|of these articles treats a musical category. For a description of the Korean city see Seoul.|
Soul music is a combination of Rhythm & Blues and Gospel. It developed into the late 50ern in the USA. Rhythm and Blues(the term was coined/shaped by the composer and producer Jerry Wexler) for his part a mixture from Blues and jazz is and developed in the 40's. At that time small groups with Saxofonspiel develop on the Bluestradition. Soul music becomes after the portionstheir Gospel sounds, which emphasis of the singers and the connection of their religious and lay courses differentiated.
Soul (from English. Soul) is an originally afroamerikanisches music category. The transition of Soul and jazz is flowing. The term “Soul”, becausein this music, primarily the singing part, before computed, noted notes as in the classical period does not possess, but the singing part is interpreted free (mentally), sung suitable the melody.
The term Soul music designates today also more generally one independently beside skirt and Easy Listening standing kind of the modern popular music (Neo Soul). It coined/shaped by a combination of rhythmically accented, often hypnotisch introvertierten Beatschleifen (Grooves). Singing or Instrumentalsoli is rübergebracht voluminös to expressiv. By the Gegenpole of Spontaneität, libertyand creativity of the jazz to the commercial adjustment pressure and to the Trendhaftigkeit of the Pop develops here an area of conflict. Likewise by the hardness, straight-lineness and Kompromisslosigkeit skirt, which the Sentimentalität, Melodramatik and Zartheit chanson / Easy Listening face.
Table of contents
the history of the Soul
the history of the Soul is coined/shaped from names and legends. For its emergence there are differentRepresentations.
the Soul formed years in the footlights for in the middle of the 1940er more popular bends volume (Duke Ellington, COUNT Basie) and groups of harmony singing (The Clovers, The Dominoes) by the processing of elements of the Swing, Bebop, Blues and Gospel in the popular and dance music for a public from the afroamerikanischen social classes in the large cities of the USA, in particular New York, Chicago and new Orleans, out. Inspiring thereby attempts of rennommierter Bluesinterpreten (John Lee worked again and againHooker, T-Bone Walker, to receive Muddy Waters) and jazz musician (Ella Fitzgerald , Lionel Hampton , Dinah Washington), to increase the commercial success of their publications at the same time however the typical and original one of their music. This development flowedinto the emergence of the Rhythm & Blues as preliminary stage of the Rock'n'Roll into the early 1950er years. During with the development to the Rock'n'Roll (Chuck Berry, Fats domino, Little smelling pool of broadcasting corporations) strengthened also elements of the Country music consideration found andrhythmically tendentious the UP-Beat prevailed, condensed themselves by turn to the down Beat the Soul perceptible as independent category out.
Under the still to a large extent strict racial segregation in the USA by the white dominated Unterhaltungsindustrie these new beginnings were not accumulated andmarketed. Were rather black musicians and composer, who the development of the Soul by establishment of own record companies and - labels carried and with their increasing commercial influence on the music influenced also contentwise arranging. The most well-known Protagonisten was Berry Gordy with its Motown - Imperium beside Kenny Gamble and Leon Huff with Philadelphia internationally records. Coining/shaping the independent black label Stax record was similar in Memphis, King record in Cincinnati as well as Atlantic record in New York.
The bloom time of the Soulthe 1960er and 1970er were - years, when the hit parades were inundated of a Soulwelle. A ripe, perfectionistic and commercially ambitionierte form of the Soul developed from the early 1970er - years to center of the 1980er - year. The Soul coins/shapes totoday also the Pop music. The category of the these CO music developed nearly completely from the Soul music. There are transitions to the radio, to the Blues and nowadays also to the RAP and Hip Hop. In the German culture is not Soulmuch likes. There the music history of Germany, on completely different one mathematically, logically developed melody is based, like e.g. People music, classical, e.g. Mozart. “Soul” is i.d.R. incomprehensibly for the German culture, as a freely interpreted voice, which fits melody also still harmoniously.Clear, computed structures are missing as in the march music, where also the roots of the German music lie.
also the history of the Soul…
SAM Cooke, Ray Charles and James Brown generally become as thoseBeginnings of the Soul regards.Solomon Burke 's early photographs with Atlantic record fixed the style. Peter Guralnick wrote: “It was only meeting Burke and Atlantic record, which let arise a movement”. Burke's photographs of the early 60's of“Cry tons of ME,” “Just Out OF Reach” and “down into the Valley” are understood as classical authors of the category.
To Memphis, Stax records with Otis talking thing, Wilson took up spades-chained and Don Covay. (Covay took also for Atlantic in new one York town center on). Joe Tex 's “The Love You save” from the year 1965 is a further classical author under the Soul photographs. An important center of the Soul Recordings was the city Florence (Alabama), the seat of the Fame of Studios. Jimmy Hughes, Percy Sledgeand Arthur Alexander were with Fame. Into the later 60ern also Aretha Franklin came there. The Fame of Studios co-operated closely with Stax. Many the musician and producer in Memphis were carried also for the photographs with thosein Alabama were made.
Another important label in Memphis the Soul produced was Goldwax record. The owner was Quinton Claunch. Goldwax took O. V. WRIGHT and James Carr under contract. The two took then different photographs as sample copiesthe category apply. Carr's “The Dark end to OF the Street”, written from chips Moman and Dan Penn (often with another Dan the Penn one confounds), 1967 to two of other important Studios to Memphis one took up: Royal Recording and AmericanSound of Studios. Chip Moman was the owner of the American of Studios. It produced “Dark ends to OF the Street” with its house volumes consisting of Reggie Young, Bobby Woods, Tommy Cogbill and genes Chrisman. Carr took also photographs with Fame with the musiciansDavid Hood, Jimmy Johnson and Roger Hawkins.
Aretha Franklins photographs of 1967, among them “I Never Loved A one That Way I Love You,” “Respect” (written of Otis talking thing), and “DO right Woman DO right one,” become of many as the high pointthe category Soul regards. And there is also commercially most successful productions. Do not be-end this time contributed also Stax artists such as Eddie Floyd and John ever Taylor coining/shaping to the Soul music.
1968 began a splitting of the Soul movement. James Brown and Sly andthe Family Stone expanded the style direction. They abstracted both Soul and Rhythm & Blues for new creations. Artists such as James Brown concerned Soul in an dance-oriented direction, which ended in the radio music. Radio became 1970 of volume howParliament Funkadelic, The of meter, James Brown coined/shaped, while several capable groups as was, the Commodores and Earth, wind and Fire also admits became.
Grundpfeiler of the category Soul are also Howard Tate's photographs of 1967 with Verve record andlater photographs with Atlantic. They were produced by Jerry Ragovoy.
Further examples of typical Soul music are the photographs of The stack Singers, like “I'll Take You There”, exactly the same the photographs of aluminium Green, the 1970 with Willie Mitchell's RoyalRecording were made. Mitchell's rear records continued the tradition of Stax in this decade. They brought many hits out of aluminium Green, as well as important pieces of Ann Peebles, Otis Clay, O. V. WRIGHT and Syl Johnson. Bobby Womack, thatto the late 60ern with chips Moman took up, continued to make in the 70ern and 80ern with Soul productions.
From the city Detroit some important late Soul productions came. The producer Don Davis did not work with Stax artists like John ever Taylor and the Dramatics. ThePhotographs had Detroit Emeralds, e.g. into the early 70ern. “DO ME right”, which an important connection between Soul and the later Disco - Style are. Artists of Motown record, like Marvin Gaye and Smokey Robinson carried for the development of the Soul, although their photographs were held in clearly recognizable Pop direction.
Although they differ from the classical Soul, the photographs artists from Chicago are often regarded such as Jerry Butler and The Chi Lites as part of the category.
Into the early 70ern becameSoul of Psychedelic skirt and other directions affects. The social and political tensions of this time inspired artists such as Gaye (“What's Going on”) and Curtis Mayfield (“Superfly”) to bring hard striking political Statments out in album length.
In run the 70's succeeded extremelypolished and commercial Acts like the Hall&Oates from Philadelphia Mainstream success. Exactly the same a new generation of town center Soul groups such as The Delfonics or the Unifics.
Sometimes Soul of white musicians, which often really does not correspond to the style direction of the category, is called “Blue Eyed Soul”.(Conditions in approximately so with the revision modifications in it)
End of the 70's dominated Disco (these CO music)) the Charts, the broadcast and the radio. Philly Soul and most other category were dominated by this-CO-coined/shaped TRACKs. In this time groups broughtlike The O'Jays and The of crank hit out.
After the death of the Disco (these CO music) into the early 80ern the Soul music survived for a short time over then a further transformation to participate. With the influences of the electronic ones Music (electronic music) and the radio were produced Soul on industrielle way. Came out a category, which was called again once Rhythm & Blues. This Rhythm & Blues differs clearly from the original Rhythm & Blues. Itsometimes for distinction “Contemporary R&B” is called. (English. contemporary = contemporarily)
category of the Soul music
Detroit (Motown) Soul and Northern Soul
this direction by Bery Gordy's Motown Imperium one dominated. It often becomes as the “Motown sound”designated. Detroit Soul is much rhythmic and has Gospel influences. Typical are here Handclaps, energetic bass lines and violins, bells and other ungewöhlichere instruments. Motowns house volume were the radio Brothers. Further artists were under others: Marvin Gaye, The of temp act ion, The Jackson Five,Stevie Wonder, Diana Ross & The Supremes.
See also --> Northern Soul
the term decaying Soul was coined/shaped in England. The music direction comes from the Northern Soul (Detroit/Motown). It is is Remix Änliche productions.
this style direction is driving and energetic. R&B is here combined with pulsating southnational Gospel. The most well-known label was Stax. The two of house volume of this label were first of all Booker T and The MGs and secondly The Memphis of horn. Further one Artists were under others: Otis talking thing, Wilson spades-chain, Rufus Thomas, Sam&Dave, Carla Thomas, William Bell and Eddy Floyd.
Memphis Sous was a special direction of the label Stax and of the 70's 60's. The sound was softly, calmly and melancholisch and gentle Bläser, organs and Drums contained. Among the more well-known artists here aluminium Green and the volume Booker T and The MG's [
a mixture from Vocals in the 70er-Jahre-Style with Contemporary R&BSound, Hip Hop Beats and RAP Interludes. Artists were here starting from center of the 90's under others: Lauryn Hill, Alicia Keys. Later still different were added, under others:Joss Stone, Erykah Badu and Jill Scott.
resulted to label from Philadelphia internationally. Its characteristic was full Orchestrierung. Admitted artist: The Delfonics, The Three Degrees, Mc Fadden & Whitehead.
Blue Eyed Soul
Bill Haley, Elvis Presley, The Four Seasons, Boy George, George Michael,Rare Earth, Dusty Springfield…
Soul experienced here into the late 60ern an overlay with Psychedelic skirt, which cleared the way for the later establishment of the radio. Well-known artists were here under others: Sly & TheFamily Stone, The of temp act ion, The Fifth dimension and Norman Whitfield.
Soul from Germany with German text e.g.: Xavier Naidoo
- Ray Charles ' “What'd I Say”, the most well-known hit of the R&B - and Soulsängers Ray Charles
- Otis talking thing 's “Mr. Pitiful ", one the Songs of Otis, which one still knows today
- Aretha Franklin 's “chain OF Fools”, one of the largest hits of the Soul legend Aretha Franklin
- The Delfonics ' “ready or emergency Here I Come (Can't Hide From Love)” from The sound OF Sexy Soul, one of the first photographs thatDirection Philly soul
- Marvin Gaye 's “What's Going on” of the album What's Going on, one the well-known Protestsongs against the Viet Nam war
- D'Angelo 's “Untitled (How Does It Feel)” of the album “Voodoo; in addition there was a disputed music video, inthe D'Angelo exclusively naked (up to the belt line) to see was. D'Angelo is an artist of the direction Neo Soul
- Miller, Jim (editor) (1976). The Rolling Stone Illustrated HistoryOF skirt & roll. New York: Rolling Stone press/random House. ISBN 0-394-73238-3. (Chapter on “Soul,” by Guralnick, Peter. pp. 194-197.
- Escott, Colin. Liner of notes for The Essential James Carr. Razor and Tie record, 1995.