Slovenia

Republika Slovenija
Republic of Slovenia
Flagge Sloweniens Wappen Sloweniens
(detail) (detail)
office language Slovenian
capital Ljubljana (dt. Loaf oh)
president Janez Drnovšek
head of the government Janez Janša
system of government parliamentary democracy
establishment 25. June 1991 (declaration of independence)
surface 20,273 km ²
number of inhabitants 2.003.584 (conditions 30.09. 2005)
Population density of 98 inhabitants per km ²
currency Tolar
time belt MEZ (UTC +1)
national anthem Zdravljica
Kfz characteristic SLO
Internet TLD .si
preselection +386
Lage von Slowenien in Europa

Slovenia (Slovenian Slovenija) is a state in Central Europe and borders on Italy, Austria, Hungary and Croatia.

Table of contents

geography

defiance of itsSlovenia has small size very different landscape forms. In the north of the country alps of high mountain courses are with the Juli alps , the Karawanken and the Steiner. In the national park Triglav is appropriate the Triglav (2,864 m), for that the highest collection of the countryis. In the Juli alps rise also the Soča and the save, which are beside the Drau and the Mur important rivers of Slovenia. The east is coined/shaped of lowlandses, which change into the Pannoni lowlandses, during itself inthe center and in the west central mountain courses of the Dinari mountains rule. Here there is also the typical Karst - features. In the extreme southwest of the country 47 km long Adria is appropriate - for coast, which marks the deepest point of the country. Over halfthe state surface is covered with forest.

In the southwest of the country mediterranes climate prevails with warm summers and mild, damp winters. Winters and spring bring frequently cold drop hoist (Bora) at the coast. In the interior the climate is more continentally coined/shaped.

population

to that

57.8% of the Slovenes profess themselves religion sound of censuses of 2002 to Roman-catholic church, 2.4% Muslims , 2.3% orthodox , are 0.9% Protestanten. As “Gläubige, without affiliation to a denomination” 3.5% of the Slovenes call themselves. As Atheisten 10.1% see themselves. With 22,8% of the Slovenesno statement about its religion can be met, since either the question was not answered in censuses or other reasons an allocation to make impossible.

history

major item: History of Slovenia

one assumes that the slawischen ancestors of the Slovenesitself in 6. Century in the area of today's Slovenia went and established there. In 7. Century developed the slawische Principality of Karantanien (Karantanija), which first Slovenian state, which exhibited on the one hand slawischer origin were, and on the other hand a remarkable stability. InProcess of the next two centuries fell Karantanien first under Bavarian, then Frankish supremacy. In the center 10. Century was by the victory of the king and later emperor Otto I. in the battle on the Lechfeld (with Augsburg) the wayfreely for the Ostkolonisation of the holy Roman realm. Those before the area around today's Slovenia, South Germany and Italy make-end Hungary uncertainly left themselves thereupon in the Pannoni lowlandses down; thus the settlement areas of the Südslawen of those became that Westslawen and the Ostslawen separately. Karantanien was integrated into the duchy Bavaria, and starting from 976 to the duchy Kärnten of the holy Roman realm, that in the following centuries into the duchies Kärnten (Koroška), Steiermark (Štajerska) and Krain (Kranjska) one split up.

In the course of the ascent of the having citizens in the middle 13. Century became habsburgisch large areas of Slovenia. An exception formed the county of the Sanegg in Cilli (Celje), by skillful marriage politics up to becoming extinct the dynasty 1456 against the habsburgische hegemonyto state could. Afterwards Slovenia up to the end of the First World War - with a short interruption during the Napoleoni wars - under habsburgischer rule stood.

Already in 19. Century increasingly flashing national consciousness led 1918 then to the proclamation of the Kingdom of thatSerb, Croat and Slovene; Italy occupied thereupon the Slovenian coastal region, which had the kingdom then in the Grenzvertrag of Rapallo 1920 officially transfers. 1929 were renamed the country after a coup d'etat of the king in Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Thus those strengthenedalready before increasing dominance of the Serbs in the kingdom, besides the Slovenes under the loss of their coastal region suffered. Increasingly wrecked relating to domestic affairs, retained itself the country however its neutrality. To 25. March 1941 became that up to then the Regierungsgeschäfte prominent prince Paul (since 1934 Peter under age was II. Head of state, prince Paul was forced its uncle) from the Axis powers to the Mitpaktieren. The military guidance putschte however already two days later and set Crown Prince Peter II.as ruling powers. The Axis powers regarded these proceduresat their southeast flank as source of danger and occupied in April 1941 entire Yugoslavia. Slovenia was divided thereafter under Italy, Hungary and Germany. Numerous partisan federations were formed under of royalist and starting from the declaration of war Hitler at Stalin also under thatcommunist oppositionals (under the guidance Titos). At the end of the Second World War the entire German-language minority was almost driven out. Here became after completion of the Second World War in the area around Maribor (Marburg to the Drau) and in the ravines of the horn forest committed by Tito partisans of mass murders (“massacres of Bleiburg “).

After the Second World War became to 29. November 1945 the democratic federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia based, starting from 1963 called itself it socialist federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRJ). The increasing discontent with the BelgraderGuidance during the 1980er years flowed into the declaration of independence of Slovenia to 25. June 1991. The following invasion of Yugoslav troops could be repelled successfully in the so-called 10-conference war by the territorial defense, which the Verabschiedung of a democratic condition after European modelto 23. December 1991 made possible. Already within period of one month the new state was recognized by all members of the EEC. The ethnical relatively homogeneous population and the destruction small by the only short ones and few war actions made a fast stabilization and democratic possibleDevelopment of the state. This was honored with the beginning of the negotiations of accession to the European Union in November 1998 and with the entry of Slovenia at the 1. May 2004 to the European union seals. Details to the border conflict with Croatia, see international conflicts of the succession states of Yugoslavia.

politics

major item: Political system of Slovenia

head of state of the Republic of Slovenia is that, a predominantly representative function exercising president, who is selected every five years directly by the population. As part of the executives force it becomes of Prime Ministers and the Council of Ministers supports, who are selected both by the national assembly.

The Slovenian parliament consists of two chambers: The national assembly (Državni zbor) and the national council (Državni svet). The national assembly consists of 90 delegates,partially in each case by direct choice and/or by proportional representation to be determined. The autochthonen minorities of the Italians and the Hungary have a guaranteed mandate of group of peoples. In questions, which concern the respective rights excluding the minority, these delegates of group of peoples possess an absolute right of veto.

Into the national council 40 delegates from social, economical and regional groups of interests are sent. The parliamentary elections take place every four years.

In the course of the NATO extension to the East Slovenia became to 29. March 2004 member of NATO. Since 1. May 2004 is itMember of the European union.

administrative arrangement

Slovenia is in 193 municipalities (Slovenian občine, Sg. občina), among them eleven municipalities, arranged. However about the creation of regions one thinks.

The eleven municipalities are:

  1. Celje (Cilli)
  2. Koper (Capodistria)
  3. Kranj (Krainburg)
  4. Ljubljana (loaf oh)

  1. Maribor (Marburg to the Drau)
  2. Murska Sobota (Olsnitz)
  3. new facts Gorica (new Görz)
  4. Novo Mesto (Rudolfswert)

  1. Ptuj (Pettau)
  2. Slovenj Gradec (Windischgraz)
  3. Velenje (Wöllan)
historical landscapes of Slovenia:
1: Primorska
2: Kranjska (Krain)
2a: Gorenjska
2b: Notranjska
2C: Dolenjska and Bela krajina
3: Koroška
4: Štajerska
5: Prekmurje

see also:

besides there is also an arrangement in 5 historical landscapes:

infrastructure

Slovenia possesses an excellent infrastructure with a modern motorway net. The largest international airport is called Brnik and lies in the proximitythe capital. Besides there are to two smaller international airports, Maribor and Portorož. Along the save runs the railway from Germany and Austria to Croatia. A further important railway connection runs from Italy to Hungary.

economics

major item: Slovenian economy

an important industry of Slovenia is particularly concentrated on the alps, Ljubljana, the Adria and other objects of interest like the caves by Postojna the tourism, that itself.

The gross domestic product (GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT) amounted to in the year 2002 21.905 billion€, that means per head 11.709 €. The foreign debt amounted 2002 to 3968 million euro. Material growth amounted to 2002 3.2% (2001: 3,0 %). The inflation rate is still relative high and amounted to in the year 20027.5% (2001: 8,4 %). The unemployment ratio could be reduced of 2001 on 2002 of 6,4% to 6,0%. Momentarily (2005) Slovenia has an inflation of 2,0% and an estimated economic growth of 3,7%.

After presentConditions would be allowed to do Slovenia at the 1. January 2007 the euro introduce.

See also: Slovenian euro coins


Karte Sloweniens

culture

writer

holidays

date German designation Slovenian designation notes
1. and 2. January New Year Novo leto two-day holiday
8. February Prešeren day, Slovenian culture holiday Prešernov dan, slovenski kulturni praznik day of death of the national poet Franz Prešeren
March, April Ostersonntag, Ostermontag; Easter Velikonočna nedelja in ponedeljek; Velika noč religious holiday
27. April day of the resistance in the Second World War Dan upora proti okupatorju national holiday
1. and 2. May day of the work Praznik dela national holiday
May, June Pfingstsonntag; Whitsuntide Binkoštna nedelja; Binkošti religious holiday
25. June day of the nationalness Dan državnosti announcing the national sovereignty 1991
15. August Maria Ascension Day Marijino vnebovzetje religious holiday
31. Octobers reformation day Dan reformacije Slovenes owe their writing language to the reformationand even the first mention of the term “Slovene”
1. November day memories of the deceased Dan spomina well mrtve national holiday
25. December Christmas Božič religious holiday
26. December day of independence and agreement Dan samostojnosti in enotnosti announcingthe result of the independence referendum in the parliament 1990

literature

  • Steven W. Sowards: Modern history of the Balkans. The Balkans in the age of the nationalism. BoD 2004, ISBN 3-8334-0977-0

Web on the left of

Wiktionary: Slovenia - word origin, synonyms and translations
Wikiquote: Slovenian proverbs - quotations



coordinates: 46° 9 ' N, 15° 3 ' O

 

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