Slowakei

Slovenská republika
Slowaki Republic of
Nationalflagge der Slowakei Wappen der Slowakei
(detail) (detail)
office language Slowakisch
capital Bratislava (German also press castle)
president Ivan Gašparovič
Prime Minister Mikuláš Dzurinda
surface 49,035 km ²
number of inhabitants 2005 5.431.363
population density of 109 inhabitants per km ²
establishment 1. January 1993
currency Slowaki crown
time belt UTC +1
national anthem Nad Tatrou SA blýska
Kfz characteristic sports club
Internet TLD .sk
preselection +421
Lage der Slowakei in Europa

the Slowakei (slowakisch: Slovensko) is a state in Central Europe, which came out 1992/ 1993 from the division of Czechoslovakia. It borders on Austria, Tschechien, Poland, the Ukraine and Hungary. Since that 29. March 2004 is the Slowakei member of NATO. It belongs to 1 since that. May 2004 to the European union.

Table of contents

geography

Topografie

the Slowakei consists in the north and in the center of the mountains Tatry ( German Tatra) and Nízke Tatry belonging to the Karpaten (German: Low Tatra), Malá Fatra and Veľká Fatra, Slovenské rudohorie (German Slowaki ore mountains) and many different. Here the Slowakei offers particularly into the Tatra an alpine picture. In the south the country into the Hungarian lowlandses extends. The largest rivers of the Slowakei are Danube (at their middle section), Theiss (Tisa), Waag (Váh), March (Morava) and Gran (Hron). The highest collection is štít the Gerlachovský (Gerlsdorfer point) into the high Tatra with 2,655 meters.

See also: List of the cities in the Slowakei, list of the rivers in the Slowakei

population

in the country live about 5.43 million inhabitant. The total population had a process rather stagnating since independence. With an average age of 35.5 years the Slowakei belongs to the recent states of Europe.

Beside 85,8% Slowaken the population of the Slowakei consists of 9,7% Hungary, 1.7% Roma, 0.8% Czech, 0.4% Ruthenen and 0.2% Ukrainern (FAZ of 28. April 2004).


See also: Ethnical development of the Slowakei

history

major item: History of the Slowakei

the Celts (since that 5. Century v. Chr.) in the area of the today's Slowakei were replaced in the first after-Christian century from the Germanic Quaden. The Slowakei was then a Germanic area at the border of the Roman Imperiums (1. - 5. Century), on which numerous Roman quadische wars took place. Around 500 the slawischen ancestors of the today's Slowaken came. In 7. Century was the Slowakei part of the main area of the realm of the Samo, in 8. Century developed here the Neutraer principality, which became 833 a component of the main area Grossmährens. In the 11. Century became the Slowakei a component of the Kingdom of Hungary, which became since 1526 a component of the Austrian monarchy and 1867 a component of Austria Hungary. In 16. and 17. Century consisted the Kingdom of Hungary temporarily only of the today's Slowakei, because the remaining areas were occupied by the Osmanen (this concerns above all the today's Hungary).

1918 formed the Slowaken as well as the Czechs the Czechoslovakia, which covered also an area along the border to Hungary, in whom this very day a Hungarian majority lives (slowakische language islands remained simultaneous in Hungary). The Slowakei became for the first time 1939 to 1945 temporarily independently (actually a satellite state of large Germany). Afterwards it became again a component (since 1969 a partial republic) of Czechoslovakia.

After the collapse of the communist system federal Czechoslovakia had existence due to deviating interests of the two partial republics only for short time. In the first free elections the movement became generally accepted “public against force” (VPN) under Vladimír Mečiar . Mečiar became afterwards the first freely selected Prime Minister of the Slowakei. To 23. April 1991 it was set off from the parliament and replaced by Ján Čarnogurský (KDH). Mečiar left thereupon the VPN and created the “movement for a democratic Slowakei” (HZDS), which won the parliamentary elections in June 1992. In negotiations with the Czech partial republic both sides agreed on a division of the federation in two independent states to the 1. January 1993. The division took place by agreement and peacefully.

1994 were set off Mečiar because of disputes within its own party again from the parliament and by a government of the opposition parties under J. Moravčík replaces. 1994 however again Mečiars HZDS won the preferred new elections in the autumn. In the following years the Slowakei under Mečiar threatened to slip into the political isolation.

1998 won again Mečiars a party the new elections, there it however not in the situation were coalition partners for the government to be found, did not place the “Slowaki democratic coalition” (SDK) under Mikuláš Dzurinda the new government. This situation (Mečiar choice winner, Dzurinda head of the government) repeated itself with the following elections of 2002. Dzurindas coalition consisted Slowaki democratic and Christian union” (SDKÚ) however already with the elections of 2002 of other parties and carried the names “. The first Dzurinda government created it to bring the Slowakei back into the circle of the first EUROPEAN UNION and of the second NATO entry countries. 2000 began the negotiations of accession of European Union, at the 1. In the European Union membership flowed to May 2004.

In June 2006 take place into the Slowakei preferred new elections . It was necessarily left gradually, after Dzurindas government coalition had lost the majority in parliament, there it by the parties ANO (alliance of the new citizen) and KDH (Christian democratic movement). The KDH left the coalition at the beginning of of February 2006, since their request that the Slowakei with the Vatikan locks an international contract over (catholic) “conscience reservation” for citizens of the Slowakei, by Dzurinda was rejected.

Within the economic range meanwhile the economic growth exceeds all expectations, it is 2005 presumably at least 6% (without the production of large foreign investors would have already begun such as PSA, Kia) and 2006 6.5% to reach.


for the name of the country

the designation of the area of the Slowakei with their current name is since that 15. Century proven (Slováky) and since that 16. Century frequently occupies (Slavonia, Sclavonic, Slowakei/Slowakey). There the area of the today's Slowakei already since the end 5. Century is settled by Slawen, for starting from that the 9. Century the self designation Slověne is occupied (in modified form also still in the today's self designation the Slovák, which puts female form Slovenka and the adjective slovenský), is probably older the name Slowakei.

The part of the kingdom of Hungary above the Theiss and the Danube since that 18 designated the Hungary. Century unofficially as upper Hungary, the remainder of the country unofficially as “Niederungarn”. Of 16. up to 18. Century designated upper Hungary only the Ostslowakei as well as small adjacent areas of the today's north Hungary, which were not occupied by the Osmanen. Niederungarn designated above all the remaining Slowakei (west and Mittelslowakei), in addition, the remainder of the country.

Similar to the name forming Czech republic is to be observed (not only) in Germany that also of a Slowaki republic one speaks. This is however one material or politically not justified analogy formation, since there (in contrast to Tschechei/ Tschechien /Czech republic) is with “the Slowakei” a conventionally recognized national name.

politics

with to 17. and 18. 92.46% the Slowaken tuned May 2003 taken place referendum to the European Union entry for. The election turnout, already feared of the choice as crack point, was with 52,15% of the 4.2 million voters and made valid thereby the tuning. With the NATO extension to the East to 29. March 2004 became the Slowakei member of NATO. At the 1. May 2004 became it also member of the European Union.

With the first round of the Präsidentenwahl became at the 3. April 2004 as expected no candidate selected. At the first place the disputed former Prime Minister Vladimír Mečiar, surprisingly on second its former fellow combatant Ivan Gašparovič with 32,73%, landed which received 22.28% of the voices. According to inquiries the minister of foreign affairs Eduard Kukan at the second place should land, he received however only 22.09% and thus could not not in the ballot participate. The past president Rudolf shoemaker came only on 7,24%. In the ballot to 17. April 2004 became generally accepted then Gašparovič against Mečiar with approximately 60% of the voices. With the European choice 2004 the election turnout was with 16,66%.

administrative arrangement

major item: Administrative arrangement of the Slowakei

the Slowakei is divided into eight landscape federations (kraje “):


largest cities (conditions: 31. December 2004)

see also list of the cities in the Slowakei and list of traditional regions of the Slowakei

Karte der Slowakei

economics

major item: Economics of the Slowakei

the transformation from the flat to the free-market economy can be regarded 14 years after the case of communism and nearly one year after that to European Union - entry as finally. Macro-economic stability was reached, structural reforms far progressed, the banking is nearly completely in foreign hands and foreign investments increases.

The economic growth is at present the highest in Central Europe, the nominal wage level however the smallest in Central Europe. The economy is strongly export-oriented. Despite all these positive facts the Slowakei has still very high unemployment.

The current economic parameterses of the Slowakei are:

  • annual economic growth dec. 2004: 5.5%
  • unemployment March 2005: 17.5% as per. Slowaki office for statistics (sample) and/or. 12.7% as per. Labour office (“unemployment” evidierte)
  • of average wages (1. Quarter 2005): 16022 SKK = about 411 EUR (material increase in the comparison between years: 7.2%)
  • Rate of exchange: 1 SKK = about 1/37 EUR, tendency: Revaluation of the SKK
  • yearly inflation dec. 2004: 5.9%

under Ministers of Finance Ivan Mikloš was introduced 2004 the single tax (flat tax) with a uniform control item at a value of 19%. To 26. November 2005 joined the country the WKM II.

See also: Tourism into the Slowakei

of holidays

date German designation Slowaki designation notes
1. January (1993) day of the emergence of the Slowaki Republic of Deň vzniku Slovenskej republiky emergence of the independent Slowakei by the dissolution of Czechoslovakia
6. January Epiphanias (three-king celebration and Weihnachtsfeiertag of the orthodox Christians) Zjavenie Pána (Traja králi A vianočný sviatok pravoslávnych kresťanov) religious holiday
March, April Karfreitag Veľký piatok religious holiday
March, April Ostermontag Veľkonočný pond locomotive religious holiday
1. May (1886) day of the work Sviatok práce strike and mass demonstrations of workers in Chicago in the USA
8. May (1945) day of the victory over fascism Deň víťazstva nad fašizmom end of the Second World War; in former times to 9. May celebrated
5. July (863) holiday of the Hl. Kyrill and Method Sviatok svätého Cyrila A Metoda religious holiday; Arrival of the two Slawenapostel in the Grossmähri realm
29. August (1944) anniversary of the Slowaki national rebellion Výročie SNP rebellion of the Slowaken against Hitler Germany
1. September (1992) day of the condition of the Slowaki Republic of Deň Ústavy Slovenskej republiky Verabschiedung of the condition of the future independent Slowakei in Bratislava
15. September holiday of the hurting nut/mother, Patronin of the Slowakei Sviatok Panny Márie Sedembolestnej, patrónky Slovenska religious holiday; the Hl. Maria is a Patronin of the Slowakei
1. November all-holy Sviatok všetkých svätých religious holiday
17. November (1989/1939) day of the fight for liberty and democracy Deň boja za slobodu A demokraciu reminded of the student demonstrations against Hitler Germany of 1939 as well as particularly to the demonstration of 1989 in Prague, those the Samtene revolution in Czechoslovakia introduced
24. December Christmas eve Štedrý deň religious holiday
25. December 1. Weihnachtsfeiertag 1. sviatok vianočný religious holiday
26. December 2. Weihnachtsfeiertag 2. sviatok vianočný religious holiday

further topics

literature

Web on the left of

Wiktionary: Slowakei - word origin, synonyms and translations


coordinates: 48° 39 ' 29 " N, 19° 33 ' 30 " O

 

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