|of these articles is concerned with the city Sofia. For other meanings see under Sophia (term clarifying).|
|coat of arms||map|
| Wahlspruch: “Расте, нонестарее”|
(“grows, does not age however not”)
|district (Oblast):||Sofia city|
|surface:||1.038, 8 km ²|
|population density:||1,094 Einwohner/km ²|
|height:||550 m and. NN|
|geographical situation:|| 42° 41 ' n. Break. |
23° 19 ' o. L.
|Postal zip code:||1000|
|Kfz characteristics:|| |
Sofia (bulg: София) is the capital of Bulgaria and the districts (Oblast) Sofia city with 1.376.742 inhabitants in the actual city. In the city concentrate 14 per cent of the inhabitantsthe country. It is the political, economical and cultural center of Bulgaria as well as their most important traffic junction. In Sofia are a university of 1888 and different other universities, theatre, museums and cultural facilities.
Table of contents
of Sofia lie in oneEven one in the west of the country, the close border to Serbia.
At the southern outskirts of a town the Witoscha begins - mountains (Чернивръх = black summit, 2,286 m), a popular trip goal. A circular “hill” of about 40 kilometers of expansion, that the window blind thatwhole city controls.
In the north runs into about 50 kilometers distance the Balkans - the mountains in east west direction about 500 kilometers through completely Bulgaria and divides the country into a north and a south half. This mountains are name giver for the entire Balkan Peninsula.
Sofia is because of the river Iskar, which is however hardly to be seen in the townscape.
Sofia looks on a history of many years back. It is safe that the city exists the newer archaeological finds for over 5,000 years , andit points on the fact that here even already before approximately 8,000 years a stone-temporal settlement was. That means that Sofia is one of the oldest cities of Europe. In the course 7. Century v. Chr. a settlement of the thrakischen developed in the today's city centreSerden. They gave the name of its trunk “Serdica” to the city.
339 v. Chr. became the city of Philipp II., King of Macedonia (382 v. Chr.- 336 v. Chr.) conquers. 29 v. Chr. here the Romans putyou “Serdica” on, the capital of the internal Dakien, among emperors Marcus the Ulpius Trajan between 98 and 117 to a flowering city with Münzhof developed and end 2. Century by a strong, twelve meters high fortress wall, surroundbecame.here the well-known church council met to 343 also over 300 bishops out completely to Europe.
447 plünderten the Hunnen under the guidance Attilas the city, at present Justinians I. between 527 and 565 it was again developed (532 to 537Building of the church sports association. Sofija) and with strong walls and military towers surround.809 the city was taken by the army of the Bulgarian Khans Krum and belonged since then to the first Bulgarian realm. “Sredec” (center), then called them the Slawen because of theircentral situation on the Balkan Peninsula, developed to an important strategic and administrative center.
Further assaults and devastations followed. Under Byzantine rule between 1018 and 1194 the city “Triadica” was called. During the second Bulgarian realm it continued to strengthenand received in 14. Century after the church “sports association. Sofija " its current name “Sofia”. This name is mentioned for the first time in the deed of donation of the Bulgarian ruler Iwan Schischman from the year 1329, with which it conveyed soil to the Dragalewzi monastery.Long time was besieged the city by the Osmanen, only 1386 could draw in it as winners.
For nearly 500 years it became seat of the rumelischen Bejlerbej, which administered all Bulgarian territories. Nevertheless the city purged gradually. As the Russian General Gurko (1828 - 1901) to 4. January 1878 into the city as Befreier with its troops drew in, had it scarcely 20,000 inhabitants, close, bent roads with one-story houses and was without lighting and water pipeline. The constituent meetingin Weliko Tarnowo explained Sofia to 22. March 1879 to the capital of the again-purchased Bulgarian state. Since then the city took a substantial upswing, many industrial companies settled.
1939 had increased their number of inhabitants on 300.000. In 2. World war is the citybecause of the per-fascist attitude of the government of the country heavy allied bomb attacks suspended been. To 5. September 1944 explained the Soviet Union Bulgaria the war and occupied the whole country. Georgi Michailow Dimitrow called to 15. September 1946 in the city those People's Republic of Bulgaria out. After the war the city was rebuilt. Numerous public buildings and residential complexes developed. To 10. November 1989 was fallen the communist government into Sofia and a democratization of the country was introduced.
culture andObjects of interest
Sofia is the largest cultural center of the country. There are several theatres: the academic national theatre “Iwan Wasow “, the academic national theatre for opera and ballet, the theatre”Salsa i Smjach “, the theatre “Sofia”, the studio stage of the theatre university, the national Operettentheater, the sow-Irish theatre, center the doll theatre and different one as well as a Philharmonic Concert Hall.
the “archaeological museum” stands for museums beside the Bulgarian state bank 9 inthe former mosque Bujuk Dschamija of 1474. Those already 1879 created education place brings the partially millenium-old art and culture Greek and Romans, the Byzantiner, the Slawen and Bulgaren to the Steinzeit, the Thraker, in numerous exhibits toRepresentation. A Münzkabinett is attached.
In the building of the former Zarenpalastes today the “national art gallery” accommodated with a rich collection of old and modern Bulgarian painting and sculptor art , beyond that works flämischer, are Netherlands, Italian, French, Russian and Hungarian master. Likewisein the building the “Ethnografi museum” is with primarily Bulgarian folklore and old customs property, in addition, exhibits from Asia and Africa.
East that stands for the park plant 1906 in neoklassisistischer manners “national academic theatres” developed and behind the hotel“Bulgarija” with concert hall, at the north side the “scientific museum” with approximately one million exhibits to geology, Flora and fauna of the country, existing since 1889; one of the richest museums of this kind in South-east Europe and the 1911 builds “Russian church sports association.Nikolai ", those the style of the Muscovites churches 17. Century takes up (, hands gilded domes Wandmalereien).
in the today's city centre were in the antique “Serdika” the forum and the seat of the Prätors, on its ruins around 1900 those“Cathedral sports association. Nedelja was built ", with interesting Ikonostase and Wandmalereien on the inside. In the south “clergyman the academy stands and/or. Seminar for priests " with museum (icons, handwriting, church history) and “the law courts”, a klassisistischer building of 1940, as well as far north “the central department store”, onits north side 1913 finished Sofioter the mineral bath with its remarkable front front arranged from decorative ceramic(s), lies.
Before it is the Turkish mosque of 1576, an example osmanischer architecture. On the other side the 1911 in the style of the Renaissance build“Central market hall” with clock tower and coat of arms of Sofia, in the underpass before the central department store then the small church sports association. Petka Samardschijska from that 14. and 15. Century with well received Wandmalereien.
eastward closes the centralPlace Sofias on, with fragments of the east gate of the Roman Serdika, Steinplatten of the old driving out race from that 2. Century after Konstantinopel, the today's Istanbul, remnants of the fortress walls, furthermore containers for keeping grain.
In the inner court of the hotel former hotelsThe “Balkans”, the current “Sheraton”, the oldest building Sofias, the “rotunda sports association. Georgi ". Probably a bath originally was because of its place; the church originates from that 4. Century and possesses remainders of three layers of Wandmalereien from that 11. to 13. Century.
Worth seeing also the “monument of the Befreier” is - the Russian Zar Alexander II. highly to Ross - after a draft of the Italian Arnoldo Zocchi, 1901 to 1907. Arranged in the semicircular the former hotel “Sofija”, now “Radisson SAS”, the buildingsthe Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and - free standing at the north side - the national assembly. Northward to then the “Alexander Newski place”, which completely of the” Alexander Newski cathedral “, which landmark of the city is controlled.
The building of monumental, 1904 to 1912 after thatDraft of the Russian architect Alexander Pomeranzew in a Russian Empirestil developed, covers a surface of more than 2,500 square meters and seizes 5,000 humans. Among the precious interior equipment rank 270 wall paintings, 80 icons, artful Schnitzereien and details from multi colour, fremdländischem Alabaster. The crypt saves a singular icon museum with outstanding examples of 12. Century on, among other things a collection of icons from Nessebar from that 16. and 17. Century.
economics and infrastructure
Sofia have a portion ofabout 16 per cent at the industrial production of the country. Here are enterprises of the electrical, tobacco goods, the food and textile industry as well as mechanical engineering.
The city is the most important traffic junction of Bulgaria with the most important airport, underground, streetcar, Oberleitungsbussen, Buses, railway - and road connections into all parts of the country.
The airport Sofia is at the eastern outskirts of a town.
the city is the outstanding education and research center of the country. Here are the Academy of Sciences,the University of “Kliment of Ohrid”, the technical university, the university for chemical technology and metallurgy and the university for national and world economy.
There is the university for mechanical engineering and electro-technology, the building university, the medical one over 15 universities in Sofia, under itAcademy, the university for screen end of arts and the theatre university as well as about 200 scientific institutes and over 900 libraries, among them as the most important national library “Kiril and Method”.
of sons and daughters of the city
- Marine Balabanow (* 1974), draughtsmen
- Yuri Boukoff, Bulgarian pianist
- Albena Denkowa (* 1974), Bulgarian Eiskunstläuferin
- Maria Dundakowa (* 1939), multimedially creating Swiss artist of Bulgarian origin
- Alexander Fol (1933-2006), Bulgarian historian and Thrakologe
- Maria Grosdewa, Bulgarian Sportschützin
- Chawdar Jankow(* 1984), football player
- Stanislaw Janewski, Bulgarian actor
- Hristo Jivkov (* 1975), actors
- Aleksandar Jossifow (* 1940), composer of classical music
- Iwet Lalowa (* 1984), light athlete
- Daisy long, Bulgarian Boxerin and Kampfsportlerin
- Magdalena mark EH, Bulgarian Tennisspielerin
- Stefan Marinow (1931-1997), physicist
- Georgi Markow (1929-1978), writer
- Stilian Petrow, Bulgarian football player
- Hristo Naumov Shopov, Filmschauspieler
- Antoaneta Stefanowa, Schachgrossmeisterin, acting lady world champion in chess
- Tzvetan Todorov (*1939), sociology
- Damjan Lissitschkov, famous financialist and writer
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|Wiktionary: Sofia - word origin, synonyms and translations|
coordinates: 42° 41 ′ 50 ′ ′ N, 23° 19 ′ 24 ′ ′ O