|spoken in:||Slowakei, the USA, Canada, Vojvodina, Hungary, Romania, Tschechien, Australia, Ukraine, Kroatien, Western Europe|
|Office language in:||Slowakei, European union|
|ISO 639 -1:||sports club|
|ISO 639 -2:||slo||slk|
Slowakisch (slowakisch slovenčina) is spoken of approximately 5 million Slowaken in Slowakei and about one million emigrant in North America.There are today still smaller language's groups in Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Tschechien, Canada and the USA. Since that 1. May 2004 is it one of the office languages of the European union.
Slowakisch belongs - just like Czech, Polish, Kaschubisch and Sorbisch - to the westslawischen languages. Slowaken and Czechs understand themselves relatively problem-free, however younger Czechs, who were linguistically socialized after the separation of the Slowakei and Tschechien , do already clearly more heavily.
Table of contents
Slowaki originated in in 10. Jahrhundert nach dem Untergang des Großmährischen Reiches aus der Sprache der slověne (ausgesprochen etwa [slowäne](offenes e) oder [slowene] (mittleres e)), das heißt der Bevölkerung dieses Reichs (siehe unter Slawen), in Form vonseveral dialects. Of 10. up to 19. Century became in the kingdom Hungary (its component the Slowakei in the 11. Century had become) as office and literature language predominantly latin used. In addition partially German and Hungarian were used. Besides began above allthe middle class of the Slowakei in 13. and 14. Century to use the own language as (parallel) office language whereby one however already soon (at the end 14. Century) in addition, into this function and later also than literature language that changed To begin Czech one. The reasons for this were at first above all that it “manufactured itself” around one already writing language relatives of a country with a famous university in Prague acted, in 15. Century also the influence of Czech Hussiten in the Slowakei and lateralso the influence of Czech Protestant emigrants in the Slowakei. The Czech texts were very often provided however (consciously or unconsciously) with slowakischen elements (slowakisiertes Czech so mentioned, see also Žilina). In the verbal use naturally further the respective slowakischen becameDialects uses.
Although it already in 16. Century of attempts gave to establish a slowakische writing language the first correct writing language only to 1787 by Anton Bernolák on the basis of the westslowakischen dialect from the environment of Trnava was specified. The today'sslowakische writing language became into the 1840er years 19. Century of Ľudovít Štúr on the basis of a mittelslowakischen dialect fixed (see national Wiedergeburt of the Slowaken). The fact that the language was so relatively late codified only, is responsible for it,that the slowakische form system is simpler than the Czech.
Major item Slowaki grammar
- In Slowaki in principle the first syllable is stressed.
- The letters marked by the “Dĺžeň in such a way specified “(=Verlängerungszeichen) (á, é, í, ó, ú, ý, ĺ, ŕ) are long expressed. The two rareConsonant ones ĺ and ŕ are to be expressed thereby clearly long. Be enough and stressed syllables collapse not necessarily, i.e. there are lengths also unbetonte.
- The letters marked by the “Mäkčeň in such a way specified “(=Weichheitszeichen) (ď, ň, ľ, ť) becomesoftly expressed, i.e. with a resemblance to a j behind consonants articulates usually. In the phonetics this as Palatalisierung admitted and designates the Ausspache of a consonant is also to the hard palate of raised tongue center. Furthermore become alsothis diacritical indication designates sibilants (č, dž, š, ž). Confusing way becomes the Mäkčeň with capital letters and with small č, dž, ň, š, ž always as ˇ, after small ď, ľ, ť usually as allografische variant of the apostrophe belonging to the letter'written.
- Before e and i are d/l/n/t palatalisiert expressed, i.e. with a resemblance to a j behind consonants articulated. The tongue goes thereby to the front palate. From this rule there is a set of exceptions, above allin foreign words (for example the word is expressed telefón as on German), in addition, in a smaller group of native words like teraz “now”.
Most letters are expressed as in German. Differently to be spoken (partially due to that managing specifiedBasic rules):
|Discussion of the slowakischen sounds||discussion in German with examples|
|á, é, í, ó, ú, ý||[A:], [e:], [i:], [o:], [u:], [i:]||long A, e, i, o, u, i||á NO, pekn é, slovn í k, m ósince, cult rheit ú RA, November||ý W ah, M ah ne, L IE, English A ll, H uh n, L IE|
|A||[æ] or simply [e]||very open e or simply A||p A ť||approximately howK A lte|
|ô||[u̯o]||uo||sp ô l||together-spoken uo, a Diphthong|
|C||[C]||be correctless time, z||C eruzka||z (Z always)|
|dz||[ʒ]||be correctful dz, z||ME dz A||Italian organi zz acres, Greek dz ügos|
|č||[č]||be correctless tsch||sle č well||tsch (deu tsch)|
|dž||[ǯ]||be correctful dsch||dž em||dsch (Dsch ungel)|
|s||[s]||of be correctless s||s lovník||wei ss|
|z||[z]||of be correctful s||z ošit||Ro s e|
|š||[š]||be correctless sch||š kola||sch (Sch ule)|
|ž||[ž]||be correctful sch||ž ena||French gara g e|
|ď||[ď]||palatalisiertes (soft) D||ď akujem||approximately as in well dj A|
|ť||[ť]||palatalisiertes (soft) t||robi ť||approximately howin Ka tj A|
|ň||[ň]||palatalisiertes (soft) n||de ň||French Avi gn on, Spanish ñ or shown TA nj A ľ|
|[||ľ] palatalisiertes||(soft) l učite||inaccurately ľ||as gli… in the Italian or ll in kontinentaleurop. Spanish|
|l||[l]||still hard||l neutra||l in German a counterpart, l with strongly lowered|
|tongue center||r [r||] tongue r||r yba||r always do not eden (tongue r|
|)||v [v||] of be correctful||w v||áza w (W more asser|
) to consider:
- e and o are contrary to the Germans always about half-open
- v is expressed at the end of the syllable like a bilabiales u [u̯], expressed for example dievča [ďieu̯ča
- ] h always (not as to yawn) and approaches in the Auslaut at CH
- CC = C + k (not like heel, but as it zk atholisch)
- sch = s + CH (not like school)
- FR = s + p (not as special, but like confidence FR erson)
- sp = s + t (not like hour,separate like Wur sp)
- European Union = e + u (not like Europe, but nterkunft like horse European Union)
the rule well-known as “rhythmic shortening” is characteristic of Slowaki. In accordance with this rule may inSlowaki two long syllables not one another follow. If two long syllables should up-in-that-follow, second is mostly shortened, for example:
- krátky - normally the “y” would be written also with Dĺžeň (adjective dung - ký), thus “krátký”, which however by thoserhythmic shortening is avoided, because “krá” a long syllable is already
- biely - here “bie” is already a long syllable (- IE is a Diphthong), thus comes with “y” no Dĺžeň forwards
- and so on.
It gives however alsoa set of exceptions, so for instance the Possessivadjektive up - í (e.g. vtáčí/vtačí “duly to the bird”), nouns with the Suffixen - IE (e.g. prútie “brushwood”) etc., in addition becomes the ending of the 3. Person Plural up - ia never shortened. The quantitythe exceptions decreases however in the everyday life use and accordingly with each new coding of the language constantly. Thus it e.g. meant. still before 15 years píšúci (writing), mliekáreň (dairy), kamzíčí (belonging to the Gemse), for approximately 1997 however already píšuci, mliekareň, kamzičí etc.
the spoken Slowakisch disintegrates into numerous dialects. These can be divided however into 3 main groups:
- Ostslowaki dialects in the regions Spiš (German Zips), Šariš (German Scharosch), Zemplín (German Semplin) and Abov (German Abaujwar or new castle),
- Mittelslowaki dialects in the regions Liptov (German Liptau), Orava (German Arwa), door International Electronical Commission (German Turz), Tekov (German Barsch), hone, Novohrad (German new castle or Neograd), Gemer (German also Gömör) and the historicalKomitats Zvolen (German oldresole)
- Westslowaki dialects in the region Kysuce and the Komitaten Bratislava (German press castle), Esztergom (German Gran), Komárno (German Komorn), Nitra (German Neutra), Trenčín (German Trentschin).
For a specification of the regionssee list of traditional regions of the Slowakei.
differences to the Czech one
Slowaki and the Czech differ particularly by some lautliche developments. Own slowakische sounds, which there are not in the Czech one, andthe partial to be also graphically differently represented, are the A, the Diphthonge ia/ie/iu and ô, dz, dž, as well as ľ (to the discussion of these sounds see below). As in the Czech one l and r can occur as vowels, in Slowakithere is to it still another difference between long and short r or l. (tschech.: vrba [vrba], slowak.: vŕba [vr: ba], dt.: Pasture). The sound assimilation as well as a kind “liaison” with the discussion are many more clearly pronounced (at least in the writing language) in Slowakias in the Czech one.
the vocabulary is identical up to the lautlichen differences to a large extent to the Czech. Differences essentially concern the following ranges:
a) Foreign words are often consciously replaced by own education in the Czech one , in Slowaki however common (second = ts compares. vteřina = sl. sekunda, January/Jänner = ts. leden = sl. január, similarly also the other names of the month, grammar = ts. mluvnice = sl. gramatika etc., dt. Bottle = ts. láhev = sl. fľaša;);
b) in Slowaki there is a small number of Hungarian words, which are missing in the Czech one, compares message = sl. chýr, ungar. hír, and, sheep cheese = sl compares words of the Hirten settling in the Karpatenraum. bryndza (thisit is taken over from the Romanian one, where it is called cheese simple);
c) certain ranges of the basic vocabulary (for example dt.speak = ts. mluvit = sl. hovoriť; dt.(probably) = ts. jo = sl. hej, dt. if, if = ts. jestli = sl. AC; dt. good-bye = ts. nashledanou = sl. dovidenia).
The similarities decrease/go back to the larger part to the fact that the Czech of 15. to 18. Century in far parts of the Slowakei as writing language was common.In 19. Century departed the new slowakische writing language (partially also conscious) of the Czech one, in this time also individual words from dialects to the writing language was transferred. In addition particularly in biology its own scientific terminology was formed.In the time of the common State of Czechoslovakia the languages approached. From 1918 into the 1930er years went out the Czechoslovakian authorities of the fiction of a “Czechoslovakian” language, in fact became in this time Slowaki consciouslyto the Czech advanced. After in the thirties clear resistance against this politics had turned, it was not resumed after 1945. But terminological commissions were anxious , the technical term treasure of both languages as similarly as possible too up to the end of Czechoslovakiahold. However particularly 20 has particularly large influence on the today's similarity of the vocabulary of the two languages since and the seventies sixties. Century tschechischsprachiges television and films in the Slowakei.
large differences oppositethe Czech one exist regarding the declinations - and conjugation endings in the grammar, which are generally in Slowaki many more regular and simpler. Slowaki possessed originally like the Czech sieved grammatical cases, but during the Czech the case Vokativ (case for addresses of persons) used, he came to a large extent actively in Slowaki except use. It is replaced nearly always by the Nominativ, yields however in some special cases (usually old words like for example: syn -> synku, or kmotor -> kmotre) off. Already for some years it is not specified no more in the grammars.
Another difference consists of the fact that in the area of the Slowakei numerous, partially very different dialects are spoken, while the meaning of the dialects inTschechien decreased/went back strongly.
the slowakische writing and its diacritical indications
and one in such a way writes her in the Web and in the Wikipedia:
|Largely||university University of||description||small||university University of||description|
|Á||Á||A with dĺžeň||á||á||A also dĺžeň|
|A||Ä||A umlaut||A||ä||A umlaut|
|Č||Č||C with mäkčeň||č||č||C with mäkčeň|
|Ď||Ď||D with mäkčeň||ď||ď||D with mäkčeň|
|É||É||E with dĺžeň||é||é||e with dĺžeň|
|Í||Í||I with dĺžeň||í||í||i with dĺžeň|
|Ľ||Ľ||L with mäkčeň||ľ||ľ||l with mäkčeň|
|Ĺ||Ĺ||L with dĺžeň||ĺ||ĺ||l with dĺžeň|
|Ň||Ň||N with mäkčeň||ň||ň||n with mäkčeň|
|Ó||Ó||O with dĺžeň||ó||ó||o with dĺžeň|
|Ô||Ô||O circumflex||ô||ô||o circumflex|
|Ŕ||Ŕ||R with dĺžeň||ŕ||ŕ||r with dĺžeň|
|Š||Š||S with mäkčeň||š||š||s with mäkčeň|
|Ť||Ť||T with mäkčeň||ť||ť||t with mäkčeň|
|Ú||Ú||U with dĺžeň||ú||ú||u with dĺžeň|
|Ý||Ý||Y with dĺžeň||ý||ý||y with dĺžeň|
|Ž||Ž||Z with mäkčeň||ž||ž||z with mäkčeň|
see in additionalso under Slowaki special characters
collections of texts
with the Free translation Project are present numerous translations (English Slowakisch) from the range of free software: http://www.iro.umontreal.ca/contrib/po/HTML/team-sk.html
see also: Language
- Peter Rehder (Hrsg.): Introduction to the slavischen languages, ISBN 3-534-06150-0
- Yvonne Tomenendal Wollner: Slovenčina again - Slowakisch for beginners and progressing (publishing house oebv&hpt, 2005), ISBN 3-209-03181-9
|Wikipedia on Slowakisch|
Web on the left of
- a detailed representation of the slowakischen declination - upEnglish
- the slowakische equivalent German Duden - of the universal dictionary, 4. Edition of 2003
- dictionary DE> sports club, SPORTS CLUB> DE, EN> sports club, SPORTS CLUB> EN
- official of slowakisches Sprachkorpus (still rather new; English)
- a quite good representation of the history of the slowakischen language
- simplified overview of the slowakischen grammar urspr.for the Peace Corps (slowakisch and English)
- all necessary details to the slowakischen writing, university University of, HTML, Adobe, ISO, code PAGE…