Skriptorium

monk in the Scriptorium

as Skriptorium one designates, usually the offices developing since late ancient times in monasteries, in which sakrale and partly also everyday texts are handwritten duplicated.

By the majority the Skriptorium was a firm component of a monastery, it gave in addition, isolates lay write workshops, however only in 14. /15. Century in their spreading increased, since the need increased in books.

Klosterskriptorien work particularly in the early Middle Ages almost exclusively for the need of the own institution. While in the antique one still public libraries exist, those are very reduced accessible to the Skriptorien attached mechanisms of the public either not at all or only.

The Skriptorien is characterized by a cross-setting of priesterlicher and lay exercise of power as well as the demand for rule purposes.

With the establishment of the printing with mobile type characters the culture of the Skriptorien almost completely replaced by the Typographeum.

To table of contents

of production steps

before the beginning of the preparation of a book determined the client the execution and arrangement of the book and places partially also the partial very precious expendables material (e.g. Gold, pigments, etc.) for the order.

The write reason was cut to the size of a double side and the monk began with lining the write reason and specified thereby the line height and the line borders. Subsequently, the monk began with the actual letter, whereby it omitted or only marked however the magnificent initial letters. In the case of extensive orders several writers worked parallel on different text paragraphs or the appropriate passage were loud dictated and by several monks noted, so that a multiplicity of copies developed.
If the main text was finished, the initial letters and other emphases of the Rubrikator were entered afterwards. The Aufmalen of Bordüren and the further Illumination of the side were then task of the Illustratoren. Writers and Rubrikator were often thereby the same person, while the combination was very many rarer writer Illustrator. In the majority it concerned with the Illustratoren specialized craftsmen.

The finished manuscripts are Unikate, those in the form of roles (in late ancient times) or Kodices (since that 5. Jh.) to be kept and in archives and libraries be kept. The Kodices was manufactured by the Buchbindern. Usually 4-5 double sides were combined into a situation and the individual situations to a book block were tied together. The protection cover consisted frequently of thin Holzbrettern, which were covered with leather.

write material

was written with the cut keels of bird feathers/springs, in particular goose keels, and different ink. To the most common ink belonged

The common write reasons were up to the end of the 11. Century papyrus. Papyrus was then replaced gradually by the Pergament, which was substantially more durable and also several times recordable. Toward end 14. Century became generally accepted then the paper .


see also


literature

  • Andreas butcher, Cistercian abbott and Skriptorium. Salem under Eberhard I. of tubing village (1191-1240); Diss. ; Wiesbaden (enriches) 2004 ISBN 3895003158
  • Andreas give, Kalligraphie - to lead the quiet art a feather/spring; Baden/Switzerland (RK-Vlg.) 1997 ISBN: 3855023751
  • Viktor Thiel, paper production and paper trade primarily into German landing from the oldest times to the beginning 19. Century. A draft; in: Archivali Zeitschr. 41, 3. Consequence 8 (1932), 106-151 (pdf)
  • Vera comfort, Skriptorium. The book production in the Middle Ages; Stuttgart (Belser) 1991 ISBN 3763012125
  • this., “who not write can, does not believe it is no work…” - To the book production in the Middle Ages; in: Mamoùn Fansa (Hg.), the Sassenspeyghel. Saxonia mirror - right - everyday life, Bd. 1; Oldenburg 1995
 

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