jumpheard since the first winter plays 1924 to the olympic program.
the sportsmen drive when ski jumping on Skiern in a prepared snow-purely (and/or. in the summers ceramic(s) or metal-purely) the approach of the Sprungschanze down there. At the digging table, the ramp at the end of the Sprungschanze, those jumpSportsmen off and must show as far a jump with as good body attitude and a landing as possible. The theoretically attainable width by dig specified. As recognition of a “type of digging” the Hillsize serves - mark.
The placement calculated by the width of the jump and ofseveral Punktrichtern benotete flight, landing and driving out technology. The width is measured during the video width measurement over fixed images of a video camera. Over the fixed image a width line on the accurate landing point is faded in and so the width on 0,5 m is determined exactly. In case of failure the system stand width judgeready. The width note is calculated by the K-point digs and for the measured width. For a jump on the K-point 60 points of width (during flight digging 120) will assign exactly. With a smaller (and/or. larger) width the width difference (to the K-point) with the meter value dig multipliedand taken off from the 60 points (and/or. to the 60 points adds). The Punktrichter, normally five (at least however three), assign notes for the three categories which can be evaluated: Flight, landing and exit. By the ideal note 20 become in each error's group of 0 to 5 and/or. 7 (inthe group of exit) points in 0,5-er steps taken off. The highest one and the lowest one are painted by the five point values, so that Springer can receive maximally 60 points (attitude note). The sum of width note and attitude note results in the total note of the jump.
Example for the computation of the total note:(Dig: K90, meter value: 2.0 Punkte/m)
|96.5 m||73.0 points||0.5||,0.5||,0.5||,0.0||,0.5||56.0 points||129.0 points|
| ||18.5|| ||18.5||19.0|
W-note: <math> 60 +(96.5 - 90) * 2.0 = 73.0< /math>
H-note: <math> 18.5 + 18.5 + 19.0 = 56.0< /math>
G-note: <math> 73,0 + 56.0 = 129.0< /math>
The technology of the ski jumping changed itself clearly in the course of the decades. In the start time ski Springer ruderten during the jump with parallelSki attitude with the arms. Later one stretched the arms or kept her close at the body. The for the time being last technical revolution gave it to at the beginning of the 90's, as itself the flight style with V-shaped spread Skiern (V-style) in relation to the parallel style interspersed. The new style,for the first time of Sweden January Boklöv practiced, permits clearly further jumps due to the improved aerodynamics. Originally Boklöv for it had to accept high point departures for the flight technology, the substantially higher width permitted it however nevertheless to reach point placements. Later took over all Springer this technology. Alsowith the landing it applies to use a special style, the so-called Telemark. The Telemark, which was designated after the Norwegian region Telemark, because he was jumped there the first time, is a kind Ausfallschritt, with which the rear leg is clearly more deeply bent, as thatfront leg.
the improvements in technology, material and training conception led - as typical in the sport - to a rapid record development. The first statistically held width record of 1879 was with 23 M. To 1927 only Norwegian broke the width record, thenbroke Swiss Bruno Trojani with 72 m the world record. 1936 gave it the first jump over 100 m by the Austrian to Sepp Bradl (101 m) and 1967 was reached 150 m by the Norwegian Lars Grini. The first stood 200-m-Flug succeeded to tonuses Nieminen 1994, Andreas Goldberger reached this width already in former times, the jump was however officially not rated. The present world record is finally with 239 m, set up from Bjørn Einar Romøren to 20. March 2005 on today world-wide the largest ski-flight-digs in the Slovenian Planica. The unofficial world record becomesfrom Janne Ahonen with 240 m held, however fell these thereby and therefore counts these not officially.
ski jumping was for a long time a quite dangerous andis this very day a technically very fastidious kind of sport. Since besides the maintenance is quite expensive that digging and the expenditure for material and supplies for ski Springer, ski jumping is not kind of spreading haven. World-wide there are only few thousand active ski Springer.
The classical ski jump nations are beside Norway above all Finland, Germany,Austria, Tschechien and Slowenien. In Germany the centers of the ski jump haven are the Bavarian alps, the south Black Forest, the ore mountains and Thuringia; in addition the north Hessian Willingen comes, where one the largest Sprungschanzen Germany is. Among „the smaller “ski jump nations of Europe rank Switzerland, France, Italy, Polandand the Slowakei. Also in Sweden the ski jumping leads a niche existence surprisingly, and Estonia is rather a successful nation in the Nordi combination.
The Soviet Union placed at the latest from the 50's into the 70's some very successful ski Springer, but since the dissolution to thatUSSR those are badly waited and hardly bespringbar digging in their succession states, so that itself the conditions for Springer in Russia, white Russia, which represents Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Georgien as very difficult.
Since the three-fold victory on normaldig with the olympic winter plays 1972 counts also Japanto the large ski jump nations. In the past years besides some ski Springer made of South Korea connection found to the extended world point. In recent time also China strives around the structure of a crew.
In the USA and Canada there are some Sprungschanzen, but has itselfAmerican Springer in international competitions to rarely state can. The two Canadians refuge Bulau and Steve Collins represent an exception , which were extremely successful at the beginning of the 80's.
The probably only Skisprungschanze of the southern hemisphere is in Argentine San Carlos de Bariloche.
the best ski Springer participate in the ski jump Worldcup , from the FIS during the entire winter delivered series of approximately 30 meetings in nine countries above all north and Central Europe, in addition, in Japan and the USA. The most well-known individual Weltcup competition is that on the Norwegian Holmenkollen in Oslo. Some the Weltcup competitions take place on larger ski flight digging. Apart from the single competitions delivered team competitions take place also after nations. The interconnection of ski Springer in the Worldcup is determined by the FIS Punktesystem.
Since 1994 giveit also a shorter match series in the summer, the summer Grand Prix delivered on mat digging. Beside the Worldcup the FIS for new generation Springer offers still 2 further match series: the Continental Cup, in former times Interkontinentalcup, and the FIS Cup.
1998 the first own lady competition became in the context of the junior WMdelivered. Later developed from the first competitions after the WM since 1999 delivered FIS of the Ladies Grand Prix, in his 8. Edition 2006 of altogether 4 single competitions in Baiersbronn, beautiful forest in the Black Forest, Saalfelden and Breitenberg and a team jumping covers. This is since 2005 into the FIS Continental Cup (Ladies) merged, which covers altogether 12 competitions in the winter and 4 competitions in the summer.
|place||date||digs||digging record (year)|
|Colonel village||29. December||shade-mountain-digs||143.5 m (2003)|
|mixing part churches||1. January||large one Olympia-digs||129.5 m (2001)|
|Innsbruck||4. January||Bergiselschanze||134.5 m (2002)|
|bishop yards||6. January||Paul Ausserleitner digging||143.0 m (2005)|
since 1952 takes place annually over the turn of the year on four Sprungschanzen in Germany and Austria the four-digging tour. Their profit is considered itself as at least as prestigiously as a world champion title, there Springerin comparatively short time to four different digging profiles to adjust must.Sven Hannawald is the only Springer, which could win all four competitions of a tour. So far knew only Jens white-flew and Janne Ahonen four times the total victory to achieve. With the four-digging tour 2005/2006 Janne Ahonen could and Jakub Janda the four-digging tour win for the first time.
To an overview of the total winners see the list of the total winners of the four-digging tour.
the nordischen ski world championships for the first time in the context of the olympic winter plays of 1924 and find today every two years were delivered in each case inthe months January until March instead of. Ski-jumps was from the beginning one of the competition disciplines. Since 1962 give it apart from jumping normaldig also a single competition on largedig.
1978 in Lahti were delivered a still unofficial crew competition, 1982 in Oslo for the first time became thenfor the first time also medals in the crew competition delivered. 1984 besides in Engelberg a separate crew world championship was delivered. With the world championships 2001 and 2005 gave it beside the usual Teambewerb of largedig also one of normaldig, which Austria won both marks. The Mannschaftsbewerb of normaldigshowever no fixer a component of the program for Nordi world championships is, he must by the organizer with the FIS be requested. Thus with the next two world championships in Sapporo 2007 and Liberec 2009 presumably again only crew medals on largedig assigned.
„The fairings and the Germans, after they had kept the WM awarded, at the jump committee of the FIS angesucht whether it team-applies two deliver can. But it is not the rule “, confirmed FIS Renndirektor walter Hofer.
Apart from the nordischen ski world championships there is a ski flight world championship since 1972, since then in each straightYear is accomplished.
1924: Jacob Tullin Thams | 1925: Sake thick | 1926: Jacob Tullin Thams | 1927: Gates Edman | 1928: Alf Andersen one | 1929: Victory mouth Ruud | 1930: Gunnar Andersen one | 1931: Birger Ruud | 1932: Birger Ruud | 1933: Marcel Raymond | 1934: Kristian Johansson | 1935: Birger Ruud | 1936: Birger Ruud | 1937: Birger Ruud | 1938: Asbjørn Ruud | 1939: Josef Bradl | 1941: Paavo Vierto (unofficial) | 1948: Petter Hugsted | 1950: Hans Bjørnstad | 1952: Arnfinn miner | 1954: Matti Pietikäinen | 1956: Antti Hyvärinen | 1958: Juhani Kärkinen | 1960: Helmut Recknagel | 1962: Toralf Engan | 1964: Veikko Kankkonen | 1966: Bjørn Wirkola | 1968: Jiří Raška | 1970: Gari Napalkow | 1972: Yukio Kasaya |
1974: Hans George ash brook | 1976: Hans George ash brook | 1978: Matthias Buse | 1980: Anton Innauer | 1982: Armin Kogler | 1985: Jens white-flew | 1987: Jiří Parma | 1989: Jens white-flew | 1991: Heinz Kuttin | 1993: Masahiko Harada | 1995: Takanobu Okabe | 1997: Janne Ahonen | 1999: Kazuyoshi Funaki | 2001: Adam Małysz | 2003: Adam Małysz | 2005: Rok Benkovič
1962: Helmut Recknagel | 1964: Toralf Engan | 1966: Bjørn Wirkola | 1968: Vladimir Beloussow | 1970: Gari Napalkow | 1972: Wojciech Fortuna | 1974: Hans George ash brook | 1976: Karl Schnabl | 1978: Tapio Räisänen | 1980: Jouko Törmänen | 1982: Matti Nykänen | 1985: By Bergerud | 1987: Andreas's fields | 1989: Jari Puikkonen | 1991: Franci Petek | 1993: Espen Bredesen | 1995: Tommy Ingebrigtsen | 1997: Masahiko Harada | 1999: Martin Schmitt | 2001: Martin Schmitt | 2003: Adam Małysz | 2005: Janne Ahonen
since the first olympic winter plays 1924 is represented ski jumping in the competition disciplines. Since 1964 two single competitions are delivered,one on smalldigs and one on largedigs. Until 1988 the point of construction was normaldigs on 70 meters fixed, that largedigs on 90 meters. Since 1992 are the 90-Meter-Schanze normaldig, largedig has one point of construction of 120 meters. Since 1988 becomes besidesa Mannschaftspringen organizes.
1924: Jacob Tullin Thams | 1928: Alf Andersen one | 1932: Birger Ruud | 1936: Birger Ruud | 1948: Petter Hugsted | 1952: Arnfinn miner | 1956: Antti Hyvärinen | 1960: Helmut Recknagel | 1964: Veikko Kankkonen | 1968: Jiří Raška | 1972: Yukio Kasaya | 1976: Hans George ash brook | 1980: Anton Innauer | 1984: Jens white-flew | 1988: Matti Nykänen | 1992: Ernst Vettori | 1994: Espen Bredesen | 1998: Jani Soininen | 2002: Simon Ammann | 2006: Lars Bystøl
1964: Toralf Engan | 1968: Vladimir Beloussow | 1972: Wojciech Fortuna | 1976: Karl Schnabl | 1980: Jouko Törmänen | 1984: Matti Nykänen | 1988: Matti Nykänen | 1992: Tonuses Nieminen | 1994: Jens white-flew | 1998: Kazuyoshi Funaki | 2002: Simon Ammann | 2006: Thomas's morning star
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|Wiktionary: Ski-jump - word origin, synonyms and translations|