Slum

Slum in Jakarta, 2004
Slum in Jakarta
Slum in Glasgow, 1871

a Slum is a verwahrloster, purged part of a city. In the original sense the term designates heruntergekommene town center areas, which were often inhabited before the purge by the central or Oberschicht.Today however generally over-populated and usually keep-drew parts of cities become colloquial, by very poor people and/or. urban immigrants to be inhabited, as Slum names and the informal settlements, i.e. edge-urban slum areas enclosed. Heruntergekommene built volumes and badly removed infrastructure facilities are characteristic.

occurrences

Slums are in most large cities of the world.

Slums are characterized mostly by high poverty rate and unemployment rate. It marking itself often by concentration of social problems such as criminality, drug abuse, alcoholism and despair. In many poor countries they are due tothe bad sanitary conditions breeding places of diseases.

The emergence of Slums is essentially favoured by two phenomena. On the one hand becomes by strong influx (e.g. Migration from the land) into population centres and the associated demographic change within period of less than a generation thosePossibilities for the assimilation of the new population into the city verunmöglicht. On the other hand the urban population tends to it, to their-same too associates. Via migration movements in the city thereby a segregation takes place into different neighbourhoods. These two phenomena justify the emergence of Slums for itself however stillnot. They lead in a first stage to the formation of Ghettos. The settlement ranges of the weakest subpopulations in this structure can transform however in the course of the time to Slums. The role traffic routes in the city with this development is ambivalence, there their actual purpose -to connect indeed quarters - in practice by their separation effect one over-sounds. In the special to höherrangige roads their traversing applies to inhabitants without vehicle is made more difficult and to Stadtmauern in the city in such a way becomes.

Not all settlements, those outwardly of an observer coined/shaped westwhen Slum are interpreted, the criteria on closer inspection, which mark a Slum, fulfill. City planners certify some Favelas (e.g. in the surrounding field of Caracas) already urbane qualities, which one finds in medieval town centres. In addition functioning neighbourhoods, short ways, moderate mixing of living and trade uses belong- in short the organization of the environment in a human measure. That does not come from approximate, since the material lack of the inhabitants leads to the fact that the yardstick blowing up buildings cannot at all be established. At these quarters the high building density is substantial with at the same time good outside space quality.It is obtained particularly by the absence or also excluding the motor traffic. To which one should for car plans, if one cannot afford her anyway. One may not be able to be dazzled thereby however from socialromantic conceptions; naturally it gives also there - in such a wayas in the old medieval town centres of Europe still before 70-100 years hygenic problems to be solved must (e.g. missing drains).

Slums from the migration from the land developed, are organized socially as technically similarly, as the village structures in the homeland of the landvolatile. Town plannerfail here regularly because of the impossibility an agrarian coined/shaped population within shortest time to make city suited. That lies however partially. also to it, itself the ideal-typical conceptions of a city after the Charter of Athens v.a. for the post office postindustriellen cities are not practicable.

Multi-center of cities alsosmall organizing, but mixed neighbourhoods are to be formed earliest been suitable mutual responsibility of the population and promoted and contributed in such a way to the fact that from ärmlichen boroughs no Slums becomes, but an improvement of the standard is reached gradually. Substantially with it naturally also, the education level is thatPopulation to increase (assistance to self-help).

The Slums of today's western large cities is not to be compared with the Slums of last centuries or also Slums in the third world, developed from the migration from the land. They predominantly developed usually from the segregation of neighbourhoods. The furtherConsequence is a gradual withdrawal of the public infrastructure from these areas. Slums of this kind predominantly develop in cities with high land consumption - which proceed thus with their infrastructure as with a too short blanket. Somewhere somewhat if new grows, then the infrastructure becomes scarcer, wherethe weakest ones of the population are. Also here an improvement of the situation could be obtained - however with the advantage by similar technical solutions that the there population is already urban coined/shaped in principle.

Of such Slumbildungen however the large cities do not remain alone spared, there alreadyin the seventies of the last century (in the USA 20-30 years in former times) used the exodus from the cities. Thus now formerly village municipalities before similar problems stand, as cities. The life as commuters is today for many workers and employees reality. The end of the eligible for financingness of this life-stylethe fall of rural dormitory suburbs is however foreseeable and concomitantly.

Many governments of the world try to solve the problem of the Slums by tearing the build-susceptible old buildings off and by modern, mostly strongly consolidated housing developments with better sanitary plants replaced it. Such solution attempts failhowever often, since they affect only conditionally the social problems of the population.

In India one speaks in such a way of bazars, in the middle east of compounds, in Peru of gurios as name for Slums, during marginal settlements in Argentina mansion Miserias, in Brazil Favelasand in Turkey Gecekondu, whereas they are called in South Africa Townships. The most well-known is Soweto with Johannesburg that however meanwhile already a middle residential area became.

In Germany so-called became in the first decades after the war. Satellite cities built, itself as urbanBad plannings put out and due to quality of life lacking the public, which one introduced oneself as target group, not greatly addressed. Thus dwellings were re-designed to subsidized low-rent housings or by the low rents for income-weak lucratively. At the same time whole settlements resulted from the social housing construction, without thinking about the consequences.Old housing developments in the city centers however are gladly promptly reorganized due to the high real estate values or re-designed to trade areas. The consequence is that one finds social focuses in Germany comparatively rare in the form of Slum quarters in the city centers, but in falseplanned suburbs all the more frequent.

Oftenseem also these cities at the mobility needs of the inhabitants to be by-planned. Great road axles and bad ÖPNV - tying up round here the negative picture of an often auto+fair city off, which does not leave Idenifikationsmöglichkeit and no possibility for the emotional appropriation open to humans.

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More exact solution attempts and emergence are missing
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