Somalia

Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliya
Republic of Somalia
Flagge von Somalia
(Detail) (detail)
office language Somali
capital Mogadischu
seat of the government Nairobi (Kenya)
system of government Republic of (de jure)
no (in fact) (1)
head of state de jure Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed (1)
head of the government de jure Ali Mohammed Ghedi (1)
surface 638,000 km ²
number of inhabitants 8.591.629 (conditions July 2005)
population density of 13.4 inhabitants per km ²
independence 26. June 1960 explains, 1. July 1960 recognized
currency Somalia Schilling (SOS)
time belt MSK (UTC +3)
national anthem --
Kfz characteristic FR
Internet TLD .so
preselection +252
(1) government-in-exile in Kenya; to time does not exist in the country national force.
Lage Somalias in Afrika
Karte von Somalia

The Republic of Somalia is been a state because of the horn of Africa - in the extreme east of the continent at the Indian ocean.

It borders on the gulfof Aden in the north, the Indian ocean in the east, Kenya in the south, Ethiopia in the west and Djibouti in the northwest. To the territory belonged the former UN mandated territory to Somalia (earlier Italian colony) as well as British protectorate the Somaliland, itself the 1991 on one side forexplained independently.

After the case of the socialist dictatorship under Siad Barre in the year 1991 Somalia did not have a generally recognized or actual government at least up to the year 2000. This very day far regions do not stand under control of the interim government.

Table of contents

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geography Somalia in the eastthe continent, at the horn so mentioned of Africa on the Somali peninsula. The northern part of the country is mostly hilly and in the Somali Hochland average 900 to 2,100 m and. NN; the highest mountain is the Shimbiris (Shimber Berris; 2,416 m). Toward the south a flat country with an average height of 180 M. extends. The rivers Juba and Shebelle rise in Ethiopia and flow by the south of Somalia and thus by the Somali desert into the Indian ocean. The coastal line is 2,720 km long.

Somalia affected by monsoon hoist, an all-season hot climate, irregular rainfalls and constantly returning dry periods. Except in the mountain and coastal regions the average maximum temperature lies on day between 30 and 40 °C. The southwest monsoon provides in the area around Mogadischu for a relatively mild climate in the months from May to Octobers. Between Decembers and February the northeast monsoon brings a similar mild climate. In the so-called Tangambili - period betweenthe two Monsunen (Octobers until November and March until May) it is hot and damp.

population

in early 17. The native Kuschiter mixed itself century with Arab and Persian dealers, who had established themselves along the coast.

In Somalia almost exclusively Muslims live, but live in the country also a small Christian minority. Most Christian Somalis belongs to the Äthiopisch orthodox Tewahedo church .

In the today's time live 60 per cent of all Somalier partly or completely than Nomaden. 25Per cent of humans live as farmers, who established themselves in the most fruitful region of the country between Shebelle and Juba. The remaining part of the population (15 to 20 per cent) lives in urban areas.

In Somalia live some Bantugruppen, thoseon the country work. The moreover there are still several thousand Arabs, as well as some hundred Indian and Pakistaner.

clan structure and their meaning

ethnical groups in Somalia

of special importance for society and politics of Somalia is the clan structure.As a common master father of all Somali Hill is considered. After the excessive quantity Samaal „the genuine come ", i.e. from its son. nomadisierenden Somali (Samaal) off, from its son Saab „the false ", i.e. established Somali (Saab), to which one adds also all non-Somali subpopulations.The Samaal was divided again into the north's group with the three large clan families of the Hawiye, Issaq and you as well as the Jabarti Darod in the center and in the south. The Saab (most important clan: Rahenwein) are almost exclusively in the south of Somalia resident.(JAREER WEYNE about 1/4 of the total population and belong to that usually discriminated against and disadvantaged trunks). Everyone of these clan families disintegrates to Lineages “(sexes into a large number of Subclans and „; Somali: „Reer " D. h. „People out ", „descendants of "). The latterare units from some hundreds to some thousand men, the resulting blood money (diyas) together pay and/or. received. This system provides protection for lives and property for the individual Somali, leads themselves however to endless blood feuds, not only on particularsCrimes refer, but traditionally also arguments around water and pasture rights as well as - in recent time the fight for political power and control of the humanitarian assistance cover. To the minorities of Somalia the Bantu belongs (approx. 100,000 mainlyat the underflow of the Juba in south Somalia living person from Tanzania), smaller groups of mixed origin in the coastal towns (Reer Brava, Reer Hamar) as well as „the occupational groups " (Midgan, Tomal, Yibir among other things), which specialized in services for dominant clan. All minorities as well asthe established ethnical Somali applies from view of the Samaal as not equally and is subject traditionally to a social disadvantage.

language

since 1972 is Somali office language in Somalia. The Somali (self-designation Af-ka soomaali ga) is a Ostkuschit language outthe language family of the kuschitischen languages and thus part of the afroasiatischen language family. Somali is spoken today of approximately 12 million in Somalia (Somalis), southeast Ethiopia , Djibouti and northeast Kenya.

As handels and education languages Arab become, English and Italian used.

history

for before-colonial history see: Sultanate of Adal

1908 became Mogadischu, which had confessed up to then under the sovereignty of Oman or Sansibar, capital of the recreated Italian colony. To 1920 the British had inits Somaliland protectorate the anti-colonial rebellion of the Muhammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh Hassān depressed.

Although the Italians of Somalia had attacked the 1941 a victoriously invading Britisher 1950 this colony Italy from 1934 Ethiopia (Ogaden) (Italian Äthiopi war 1935-36), gave asUnfaithful hand area back.

After longer negotiations the British government quit to 7. May 1960 for the 1. July 1960 independence for the protected area on. The two colonies Italian Somaliland and British Somaliland united to the Republic of Somalia .

1964-67 come to oneBorder war with Ethiopia around the äthiopische region Ogaden inhabited by Somalis.

To the murder of the Somali president Abdirashid Ali shearing mark in the year 1969 Siad Barré came in the course Militärput to the power, which he in the next 22Years with hard hand defended. Under it the up to then strong Soviet influence was back-pushed in Somalia, while it increased since 1975 in disliked Ethiopia substantial. Finally it let 1976 hinreissen to the assault on the neighboring country and occupied themselves thoseRegion Ogaden, which it however already lost 1977 again, since the USA did not support it in the same measure, as the Soviet Union promoted the communist regime in Addis Abeba.

Into the field of vision of Germany Somalia in the autumn 1977 , as the country camethe German special-purpose force permitted GSG9 to storm the kidnapped Lufthansa airplane land hat landed in the capital Mogadischu. This permission was a surprise, applied for Siad Barré nevertheless as convinced socialist and sympathizer of combinations of terror, as for example certain radical groups within and outsidethe PLO.

After end of the cold war the USA were no more dependent on the up to then important military bases in the country and shortened 1990 the assistance to the regime. The USA maintained an airfield in the northSomali Berbera and could the harbor facilities in Mogadischu militarily use. For lack of sufficient assistance from the USA Barré came more strongly under pressure of the different groups of rebels in the country.

After political unrests for many years in Somalia and one since 1988 in north Somalia (Somaliland) active secession movement (SNM) Siad becameBarré to 26. January 1991 finally set off. Its escape found an end in of Nigeria capital Lagos, where it to 2. January 1995 at a cardiac infarct died.

To the fall of the dictator Barrè it came to bloody unrests. Current economicalData over Somalia are not present until today. The state heard to exist in the year 1991 in fact on and split into twelve trunks , as well as the appointed State of Somaliland in the north up, controlled by being lords, that internationally notis recognized.

In August 1992 the United Nations strove to supply more than 2 million hungernden humans of the country with food. To 8. Decembers landed 28,000 UN-soldiers under US-American leadership in Somalia, in order to secure the food supply(Operation hope).

After some war princes had called toward end of the yearly 1992 to the peace, the situation was intensified again 1993, when 23 UN-soldiers of Pakistan were killed of rebels of the clan leader Mohammed Farah Aidid. Starting from April became then alsofor the first time German soldiers, see:German support federation Somalia, assigned, whose task was it to supply Indian UN-brigades with supply. The situation worsened however. The Indian did not appear, why the tasks of the German Federal Armed Forces could not be fulfilled.

Other soldiers becamein the meantime into bloody fights entangles, whereby also several Somalier were killed. For world-wide frightening provided at the 3. October 1993 the pictures of the naked corpses of two US soldiers (master Sergeant Gary I. Gordon and Sergeant roofridge Class edge universe D. Shughart), ofan applied quantity by the roads Mogadischus were geschleift (in the so-called operation Irene, which were down filmed 2001 in Black Hawk ). At the 3. March 1995 was finally terminated the UN-mission with the departure of all blue helmet soldiers unsuccessfully. The civil warin Somalia one continued.

Meanwhile forces strive to establish in Somalia again a government. Since that 13. August 2000 “is governed” the country by an interim government in such a way specified provisionally (without Somaliland).

The Intergovernmental Authority on development (IGAD), heldby the United Nations and the United States, 2002 kept a conference named “national to Peace and Reconciliation Conference” in Eldoret, Kenya. This already was the 14. Attempt of the United Nations and their supporters to create in Somalia democracy. The newState is called Republic of Somalia ( somali Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliya).

A “Reconciliation Conference” reached 2004 an agreement over a “national government” for Somalia. The African union authorized Ethiopia and four other East Africa niche nations around troops in the strength of 7 ' 500 mento place.

Since at the end of of 2004 the “ruling power” of the formerly separatist region” Puntlandis their president. New capital is to become Baidoa in southwest Somalia.

Very much to the customary law and to the nomadische and Islamic culture bound Somali population refuses itselfin far parts of the country despite these international efforts against the effectiveness of a new government.

To 26. Decembers 2004 were afflicted the coasts of the country by a Tsunami, that according to official instructions at least 132 humans killed and many thousands shelterlessmade. (See also:Earthquake in the Indian ocean 2004)

to 26. Octobers 2005 published Islamic of clergyman in Mogadischu a “Fatwa “, itself against cutting and/or. Genital mutilating at girls arranges. Therein becomes in Africa far spreadtraditional practice as “unislamisch” condemns. Sheikh only Barud Gurhan, the deputy chairman of the controlling body Somali clergyman, equated cutting with a murder . To the penetration the Fatwa will probably hardly come, since the country is controlled by clan bosses.

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Politics

Somalia possess at present no national government. Instead the country in 18 regions divides itself, which are in each case differently administered:

  • Jubbada Hoose
  • Mudug
  • Nugaal
  • Sanaag
  • Shabeellaha Dhexe
  • Shabeellaha Hoose
  • Sool
  • Togdheer
  • Woqooyi Galbeed

the Transitional national Government (TNG) in the capital Mogadischu tries to implement the government authority. However the influence of the TNG is limited only to a small area. In February 2002 the TNG placed a new cabinetwith 31 members up. The TNG places in addition the minister of foreign affairs Yusuf Hassan Ibrahim and applies in many countries as a representative of Somalia. It represents the country in the United Nations, the Arab league and other international organizations.

Somalia becomes that failing states (state decay) counted, those states, in which a national authority could not be durably established, which are durably threatened by internal decay and civil war danger.

health service

to 8. March 2004 began the first country-wide campaign against those Genital mutilating of girls. The president of the interim government, Abdikassim salad Hassan spoke thereby of a crime against the religion and against the humanity. It was the first time that a prominent man in Somalia spoke openly about this taboo topic.

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Economics

general

Somalia belongs to the poorest and to few developed countries in the world. The country hardly possesses resources, and anyway the economy already fastened came by the civil war finally to succumbing.

Land and Viehwirtschaft determinemainly the economic happening. In Somalia there are many Nomaden, which live mainly on their cattle. Additionally to the agricultural activity bananas are cultivated, which rank among the main export goods.

The moreover become fish, corn, millet and sugars for thatdomestic need cultivated or manufactured. The small industrielle sector, which produces mainly agricultural utilizable goods, amounts to only 10% GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT. Many factories were closed during the civil war.

between

1992 and 2000 the portion was appropriate for public expenditures for thatTo

  • the health service with 1%
  • the training system with 2%
  • the military with 38% [
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the Somali Romancier Nuruddin Farah is considered to public expenditures as one of the most important African writers of the present.

development co-operation

due to the uncertain politicalSituation are active in Somalia only isolated international relief organizations. Admits is only one Swiss project in the city Abudwak in central Somalia.

further topics

literature

  • Mark of Bradbury, The Somali Conflict, Oxford 1994
  • Thierry Vircoulon, La Crise somalienne; in: Afrique Contemporaine, No. 177, 1996, S. 3-16.
  • Mathias weber, the UN employment in Somalia, Denzlingen 1997
  • Abdirizak Sheikh, Mathias weber, no peace for Somalia?, Frankfurt 2005
  • Marks of Bowden, Black Hawk down - no man stays, Munich 2002
  • Michael Birnbaum, crisis centre Somalia, Heyne publishing houseMunich 2002
  • Dustin Dehéz, Somalia before the return of the interim government - a guidance for the failure of outside intervention, Düsseldorfer Institut for outside and security politics, analysis No. 18, 2005

http://www2.dias-online.org/Dokumente/analyse/DIAS-Analyse-18_10.2005.pdf

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Commons: Somalia - pictures, videos and/or audio files
Wiktionary: Somalia - word origin, synonyms and translations


coordinates: 2°S - 12° N, 41°-51° O

 

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