|of these articles informs Sokrates over the philosophers. For further meanings Sokrates (term clarifying) compares|
Sokrates (altgriech. Sokrátes/Σωκράτης * 469 v. Chr.; † 399 v. Chr. (executed/poisons)) was a Greek philosopher; it lived andworked in Athens. It is considered as one of the main shapes of Greek philosophy and abendländischen thinking.
Table of contents
Sokrates themselvesnothing written left. During its lifetimes starting from 423 v. Chr. it appears as mockery figure in the comedies and receives several times sow-Irish mention. Biographic information about Sokrates supplies above all the works Platons and Xenophons, to firstAnd Diogenes Laertios developed for decades after Sokrates´Tod from the third century n. Chr. In addition come notes, notes and anecdotes of numerous authors of the Greek and latin literature.
Therefore Sokrates is 469 v Chr. in Athens in demos the Alopeke born and399 v.Chr. executed in Athens. Its father was Sophroniskos, which was to have been a stone-cutter or a sculptor, and who midwife Phainarete. From a preceding relationship of its nut/mother it had a half brother Patrokles. At the time of its death was it alsoXanthippe married and had three sons, the young people Lamprokles and the children with their Sophroniskos and Menexenos. Friends from youth were Kriton and Chairephon. Whether he learned and exercised the occupation of his father, is uncertain. Unite one hundred yearslater one points oneself to the Akropolis a Charitengruppe and a Hermesfigur, which are to have been created by Sokrates.
Sokrates had inherited a small fortune, which made a modest, but independent getting along for him and its family possible from its parents.
Itit is not well-known who the teachers of Sokrates were, but it is accepted that it concerned itself with ideas of Parmenides of Elea , Heraklit and Anaxagoras. It took Delion as a soldier at the fights of Potidaia (431-429) , (424) and Amphipolis (422) part. Its bravery and its deliberation (sophrosyne) are mentioned by Platon and Xenophon. 423 Sokrates becomes as main figure of the comedy the clouds of Aristophanes in an sow-Irish oversubscription as a “spleeniger philosopher” the target of thegeneral mockery. The reproach of the atheism and the glare of the youth is made for it already here. 416 Sokrates appears as „an honour guest “on a famous guest meal (Symposion), which takes place on the occasion of the tragedy victory of the young Agathon. Sokrates took 406as a councilman at the process against the field gentlemen from the battle with the Arginusen part and then by the majority decided condemnation turned against of them. From the time of the despotism of the thirty (the “thirty Tyrannen “) approximately around 403 are someEvents delivers. A firm date is the year 399, when Sokrates was condemned to death.
of the condemnation to death preceded a process, during which Sokrates of Gottlosigkeit and perishable influence on the youth were accused. Gottlosigkeit (Asebie) meant, not onto believe the state Gods of Athens, a crime, which was punished with death by poisoning. This kind of processes was called Asebieprozess. In its delivered address for the defense it argued off both reproaches, by revealing the reasons for its public behavior.It was found nevertheless by a limited majority of votes (281 of 500 voices) by one of the numerous democratic Courts of Justice (dikasteria) of Athens for guilty. After custom at that time Sokrates was allowed to suggest a punishment for itself after the guilty speaking. In this (second) part of itsAddress for the defense avowed Sokrates evenly the behavior, which had led to its guilty speaking, for most useful, it can suggest no punishment where a reward is more appropriate. The judges condemned it now with a majority from 361 voices to death throughDrink the Schierlingsbechers. Sokrates could have saved its life, if he had been ready, the accusation as justified to recognize or Athens leave, how its friend Kriton urgently suggested this to him. The latter he did not do, there its Daimonion to himadvised against. In addition it regarded the escape as act of political injustice in relation to the laws of the Athener citizens. The accusation as justified to assume, was applicable just as little. It considered the truth more important than its life. It insured, only toThe best state to have acted. The negotiation and death Sokrates' are described in Platons writings Apologie , Kriton and Phaidon and in Xenophons Apologie of the Sokrates.
Sokrati philosophy means themselves an internal movingness, an attitude, which determines a thinking and existence, what in the translation of the word philosophy as „love for Wisdom “expresses. The love by the way, then expressed itself Sokrates once, is the only one, about which it understand something. (see. Theages 128a)
Sokrates calls its Philosophierens into its Apologie the God of Delphi as guarantor for the truthfulness. This Godit it had geweissagt that „nobody is wiser than Sokrates “. Its modest self realization held Sokrates to think capable of to this statement more than it was to see in the conditions. „Which means the God with it? On what does it want to refer to me? Finally I knowbut that I know neither much nor little! And it will not lie, that is illegal to it. “(Apologie 21b)
from the God appointed to the wisdom and not as wise designates, then he finally understood this. It madeitself therefore up to learn others, which than point applied to ask in order from them to. Thus it came to the disputes with the Sophisten, the ways of its time, the Athenern, acquaintance in public offices and friends. Like thoseSophisten busy itself Sokrates with humans and the human life, and not with the problems of the nature philosophers. The most important difference consisted of it that itself Sokrates not when Sophisten saw thus as scholarly or wise person. For this reason leftit contrary to the Sophisten for its training activity do not pay itself. Sokrates called itself consciously philosopher (“philosopher” - friend of the wisdom). For it it was important to find a safe foundation for human realizations. He believed, this foundation layin the human reason. He was opinion that that, which knows, what is good also property will do. He believed, the correct realization leads to correct acting. And only who does the correct, so Sokrates, becomes the 'correctMenschen'. If humans act wrongly, then he does from Sokrates' view only, because he does not know it better. Therefore it is so important to increase the knowledge. Contrary to the Sophisten it existed on it, the ability, betweenQuite and injustice to differentiate, lies in the reason justified and not with respect to the society.
Sokrates provoked the terms, which one used and thoughtless would use daily, because in the meantime extremely richly developed language darbot or in readiness held her evenly.Sokrates wanted to fathom, what was behind them and how contentwise would be to be filled it. In order to provide concerning this clarity, it availed itself of a completely special method, which is called Mäeutik - a kind „mental birth assistance “-: By questionsand not by instructing the interlocutor - how the Sophisten practiced opposite its pupils - its own insight ability should finally bear the knowledge around property (agathón) and noble ones (kalón) even „“and/or. bring out. ThisA goal was not possible however without insight into the questionableness of the own knowledge.
Sokrates tried to moderate this painful experience by its humanity and its respect for the other one which is expressed also in its irony. It wants the other onedo not make ridiculous, but its inadequacy as something to recognize give to be zerknirscht over which that to laugh are, instead of. It many its interlocutor became as with difficulty, often impossible to go over this bridge shows the Platonic dialogues.As a little helpful the responding felt it in the doubt also in the public of the Agora to be dismantled in this way particularly since also Sokrates´ pupils practiced in this form of the dialogues.
This Philosophieren, that often in the middle in geschäftigen drivingAthens took place, promised answer to the question of many Athener, how they could educate their sons to better men, thus the Polis „the school of Hellas (remained)… and each individual citizen… in versatile way its own personal kind unfolds “(see.The speech of the Perikles, in: Thukydides, the Peloponnesi war (Peloponnesi war), II 41,1: .).
Thus it came that Sokrates won friends and enemies at the same time: Friends, those its philosophy as keys to the own and joint welfareand, and enemies, who estimated its philosophy as Gotteslästerung and community-damaging, regarded wisdom.
The contemporaries did not only have no uniform Sokratesbild, also the research have it not.
A time witness over Sokrates
famous is the speech of the Alkibiades over Sokrates out Platons “guest meal”. Alkibiades compared Sokrates with the Silenfiguren. That were small, carved, satyrhafte figures, which one could open unfold. On the inside small golden God pictures were kept. Similarly, then Alkibiades continues to continue, is it with the speeches of the Sokrates.Äußerlich erschienen sie einem oft lächerlich oder unverständlich. If one penetrates however into its inside, then one finds excluding truth and everything else that one needs to become over efficient (see. in the guest meal the sections 217 and 222).
Quotation of Alkibiades from the Symposion of Platon: We took part in the campaign together after Poteidaia and were there table comrades. There it exceeded me, but everything in bearing all Beschwernisse not only altogether. If we were cut off somewhere, like it upCampaigns to occur can, and then chamfered had, there could not that the other long not so well to bear. If we were allowed it us however better-go leaving, then it was able to enjoy as only, particularly if it, what it contrary was certainly,for drinking one forced; there it exceeded us all. And about what one at most to be surprised must: No humans have ever the Sokrates drunk seen [...] that would be one. [Still more amazingly is however the other one:] At that time on the campaign[...] it, into any thought deepened, stood from the morning on on the same mark and considered, and as it to it not to succeed, did not give way he wanted not, but stopped reflecting. In the meantime it had become noon; there the people noticed it,and surprised told it the other one that Sokrates already stands there for the morning and thinks about somewhat. Finally, when it was already evening, some from the Ioniern, when they had eaten, their sleep pads carried; thus they sleptin the coolness and it could observe at the same time whether he remained standing also in the night there. And really, he stopped, to it mornings became and the sun came up! Then he performed his prayer to the sun and left.
469 v. Chr. Birth of the Sokrates
465 v. Chr. Leukipp, teacher of the Demokrit, teaches as the first that all things are compound from indivisible particles (atoms).
460 v. Chr. Birth of the Demokrit
443-429 v. Chr. Athens becomesCulture capital Attikas. All personalities of the spirit life are occasionally in Athens. To them also the philosophers Anaxagoras , Protagoras , Hippias belonged. Politically important personalities such as Perikles and Kallias do not only take move portion of philosophical questionsand artistic developments.
441-440 v. Chr. Sokrates was in Samos and had there contact with the Anaxagoras pupil ark Laos.
432 v. Chr. In Athens a law is passed against Gottlosigkeit
431-429 v. Chr. Campaign against Poteidaia (Sokrates takes as Hoplit part)
428 v. Chr. Performance of Euripides ' Hippolytos.
424 v. Chr. Sokrates participates in the campaign against Delion .
423 v. Chr. Sokrates becomes as main figure of the comedy the clouds from Aristophanes to the target of the general mockery.
422v. Chr. Campaign against Amphipolis (Sokrates participates as Hoplit)
418-413 v. Chr. Alkibiades, which Sokrates a life could do long, plays a politically influential role in Athens: It persuades the Athener to the Sicilian campaign, however 415 is entmachtet andlater from Athens banishes.
416 v. Chr. Sokrates appears as an honour guest on a famous guest meal (Symposion), which takes place on the occasion of the tragedy victory of the young Agathon.
412 v. Chr. Birth of Diogenes
approx. 407 v. Chr. Platon becomes pupil of Sokrates
406v. Chr. Sokrates participates as a councillor in the process against the field gentlemen of the Arginusenschlacht . It opposes an illegal people resolution in vain.
404 v. Chr. The Spartaner conquers Athens. Sokrates offers resistance against illegal measures during from them the usednow the following rule of the “thirty Tyrannen “.
399 v. Chr. To the restoration of the democracy it comes to the process, condemnation and death of the Sokrates.
396 v. Chr. Platon publishes its Apologie (defense of the Sokrates)
Sokrates' effect on future generationswas very strong. Thus it is not said that over its personality the xenophontische Sokrates more favorable information does not give as the Platonic, since Platon might have made the figure “Sokrates” whole at least in its late work its language pipe.
Also over itsMany quotations Sokrates' held themselves death outside. The most well-known probably are: „Recognize you “(altgr.gnóthi s'autòn), a saying, which also over the entrance of the Apollon - temple in Delphi stood, and: „Humans act badly, if he thatGood one does not know “. As most well-known his utterances is considered: „I know that I do not know anything “(altgr.oída ouk eídos). Meant he with it the however following: „I seem to be nevertheless wiser thus around this few that I, which I notwhite, also does not believe to know. “With above form of the quotation this statement is thus only shortened shown.
- historical sources
- the dialogues of Platon
- The sokratischen writings. Stuttgart 1956
- memories of Sokrates. Ditzingen 1980
- modern trend literature
- Christoph kneels: Sokrates for introduction. Junius, Hamburg 2003, ISBN 3885063565.
- Gernot Böhme: The type Sokrates. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt A. M. 1992.
- Romano Guardini: The death of the Sokrates. Hamburg 1966.
- Gottfried Martin: Sokrates., Hamburg 1967.
- C. C. W. Taylor: Sokrates. Herder, Freiburg 1999.
- M. Broad brook: The process of the Sokrates - defense that or notice on the athenische democracy? A contribution from jurisprudential perspective., in: High School 112 (2005), S. 321-343.
- Josef Toman/Miroslava Tomanová: Sokrates historical novel.People & world,Berlin 1978.
Web on the left of
|Commons: Sokrates - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
|Wikiquote: Sokrates - quotations|
| | * Literature of and over Sokrates in the catalog of the DDB
- entry (English) in the Stanford Encyclopedia OF Philosophy (inclusive Literature data)
- articlesof J. Malitz:Sokrates in Athens of the post-war period (404-399 v.Chr.)
- the Platonic dialogues
- Sokrati discussions from Xenophons memorable messages of Sokrates
|ALTERNATIVE NAME||Sokratis (Greek)|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Greek philosopher|
|DATE OF BIRTH||469 v. Chr.|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Athens|
|DYING DATE||399 v. Chr.|