Solidarność

Solidarność [sɔliˈdarnɔɕtɕ] (German: Solidarity) is the name of a Polish trade union, which originated in to 1980 from a strike movement and participated in the political turn 1989 crucially.

Official name: NSZZ „Solidarność” (polarize.: Niezależny Samorządny Związek Zawodowy„Solidarność”; dt.: Independent selfadministered trade union „solidarity “)

Solidarnosc-Logo
Solidarnosc Logo

table of contents

of beginnings

the trade union Solidarność developed from a strike movement of workers in the summer 1980. From the outset the workers' movement of regime-critical intellectual ones became (and. A. Tadeusz Mazowiecki, Jacek Kuroń, Adam me NIC) and widenParts of the catholic church supports. Thus solidarity over society borders succeeded away, which turned then in a people movement against the dominant regime. Particularly from the western foreign country (the USA and West Germany) there was large support.

The trip of the largeStrike wave 1980 were price increases for meat at the 1. July 1980. The strikes were first locally limited, spread then however to the entire country. Into Danzig (Gdańsk) it came on Lenin-thrown to 14. August 1980 to the strike, its more directlyCause the dismissal of the crane guide Anna Wlaentynowicz, a well-known symbol figure of the strike movement of the yearly 1970 at the coast. An operational strike committee under the Fürhrung by Lech Wałęsa was created. After concessions of the production management the strike should first already aftertwo days to be terminated. At the night on the 16. August decided the strike upright too received, in order not to repeat the development from many preceded strike movement and achieve lasting results. In this consequence became then to 17.August 1980 the “outside strike committee” (Międzyzakładowy Komitet Strajkowy) based, which compiled with the order also after completion of the strike not to dissolve, but the adherence to the reached one to supervise the so-called 21 demands. These 21 demands contained beside further usuallypolitical and social requests also the central demand for the permission of independent trade unions. In the Danziger agreement of 31. To August 1980 one allowed from government side after long negotiations, in the following time was formed the “independent selfadministered trade union „solidarity “”.

The strikes in so-called Polish August stood out clearly against the Polish strikes in the previous history Polish People's Republic. Thus on the one hand the strike was organized on Lenin-thrown as Okkupationsstreik and regulated by the strike committee in every detail. So should the Staatsmacht no opportunity to intervening by force against the strikers to be ordered. Likewise country-wide all other strikers explained themselves enterprises with the outside strike committee at the coast solidary. Particularly by the inclusion of intellectual ones into the work of the strike committeesmore far-seizing concessions than before could be wrested from the Staatsmacht. This co-operation had initiated itself since 1976 by the establishment of the committee for the defense of the workers (KOR), in addition, further intellectual ones support the trade union movement.

Lech Wałęsa was since the official establishmentto 17. September 1980 chairman von Solidarność. The national acknowledgment became to 10. November 1980 by the official national registration of Solidarność seals. In the process their existence was ever politisiert the trade union. The Solidarność continued to grow ever (to the highest levelapprox. 9,5 millions Members), also many members of the communist party PZPR became members of the free trade union. In the long run 1 million party members were up to (approx. 30% of the members of the PZPR) simultaneously members of the Solidarność. Although most of them ratherfrom low party ranks came, were after IX. Party Congress of the PZPR in July 1981 also 20% of the members of the Zentralkomittees at the same time trade union members.

The 1. National congress of the Solidaność took place in two parliamentary sessions in September and October 1981 and selected Wałęsato the chairman and a program discharged after difficult discussions. Toward end of the yearly 1981 developed into the Solidarność ever more clearly two opposite wings. The pragmatic wing under guidance of Lech Wałęsa was supported by different intellectual ones and was in a moderate confrontation with the communist ruling powers interests. On the other hand the more radical nationalconservative wing wanted an open confrontation with the communists around January Rulewski and Andrzej Gwiazda.

state of war

with proclaiming state of war in Poland in thatNight to 13. December 1981 were interned the prominent heads of the trade union and forbidden the work of the trade union. Thus it could exist only in the underground further. To 8. October 1982 was finally forbidden Solidarność by a new trade union law.

Solidarność during the turn

election poster „Highnoon “4. June 1989

starting from August 1988 came it to discussions between the communist guidance and the still forbidden underground Solidarność then into the discussions at rounding the table led, of 6.February up to 5. April 1989 in Magdalenka at Warsaw took place. Only to 5. April 1989 was again nationally recognized the Solidarność. As result rounding of the table came it to 4. June 1989 to half-free elections, those of Solidarność overwhelmingwere won. The allocation of seats in the Sejm had been already negotiated nevertheless at rounding table (65% of the seats for the PZPR as well as further communist Blockpartein and organizations, and 35% for free, thus oppositional candidate). Under the Slogan “your president, our Prime Minister”(“Wasz prezydent, nasz Prime Minister”) demanded oppositional the Bürgerkomittee, the political agency of the Solidarność, now a participation in the government. With Tadeusz Mazowiecki placed to Solidarność the first not-communist Prime Minister after the Second World War, key Ministries (inside and defense) remained however inthe hands of the PZPR. In December 1990 Lech Wałęsa was selected to the president. By arising this workers' movement, as well as Glasnost and Perestroika, it came to the turn into Poland and the political solution from from the Soviet Union dominatedEastern Bloc.

The early phase so-called III. Republic is from the policy gruba kreska (“conclusion line”, wörtl. “line” thickens) coined/shaped, which planned an amnesty for crimes of the communist government. This leads up to the today's day always again to discussions in thatPolish policy.

Solidarność after the turn

in the following years lost Solidarność at political influence, since she was made responsible for the economic and social consequences of the turn. By the parliamentary elections 1993 it lost the participation onthe government.1996 were formed the Wahlbündnis AWS (Akcja Wyborcza „Solidarność”), which was involved again from 1997 to 2000 in a coalition government. After the renewed defeat at the polls in the year 2001 AWS disintegrated.

Solidarność plays today no party-political rolemore. It continues to exist nevertheless as strong and independent trade union .

To 30. Met August 2005 oppositionals from numerous countries from cause 25. Anniversary of the establishment of Solidarność in Danzig.

The former joint founder Wałęsa has to 31. August 2005its withdrawal from the trade union explains.


meaning loss of Solidarność into the 1990ern

is stated if the relative meaning loss of Solidarność, then the point of reference lies in the year 1980, as itself on the Danziger threw the first independent trade unionwithin the former Eastern Bloc based. Today only approximately 15% the employee of a trade union are attached, that are one of the smallest values in entirely central and Eastern Europe in Poland. In the Czech republic twice as many are, in Romania three timesoperationally organizes so many employees. Reasons for the unionized meaning loss in Poland lie in the negative evaluation of the government participation of Solidarność at the beginning of the 1990er years, in splintering the trade union movement, in the privatisation of the state enterprises and developing new life-style concepts,the one other leisure activities imply.

Web on the left of

  • official side
  • Werner Pirker: Polish legends 25 years Solidarność (young world, 31. August 2005)
  • Johannes winters: [1] Polarize - do workers' delegates on the retreat? (Eurasi magazine, 12/2005, S.22-27)
  • Mieczysław Abramowicz:The liberty began 2] 21 demand of
  • Danzig in Danzig [: [3]

literature

  • Jerzy of woods: Solidarity. The history of a free trade union in Poland, Munich 1985.
  • Hartmut bold: The decade of the Solidarność. The political history of Poland 1980-1990, Berlin 1999.

election results in elections to the Sejm

1991: 5,1   % as NSZZ „S of “ 27 seats
1993: 4,9   % as NSZZ „S “
1997: 33,83   % as part of AWS of 202 seats
2001: 5,6   % as part of AWSP

See also: Parties in Poland

 

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