Sophokles (* 496 v. Chr. in Colonus Hippius (Athens); † 406/405 v. Chr. in Athens) was a classical Greek poet.

Sophokles is the largest of the well-known antique Greek tragedy poets, to those besideit Aischylos and Euripides to be counted.

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Sophokles originates from demos the Kolonos, Phyle Aigeis. It was the son of the wealthy arms manufacturer Sophillos. Already as a boy it won in physical and musischen Agonen. 480 v. Chr. it was Vorsänger with the Siegespaian after the battle with salamis and excited by its beauty attention. Its music teacher was probably Lampros. He learned according to own statement with Aischylos whether now personally or as spectators of the tragic Agons, the handicraft of the piece letter. 468 v. Chr. defeated it from Sicilies returned the Aischylos with its first Tetralogie, whose first Triptolemos was.In its piece Nausikaa appeared to Sophokles as Lyraspieler, in the piece of Thamyras as a ball player. 443/442 v. Chr. it was Hellenotamias, 441/39 v. Chr. together with Perikles strategist in the samischen war. Ios of Chios has very amusingly a Symposion outthis time described, in which Sophokles participated. Sophokles also 428 v. was probable. Chr. Strategist in the war against the Anaier. 413-411 v. Chr. belonged it to the oligarchischen Probulenkollegium. Despite numerous honorable appointments of foreign kings Sophokles has - differentlyas Aischylos and Euripides - Athens do not leave.

Sophokles exercised various ritual functions. As a priest of the Heilheros halon it introduced the cult of the Asklepios from Epidauros into Athens and took the God up to the establishment of its own Temenosinto its house up. Therefore Sophokles was admired after death as Heros Dexion. He was founder of a Musenthiasos. It obviously functioned also as medium, by which the Gods spoke to humans. It is reported that it a dream featurethe Herakles of the Akropolis stolen golden wreath/ring let find. From the reward it is to have donated a Heiligtum of the Herakles Menytes.

Sophokles was twice married. It closed its first marriage with NIC east rate; out of this connection Iophon wentout, which admits as a tragedy poet became. From the second marriage with the Sikonierin Theoris the son air clay/tone comes of. Both are the master fathers of a dynasty of tragedy poets.

Antique biographies report that Sophokles, as its son Iophon it for minorexplain to let, before court verse wanted from its piece Oidipos on Kolonnos read out and thus the complete groundlessness of the complaint of its son proved.

Documented Sophokles personal relations with Perikles, Herodot, ion of Chios. As Sophoklesfrom death he received, is its large competitor Euripides in mourning dresses the Dionysien of 406 v.Chr. opened.

Sophokles 406 or 405 v. is about ninety year old. Chr. died. It should be suffocated at a Weintraube, which probably not the truthcorresponds. It was bestattet in closely at the road after Dekeleia, eleven miles before Athens. Its tomb was decorated with a siren or with Kaledon.

To the contemporary Sophokles was already considered as a favourite of the Gods. Gesegnet with genius, kindness andIt applies for beauty until today as one of projecting humans in mankind history. It the utterance does not become „kills the messenger. “ assigned.


received is not the statue, which establishes Iophon its father soon after its deathhas, also not Polygnotos Portrait in the Stoa Poikile. Four types give a conception of Sophokles to appearance. 1. the type Farnese (Sophokles as a ältlicher man), about 310 v. Chr. created; 2. the type Lateran (Sophokles in the bloom of itsYears), copy of Lykurgos 340/30 of the v. Chr. gestifteteten and in the Dionysostheater set up bronze statue; 3. as a young man, original perhaps 360/50 v. Chr. ; 4. Sophokles as Greis (brightistic work).

an enormous work left works Sophokles. Those Suda calls 123 pieces (30 complete Tetralogien and a Trilogie). 132 pieces are well-known after the title; probably some pieces had several titles. In addition were Elegien, Paiane and a Prosaschrift over the choir. From Sophokles' Elegie on Herodot are Fragments admits.

Sophokles triumphed 20 or 24 times in the tragic Agon and never the 3. Price receive.

It divided its artistic development in three periods. Its first pieces were fully aischyleischen over vogue, the pieces of the middlePeriod of full harsh and artificialness. Only in the last phase he found the personal style.

Sophokles are to be owed some szenische and dramaturgische innovations. Their most important surely was the introduction of the 3. Actor and of Bühnenmaschinen; this must stillhappened at lifetimes Aischylos' its. Also it increased the number of the choir singers of twelve to 15. Differently than Aischylos it did not write contentwise bound Tetralogien except for an exception (nevertheless this no innovation of the Sophokles is, there oneto prove it can that already Aischylos and Phrynchios gave the contentwise bindingness up of the Tetralogien).

list of the received works

Thebani Trilogie
Antigone (442 v. Chr.), (German: Antigone)
Oidipus tyrannos (429-425 v. Chr.), (German: King Ödipus)
oedipus epi kolono(401 v. Chr. postum specified), (German: Ödipus on Kolonos)
Aiax (455-450 v. Chr.)
Trachiniai (before 442 v. Chr.), (German: The Trachinierinnen)
Elektra (approx. 420 v. Chr.), (German: Elektra)
Philoktetes (409 v. Chr.), (German: Philoktet)

listthe fragmentarily received works

  1. Achaion Syllogos
  2. Achileos Erastai
  3. Aias Lokros
  4. Aichmalotides
  5. Aigeus
  6. Aithiopes
  7. Akrisios
  8. Aleadai
  9. Alexandros
  10. Alkmeon
  11. Amykos
  12. Amphiareos
  13. Amphitryon
  14. Andromeda
  15. Antenoridai
  16. Athamas A
  17. Athamas B
  18. Atreus/Mykenaiai
  19. Chryses
  20. Daidalos
  21. Danae
  22. Dionysiskos
  23. Dolopes
  24. Epigonoi (the Epigonen)
  25. Epi Tainaroi/Epitainarioi
  26. Erigone
  27. Eris
  28. Eriphyle
  29. Eumelos
  30. Euryalos
  31. Eurypylos
  32. Helenes Apaitesis
  33. Helenes Arpage
  34. Helenes Gamos
  35. Herakleiskos
  36. Herakles
  37. Hermione
  38. Hipponous
  39. Hybris
  40. Hydrophoroi
  41. Ichneutai (the trackhounds)
  42. Inachos
  43. Iobates
  44. ion
  45. Iphigeneia
  46. Iphikles
  47. Ixion
  48. Kamikoi
  49. Kedalion
  50. Kerberos
  51. Klytaimestra
  52. Kolchides
  53. Kophoi
  54. Kreousa
  55. Krisis
  56. Lakainai
  57. Laokoon
  58. Larisaioi
  59. Lemniai
  60. Manteis/Polyidos
  61. Meleagros
  62. Minos
  63. Momos
  64. Mousai
  65. Mysoi
  66. Nauplios Katapleon/Nauplios Pyrkaeus
  67. Nausikaa/Plyntriai
  68. Niobe
  69. Niptra
  70. Odysseus Akanthoples
  71. Odysseus Mainomenos
  72. Oikles
  73. Oinomaos
  74. Palamedes
  75. Pandora/Sphyrokopoi
  76. Peleus
  77. Phaiakes
  78. Phaidra
  79. Philoktetes o EN Troiai
  80. Phineus A
  81. Phineus B
  82. Phoinix
  83. Phrixos
  84. Phryges
  85. Phthiotides
  86. Poimenes
  87. Polyxene
  88. Priamos
  89. Prokris
  90. Rizotomoi
  91. Salmoneus
  92. otherwise
  93. Sisyphos
  94. Skythai
  95. Skyrioi
  96. Syndeipnoi
  97. Tantalos
  98. Telepheia
  99. Telephos
  100. Tereus
  101. Teukros
  102. Thamyras
  103. Thyestes
  104. Triptolemos (468 before Chr.?)
  105. Troilos
  106. Tympanistai
  107. Tyndareos
  108. Tyro A
  109. Tyro B

of the Satyrspiel Ichneutai, (German: The trackhounds), became 1911 in Egypt of approximately 400 readable verses on papyrus discover.

2005 became on a papyrus from the Egyptian excavation place Oxyrhynchus with a new photographic technology of verses from the tragedy Epigonoi (dt. The Epigonen) found (translation from the English):

A:Devouring the whole, sharpening the flashing iron. B: And the helmets vibrate their magenta-colored shrubs, and the webers are correct for the carriers of the Brustplatten to the wise weber boat song, which wakes the sleeping. A: And it glues the triumph car pole together.

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