Soviet Union

СоюзСоветскихСоциалистическихРеспублик
Soyuz Sowjetskich Sozialistitscheskich Respublik
Union of the socialist Soviet republics
Flagge der Sowjetunion Wappen der Sowjetunion
(detail) (detail)
office language Russian (in each Soviet republic and in the autonomous republics additionally the respective national language: Estnisch, Lettisch, Litauisch, Byelorussian, Ukrainian, Moldawisch, Romanian, Georgian, Armenian, Azerbaijani, Turkmenisch, Kasachisch, Uzbek one, Tadschikisch, Kirgisisch as well as other national languages in the autonomous Republics of)
capital Moscow (since 12. March 1918 capital of Soviet Russia, later RSFSR, starting from 30. December 1922 capital of the USSR)
head of state of heads of state of the USSR
arrangement 15 socialist Soviet republics (CSSR also union republics) as well as 20 autonomous socialist Soviet republics (ASSR), 8 autonomous areas, 10 autonomous districts, 6 regions and 121 areas
surface 22.402.200 km ²
number of inhabitants 290.100.000 (1991)
population density of 13 inhabitants per km ²
existence period 30. December 1922 -
25. December 1991
currency 1 rouble = 100 kopecks
time belt UTC +02: 00 to +12: 00
national anthem the international one
(1922-1944)
Gimn Sowjetskowo Sojusa
(1944-1991)
national holidays
Kfz characteristic CSU
Internet TLD .su
preselection +7
television standard: SECAM - East
Karte der UdSSR
Einwohnerentwicklung der UdSSR

the union of the socialist Soviet republics (briefly USSR or Soviet Union, Russian СоюзСоветскихСоциалистическихРеспубликСССР/Soyuz Sowjetskich Sozialistitscheskich Respublik SSSR Tondokument ? / License) was communist one - centralistic state union in Eastern Europe and north Asia governed. Them became to 30. December 1922 based and separated to 8. December 1991 up. The central area (also78% of the surface) consisted those of the Russian Soviet republic at that time, in the course of the October Revolution to 7. November 1917 had come out from the Zarenreich, and after the dissolution of the union as independent Russian federation their legal follow-up began. Because of thatDominance of the Russian Soviet republic within the Soviet Union was in the west also the false designation „Russia “usual for the entire Soviet Union.

Table of contents

Geografie

your largest expansion, which it maintained up to its end, attained the union in the process of the Second World War with the incorporation of the Baltic States of (Estonia, Lettland, Litauen), Bessarabiens,the northern part of East Prussia as well as Finnish and Polish areas. The Soviet Union was thereby in the recent history of mankind the state with the largest coherent national territory.

The Soviet Union bordered after 1945 in the west on Romania, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland, the Baltic Sea, Finland and Norway; in the north to the Barentssee, the Karasee, the Laptewsee as well as to the eastSiberian sea; in the east to the Ochotski sea, the Beringmeer as well as to that Pacific ocean; in the south at North Korea, the People's Republic of China, Mongolia, Afghanistan, Iran and Turkey.

The territory of the USSR covered with 22.4 million square kilometers nearly a Sechstel of the mainland of the earth. InWest east direction extended it from the black sea and the Baltic Sea up to the Pacific ocean over nearly 10,000 kilometers. From the north to the south it had an expansion of nearly 5,000 kilometers. The Soviet Union affected 11 of the 24 time belts of the earth.

Physical one Map of the former Soviet Union

population

after the conditions of the census of 1988 had the Soviet Union in their 15 union republics 286.717 millions Inhabitant. The Russian SFSR (Russian socialist federal Soviet republic) was both surface, and population-moderatelyfar largest one and also in political and economic regard the most dominating union republic.

life in the Soviet Union

forms of the property

in the Soviet Union gave it to two fundamental forms of the property; Individual property and Collective property. These differed strongly in their contents and that legal status. In accordance with communist theories, capital (means of production) could be not individually possessed, apart from some insignificant exceptions. After the end of brief loosening with the new economic one Politics by Lenin, became any industrielle property, as well as development land common property of the people, respectively property of the state. With the individual property one differentiated with respect to two different kinds; Private property and personal property. First contained after the socialist laws alsoPrincipal one (means of production) and was thus national property. Therefore the personal property could be only possessed individually in the Soviet Union.

See: Collectivization

monitoring, control and repression

the Soviet Union was from their establishment to their dissolution a police state, in that hardly an aspect of the daily life of the national monitoring, control and repression extracted itself.Opinion, freedom of trade, travel, education and other liberties existed on the paper, not however in practice. It had fornearly each important activity a obrigkeitliche grant to be caught up. The authorities, first the secret and public security service KGB, supervised the public and private life of the Soviet citizens intensively; These simmering ducks had national Repressalien and heavy punishments up to the Deportation in the punishing camp(“Gulag “) to gewärtigen.

These totalitarian control and coercive measures took place most intensively under Stalin and Brezhnev, during later, particularly under the Glasnost of Gorbachev, also limited cultural, political and personal free spaces developed. In the Nachstalinzeit gave italso these simmering ducks an underground, which itself among other things over forbidden literature (“Samisdat “) and political humor (see. Radio Eriwan) alive held.

religion in the Soviet Union

the Soviet Union was officially atheistisch. The practiceor were e.g. subject extensive national restrictions were in the meantime forbidden to the religion. Laws against public singing of religious songs (see revolution also singing).

If still about 90% of the Russians were organized in the orthodox church around 1920, then those sankNumber until 1940 on under 30%. Many Gläubige were exposed, were tortured, shot or to Siberia banished to Repressalien.

Under the guidance of Lenin by the Soviet government decrees and laws were issued, in their consequence it to mass executions of prieststhe Russian-orthodox church came (“decree over the freedom of conscience, the church and religious combinations” from January/February 1918 as well as liquidating law of 27. July 1918, submitted of the Volkskommisar for law Pjotr Stutschka).

Under Stalin thousands became priests in labour camp (Gulag)deportiert. Likewise became in centralasiatic republics, where by the majority Muslims lived, who likewise forbade most mosques closed and the worship.

politics

formal were the Soviet Union a föderalistischer confederation of states of partial states (union republics); actually it was centralistic more governed and of the Russian Soviet republic dominated state. It became nominal democratically by advice (Soviets) and/or a parliament governed. Actual power was however always with the guidance of the communist party of the Soviet Union, those the country particularlyunder Stalin in a totalitarian manner, later rather diktatorisch governed. Toward end of the USSR Mikhail Gorbatschow under the keyword Perestroika efforts , actual undertook, to introduce democratic institutions.

The government of the Soviet Union was not responsible only for the legislation, administration and jurisdiction of the country,separate administered also the economy. The fundamental political decisions were made by the most important political institution of the country, the communist party of the Soviet Union (the CPSU).

Into the late 1980ern was the structure of the state in the theory similarly howwith western political systems organizes. Thus a condition used all state organs and guaranteed to the citizens a set of political rights and citizen rights. A legislation force, the congress of the people-assigned and a constant legislativer advice, the highest Soviet, as representative governmentrepresented the sovereignty of the people. The highest Soviet selected the presidency, its chairmen also as a head of state functioned and supervised the advice of the people's commissars, later the Council of Ministers, which acted as the executive force. The chairman of the advice of the people's commissars, itsChoice by the legislation to be confirmed had, was a head of the government. A condition-based Judikative was represented by a system by Courts of Justice, the whose highest highest Court of Justice was. The highest Court of Justice was responsible for the monitoring of the regularity of the institutions for government. After thatCondition of 1977 had the country a föderale structure, those the individual partial republics of certain sovereigns of rights (z. B. the decision over minority politics) awarded.

In practice however many of the tasks of the individual institutions for government of the only permitted party became, thatThe CPSU, perception. The actual basic and guideline decisions were met by the party and of the government taken over, rather the decisions of the party ratified as even laws to decide. A number of different mechanisms ensured for the fact that the government the decisionscarried to the party. The citizens of the Soviet Union could decide with all elections, they selected which candidate, but since all candidates had to belong to the CPSU and by the party were set up, the communist party knew all important positions infor the government with persons set, who were opposite the party leadership loyal. The persons in government offices were supervised strictly by the CPSU, in order to prevent that they deviated from the official line.

The major task of the executive, the Council of Ministers, was the administrationthe economy. The Council of Ministers was occupied over the entire time of its existence with the communist party opposite loyalen politicians, the chairman of the Council of Ministers was always also a member of the Politbüros, the central decision maker of the CPSU. Often it was also thatSecretary-General of the party. The chairman had a dominant factor position opposite the other Ministers.

After the condition of 1988 highest legislation was the committee of the Soviet Union the congress of the Volksdeputierten. The most important task of the congress was the choice of onesmaller, constant legislations meeting, the highest Soviet with its chairman, who was at the same time a head of state. Although the congress of the people-assigned had theoretically alone the right to decide laws it met only rarely, around bills of the party, the Council of Ministers and of theTo agree highest Soviets. The highest Soviet had the right to interpret and decide together with the Council of Ministers of decrees the valid right of the Soviet Union, if there were ambiguity in the existing laws.

The juridical system differed from in westernStates of maintained. Instead of a defender and a public prosecutor for and/or. against the accused it argued, co-operated the judge with the public prosecutor and the defender, in order to guarantee that the processes promoted the truth to day, which led also to abuse.

economics and traffic

see: Gosplan - Gosbank - Gossnab - five-year plan

currency

the official currency of the Soviet Union was rouble. 1 rouble corresponds 100 kopeck. Today rouble is the official currency of Russia.

Work on []

Agriculture

the agriculturally usable large region in the former Soviet Union between pc. Petersburg, Odessa and/or Rostow at the Don in the west and Krasnodar in the east are called also agrarian triangle.

See: Sowchos - Kolchos

culture and society

ThisArticle or section requires a revision. Details are indicated on the discussion side. Please to improve it and removes afterwards this marking helps.

architecture

planning to the palace of the Soviets in Moscow, 1934

in the time of One set Josef Stalin in the Soviet Union particularly on very splendid palaces and sumptuous buildings in the sugar baker style (socialist classicism). This architectural style began with the unrealized building project “palace of the Soviets” in the year 1933 and is a name forthose splendid palaces and sumptuous buildings into the year 1955. Since after the end of the Second World War a strong population growth appeared, it came at the working classes rapidly to a large housing shortage. With the beginning of the era of Nikita Khrushchev in September 1953 was called in the whole Soviet Union to economy measures. Khrushchev met the leading architects and building functionaries of the Soviet Union in December 1954 for the “conference of All-Union of the building-creative” and left the Entstalinisierung of the building culture and the abolishment public of the“Konservatismus in architecture” communicated. Under the slogan “good, more cheaply and faster build” followed drastic changes in the living concept. With the new architectural style of that time those generally developed as “Chruschtschowki” (хрущёвки; Blocks of flats) marked residential buildings, which in the style ofso-called “Chruschtschoby” (хрущобы; Disk's building settlements were arranged).

See: Socialist classicism - socialist town construction

Walentina Tereschkowa

science

major item: Science in the Soviet Union

see: Soviet space travel

to literature

see: Soviet writer would list - list more russischsprachigerMore closely

painting

socialist realism

see: Socialist realism - Suprematismus - constructionalism - Kubofuturismus - Peredwischniki

film and theatre

see: Category: Soviet film

media

see: Prawda - Soviet television

sport

See: National soccer team of the USSR - Soviet chess school - Soviet ice hockey national team - Soviet olympia crew

history

major item: History of the Soviet Union

the Zarenreich at that time Russia with the October Revolution, designated after - entmachteten however fast - the advice (soot. Soviet), to the Soviet Union. The early Soviet government, in that the revolution leaders Vladimir Iljitsch Lenin and Leo Trotzki as government and/or. Army generals, when chairmen of the advice of the people's commissars functioned, tried to accomplish an centraleconomical retrieving industrialization of the country. Before in allRanges backward farmer country, in which partially medieval, more precisely expressed feudal asiatic production conditions prevailed, should be transformed within 20 years to industrial power and for the military starting point of the world revolution. This was done via the forced structure of the heavy industry berserkerartigen in its execution from 1928 on . The ideological power of the party should be strengthened by comprehensive Alphabetisierungskampagnen under the ignorant population.

There by during the revolution, the fight of their before-bleached opponent (“counter-countering revolutionary “) and during the following civil war (1917 -1921) practiced war communism a catastrophic economic situation had originated in, to 1921 the new one in such a way specified economic policy (NEP) were introduced, which contained a row of free market concessions. The dominant caste of the bureaucracy, which had found its leader in Josef Stalin,ignored after hesitating for many years and the small citizen and Russian large farmer (Kulaken) accomodating policy to an arbitrary and incorrect planned economy . The agriculture was obligation-collectivized in Sowchosen and scour trousers in a way that it the union economically againinto a condition like civil war shifted. This accompanied with under Lenin and by Stalin the escalated pursuit and Deportation begun of up to 20 million humans, who stood to these measures apparently or trueful in the way, into the obligation labour camps of the Gulag. Millions were murdered or flared out, for example the population of the Ukraine.

foreign policy

an important step from the isolation even selected formed reconciliation with Germany in the contract of Rapallo of 1922, that the USSRas the first foreign state recognized diplomatically. To 18. September 1934 joined the Soviet Union the Völkerbund .

The relationship to the National Socialist regime in Germany was from the outset very strained. Hitlers aggressive Außenpolitik und seine Herabwürdigung der slawischen Völker als "Untermenschen",just like its extreme enmity to communism, the GermanSoviet relations impaired very strongly. The Soviet Union and Germany nevertheless closed to 23. August 1939 a nonaggression treaty, the Hitler Stalin pact in such a way specified. In a secret supplementary protocol the Soviet Union and Germany put theirSpheres of interests in Eastern Europe firmly.

After Germany at the 1. September 1939 Poland had attacked and its western part up to the agreed upon interest border had occupied, marched the Red Army to 17. September 1939 in the eastern part of Poland. Stalin justified this step officiallywith the fact that it wants to protect the related peoples of the white Russians and Ukrainer from the German threat. To 28. September, one day after the surrender of the city Warsaw, locked the Soviet Union with Germany a bordering and a friendship treaty . To 10. February 1940 followed a economic agreement between the two states. The reasons for the Hitler Stalin pact are disputed in the modern historical research. A certain role surely played that both states wanted to increase their influence in Eastern Europe and Stalin hoped, with oneTo be able to manage nonaggression treaty this without a war. Acting the Soviet Union becomes of some also under reference to the z. T. antisoviet direction of attack of the British Appeasement politics as a necessary security of the Soviet Union against an attack from the west (is it now of Germany or of the Western European states and the USA) defends.

To 30. November 1939 began the Soviet Union the winter war in such a way specified with Finland. Because of this attack the Soviet Union was excluded from the Völkerbund. Due to the warFinland parts of its national territory in Karelien had to the Soviet Union transfer, which established the Karelo Finnish socialist Soviet republic there.

In June 1940 and okkupierte the Soviet Union the three Baltic States of Estonia , Lettland and Litauen annektierte as well as in July 1940 Bessarabien (the later Moldavia) as well as the Bukowina.

To 22. Juni 1941 wurde die Sowjetunion von Deutschland angegriffen. In the Soviet and/or. here (not 1939) the Second World War begins Russian historical conciousness as the Great Patriotic War. Die Sowjetunion versuchte nachto close the German attack an alliance with Great Britain and the United States from America to. Main objective of the Soviet Union was thereby the establishment of a second front.

Above all the relationship to Great Britain of mutual distrust was coined/shaped, however supportedthe allied ones it after forces, regarded of the Soviet Union before as imperialists. In the large conferences of Teheran and Jalta it finally succeeded to co-ordinate an anti-Hitler coalition to schmieden and the fight against Germany. The Soviet Union carried in the fight approximately Germany, in opinion of most historians, the main load. Of it it witnesses also that over 80% of the German losses at the east front came.

The war-devastated Soviet Union went 1945 out of the Second World War internally weakened, however also as allied power into Europeout. Several states in means - and turned out for Eastern Europe under Soviet control. The Soviet Union was crew power in the middle part of Germany (and. A. in the Soviet zone of occupation (SBZ)) and beyond that also in completely Eastern Europe.

In the conferencefrom potsdam three winner powers of the war in Europe tried to unite on a postwar order, which succeeded however only partially. The anti-Hitler coalition, which had come against the common enemy Germany laboriously, broke after the victory overHitler at the mutual distrust. From the different conceptions over the European postwar order the east west conflict finally developed.


Afghan civil war and Soviet invasion

Afghanistan war, was a military conflict, itself the troops Soviet with the invasion in the year 1979, which expanded from a civil war to a deputy war of the east west conflict. The war let a world-politically most critical crisis zone develop. It devastated the country and robbed almost it of its entire infrastructure. However on Afghan sidebecame estimated to 1989 the number of the victims on more than 1.2 million, those of the refugees on approximately five million.

In the year 1973 Mohammed Daud fell his cousin king Sahir and could to the president of Afghanistan be selected. 1978 becameDaud for his part of the after of the assumption of power by the communist „democratic people's party of Afghanistan “(DVPA) under only Muhammad Taraki to 27. April 1978 operated these an approximation to the Eastern Bloc and the social transformation (education program, land reform etc.),those the backward country to modernize looked for and reforms in the sense of material socialism accomplished, z. B. a land reform, Sicherstellung of medical supply, education also for girl, equalization of the Mrs., abolishment of the veil obligation uvm.

This politics pushed with master leaders, large basic ownersas well as Islamic Mullahs on refusal. Approximately 30 Mudschaheddin groups formed, which took up the fight against the government: The Afghanistan war began. The partial fundamentalist oriented Stammeskrieger was among themselves zerstritten and only geeint war holy by their „” against „the disbelieving ones”. Beyond thatthe traditional Ablehung of a central government played by the master heads a motivating role the policy to fails to bring.

Under the pressure of the advancing Mudschaheddin the government 1979 sent an assistance call to Moscow, Russian SFSR. Thereupon decidedthe Soviet government, Soviet armed forces (approximately 100,000 men) in the country, which sought to protect above all cities and roads. The country Afghanistan was traditionally closely connected with Moscow since 1919; the country had received extensive economic and development assistance.On the other side now the USA switched themselves on into the conflict and supported the Islamic holy warriors with modern weapons (z. B. Stinger rockets and with the storm rifle M-16), moneys, information and military advisers. It concerned to the USA offentsichtlich,to create directly at the Soviet border an unrest stove and to weaken the Soviet Union economically. US president Ronald Reagan announced, it wanted the Soviet Union „dead-prepares”. Also some Islamic countries sent the Afghan Glaubenskriegern support.

Soviet troops pull themselves from Afghanistanback (wheel tank BTR-60). Photo: Mikhail Evstafiev

by the continuous fights between government troops and Mudschaheddin was released a large refugee wave (approximately five million concerning). The refugees collected themselves particularly in Iranian and camps of Pakistan. Pakistan was also the main supply basis of the Glaubenskrieger.In the year 1981 the government ( with only moderate success) tried to introduce the compulsory military service; at this time approximately two thirds of the government troops had overflowed to the freedom fighters in such a way specified. a military deadlock was reached 1982 /83; the population sufferedheavily under the war actions. The new president Mohammed Nadschibullah set 1986 on a course of the national reconciliation and the dialogue, while the Mudschaheddin wanted to force by the majority the victory. However about at the same time the new Soviet president judged Mikhail Gorbatschow the Soviet commitment in Afghanistan as too expensive and involving heavy losses. He said:The war represents one „open wound” and stands to an approximation to the west and a completion of the cold war in the way. In the years 1988/89the Soviet troops were withdrawn gradually from the neighboring country.

Thus the fate of the government of Mohammed Nadschibullahs was sealed, which could hold itself however still until 1992 in Kabul. Then took over the victorious Mudschaheddin power and beganimmediately to fight each other mutually. Winners in these arguments, which encountered only small interest in the west, were the fundamentalist Taliban, which brought the largest part of the country under their control and furnished an Islamic God state. Only thatThe north of Afghanistan could be held by the north alliance in such a way specified.

membership in international organizations

the Soviet Union was after the Second World War member of the UN with right of veto and the prominent state of the defensive alliance Warsaw Pact. It belongedthe KSZE on and the restaurant alliance COMECON.

internal development after the Second World War

after the Second World War tried the Soviet Union to secure the won territorial sphere of influence. The Soviet sphere of interest in east Poland as well as the entire, agreed upon in the Hitler Stalin pact The Baltic attached the USSR durably their national territory; beyond that it formed numerous satellite states, in which it, particularly in Eastern Europe, established Volksdemokratien so mentioned.

The XX. Party Congress of the CPSU 1956 proclaimed the break with the Stalinismus, Nikita Khrushchev proclaimed a fundamental turn in the Soviet policy. Despite the careful liberalisation on the inside (“thaw”) the Soviet can of a fundamental turn in. Politics not to be spoken. The reform movement in Hungary 1956 became by the Red Armybloodily depressed. Despite more intensive diplomatic contacts to the USA, the cold war continued and brought the world 1962 in the Cuba crisis to the edge of a nuclear war. On pressure of the USA Chrutschschow pulled the planned rockets in the last momentoff and the threatening escalation prevented.

The state achieved successes with the prestigious „conquest of the universe “. With the dog Laika one sent the first organism and with Juri Gagarin first humans in the universe (1961).

1964 became Khrushchev by thatconservative Leonid Brezhnev as a Secretary-General replaces. Than communist designating states the regime vehement opposed reform attempts in others. The liberty movement of the Prager spring in Czechoslovakia (1968) was struck down with tanks Warsaw Pact. Also the imposition of theMartial law in Poland 1980 (striking down the reform movement of the trade union Solidarność), happened under the pressure of Moscow.

1979 marched Soviet troops into Afghanistan. After high losses one had to again withdraw the troops however 1989.

The large mountain worker strikes in Siberia inthe years 1989 and 1991 revealed, how socialism had changed itself in the 70 years of its rule: It was pervertiert for the rule of a privileged functionary clique (Nomenklatura), the workers unimportant cordially to which. From the dictatorship of the Proletariatsa dictatorship had become over and against the Proletariat.

The programs of Perestrojka (change), introduced by Mikhail Gorbatschow starting from 1985, and Glasnost (openness) should reform material socialism, accelerated however finally the end of the maroden Soviet system.

In the years 1990 and 1991 explained the Baltic Republics of Lithuania, Lettland and Estland as the first their independence. The centralasiatic and Caucasian republics as well as Moldavia followed their example. To 8. Decembers 1991 decided the heads of state of the three last republics remained in the union -the Russian, Ukrainian and Byelorussian - the official dissolution of the Soviet Union and created at the same time the community of independent States of GUS.

top managements of the Soviet Union

Wladimir Uljanow "Lenin"
Vladimir Uljanow “Lenin”
Josef “Stalin”
Nikita Khrushchev

party chief of the Bolsheviks (1903 - 1918), the communist party of Russia (1918-1925) and/or. the communist party of the Soviet Union the CPSU (1925 - 1991), and thus actual ruling powers, were:

  1. 1903 - 1924: Vladimir Lenin (actually: Uljanow)
  2. 1924 - 1953: Josef Stalin (actually: Dschugaschwili) (Secretary-General)
  3. 1953 - 1964: Nikita Khrushchev (first secretary)
  4. 1964 - 1982: Leonid Brezhnev (starting from 1966 Secretary-General)
  5. 1982 - 1984: Juri Andropow (Secretary-General)
  6. 1984 - 1985: Konstantin Tschernenko
  7. 1985 - 1991: Mikhail Gorbatschow

head of the government of the Soviet Union: (1917 - 1946: Chairman of the advice of the people's commissars, 1946 - 1991: Chairman of the Council of Ministers, 28. August 1991 - 25. December 1991: Prime Minister of the USSR and chairman of the inter+republican restaurant committee)

  1. 1917 - 1924: Vladimir Lenin (actually: Uljanow)Founder of the Bolschewisti party
  1. 1924 - 1930: Alexei Rykow
  2. 1930 - 1941: Wjatscheslaw Molotow
  3. 1941 - 1953: Josef Stalin (actually: Dschugaschwili)
  4. 1953 - 1955: Georgi Malenkow
  5. 1955 - 1958: Nikolai Bulganin
  6. 1958 - 1964: Nikita Khrushchev
  7. 1964 - 1980: Alexei Kossygin
  8. 1980 - 1985: Nikolai Tichonow
  9. 1985 - 1991: Nikolai Ryschkow
  10. 1991: Walentin Pawlow (January until August)
  11. 1991: Iwan Silajew (August until December)

heads of state of the Soviet Union (1922 -1938: Chairman centers of the executive committee, 1938 - 1946: Union-oldest 1946 - 1989: Chairman of the presidency of the highest Soviet, 1989 - 1990: Chairman of the highest Soviet, 1990 - 1991: President)

  1. 1919 - 1946: Mikhail Kalinin
  2. 1946- 1953: Nikolai heavy NIC
  3. 1953 - 1960: Kliment Woroschilow
  4. 1960 - 1964: Leonid Brezhnev
  5. 1964 - 1965: Anastas Mikojan
  6. 1965 - 1977: Nikolai Podgorny
  7. 1977 - 1982: Leonid Brezhnev
  8. 1983 - 1984: Juri Andropow
  9. 1984 - 1985: Konstantin Tschernenko
  10. 1985 - 1988: Andrei Gromyko
  11. 1988 - 1991: Mikhail Gorbatschow (starting from 1990 president of the Soviet Union)


arrangement

the Soviet Union was formally a federation. From 1940 to 1991 gave it to 15 national socialist soviet republics (also union republics called), which had theoretically also the right to withdraw the union. The republics had their own conditions, those, like the condition of the entire union, theoretically the division of power in the Soviet Unionto guarantee should. In practice the central government had drawn and made however all important powers actually decisions, which were only implemented by the regional authorities.

Within these republics there were autonomous ones so mentioned socialist Soviet republics (for example Nachitschewan), autonomous ones of areas, for example the Jewish autonomous area and autonomous one of circles. All this Entitäten carried theoretically a state character. Different interpretations of the Soviet condition of 1977 are important for some conflicts in the post office-Soviet area. for example in Abchasien,an autonomous republic was, or Bergkarabach, which was an autonomous area.

the union republics of 1991, their succession states and today's political connections

Union republic USSR succession state GUS NATO European Union EURASEC GUUAM advice for collective security SCO

Armenian CSSR
1936 - 1991
Armenia
1991 - - observers - -

Azerbaijani CSSR
1936 - 1991
Azerbaijan
1991 - - - 1997 - -

Estni CSSR
1940 - 1991
Estonia
- 2004 2004 - - - -

Georgian CSSR
1936 - 1991
Georgien
1993 - - - 1997 - -

Kasachi CSSR
1936 - 1991
Kazakhstan
1991 - - 2002 - 1996

Kirgisi CSSR
1936 - 1991
Kirgisistan
1991 - - 2002 - 1996

Letti CSSR
1940 - 1991
Latvia
- 2004 2004 - - - -

Litaui CSSR
1940 - 1991
Lithuania
- 2004 2004 - - - -

Moldaui CSSR
1940 - 1991
Moldavia
1991 - - observer 1997 - -

Russian SFSR
1922 - 1991
Russia
1991 - - 2002 - 1996

Tadschiki CSSR
1929 - 1991
Tadschikistan
1991 - - 2002 - 1996

Turkmeni CSSR
1925 - 1991
Turkmenistan
1991 - 2005 - - - - - -

Ukrainian CSSR
1922 - 1991
Ukraine
1991 - - Observers 1997 - -

Uzbek CSSR
1925 - 1991
Usbekistan
1991 - - - 1999-2005 - 2001

Byelorussian CSSR
1922 - 1991
white Russia
1991 - - 2002 - -

national anthem

Major item: Hymn of the Soviet Union

until 1944 was “the international one” the national anthem of the Soviet Union. 1943 composed Alexander Wassiljewitsch Alexandrow an hymn with the text of Sergei Wladimirowitsch Michalkow, particularly intended for the Soviet Union. This became for the first time at the 1. January 1944presents the public. Three and a half months later, to 15. March 1944, was explained this song as the official national anthem of the Soviet Union.

The hymn experienced 1977, when consequence of the Entstalinisierung, its only change, with which among other things Stalins name removes from the textbecame. Between 1955 (two years after Stalins death) and 1977 the hymn was always interpreted without text.

After the collapse of the USSR new Russia threw the Soviet inheritance off and gave themselves a completely new hymn. There itself these never, became in the year the old Sowjethymne with new text pleased 2000 of large popularity again the national anthem of Russia.

literature

Lomonossow university, Moscow
  • Leonid Luks: History of Russia and the Soviet Union: from Lenin to Yel'tsin. Pustet, Regensburg 2000, ISBN 3-7917-1687-5
  • Manfred Hildermeier: The Soviet Union 1917 - 1991. Oldenbourg, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-486-56497-8
  • Thomas's M. Bohn (Hrsg.): History of the Russian realm and the Soviet Union. Böhlau, Cologne 2002, ISBN 3-412-14098-8
  • Karl hero (Hrsg.): The life's work Mikhail Gorbatschow: Of thatReform of material socialism for the destruction of the Soviet Union. Point of article publishing house, Munich 1992. ISBN 3-929211-00-9
  • Marks of R. Beissinger: Nationalist Mobilization and the Collapse OF the Soviet State. Cambridge University press, Cambridge 2002, ISBN 052100148X

see also

Sowjetisches Überschallpassagierflugzeug, Tupolew Tu-144
Soviet supersonic passenger airplane, Tupolev Tu-144

Web on the left of

Commons: Soviet Union - pictures, videos and/or audio files
Wiktionary: Soviet Union - word origin, synonyms and translations


 

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