A socialist unit party of Germany
|of these articles is concerned with the socialist unit party of Germany; for the Surface Conduction Electron emitter display see SED (display).|
|The neutrality of this article or paragraph is disputed. The reasons stand on the discussion side or on the side forNeutrality problems. Attempts to formulate the article neutral and remove this component only if it is no longer necessary.|
the socialist unit party of Germany (SED) was in the former Soviet zone of occupation from SPD and KPD 1946 come outA party. It developed there under influence of Soviet crew power to the prominent party, to the so-called state party. The political system of the GDR is called sometimes also a party state or a party dictatorship. The SED designated itself 1989 in SED/PDS and finally in Party of Democratic Socialism over. Due to a Wahlbündnis' with the party “work & social justice - the choice alternative” (WASG) to the election to the Bundestag 2005 took place a further renaming into” the left wing party “.
Table of contents
, let 7 literature 8 Web on the left of establishment minutes of the establishment of the SED the ZK of the CPSU spend after conscientious training in Moscow back to east Berlin. One these Cadre was the late Wolfgang Leonhard fled into the Federal Republic, which had to transform the Soviet instructions for their zone of occupation as a member of the group of Ulbricht into looking democratic forms of a right state. By the instruction number two the SMAD of 10.June 1945 stood to its political manipulation nothing more in the way.
In June 1945 the central committee of the KPD stepped for the first time to the public. The ZK of the KPD and the Central German SPD still decided in the same month an action agreement, whichthe basis for the establishment of a German unit party formed.
With the pressure of crew powers and the KPD as well as not fewer SPD members, the guidance of the SPD and KPD organized a conference, which decided the fusion of both parties in December 1945. Motivationwere the experiences with splitting the left Hitler opponents in the parliament of the late Weimar Republic, which was regarded as one of the substantial causes for the seizure of power of the NSDAP, which among other things in the deklamatorischen character of the oath of beech forest and inthe people front to the expression came.
To 21. and 22. April 1946 met in the admiral palace (the today's Metropol theatre) in the Friedrichstrasse delegated from KPD and SPD, honour guests and spectators to the common Party Congress of KPD and parts of the SPD. On the part of thatSPD participated 548 delegated (under it 103 from the western zones of occupation) and from the KPD 507 delegated (under it 127 western). These represented approximately 680,000 social-democratic and approximately 620,000 communist party members of the Soviet zone of occupation (SBZ). The meeting was opened alsothe Fidelio - Ouvertüre Beethovens. Subsequently, Pieck and Otto Grotewohl from different sides the stage entered William and were enough themselves the hands. This symbolic gesture was had a feeling for in the emblem of the SED. To what extent or whether it itself around an obligation combination ofSPD and KPD acted are disputed, although among other things the time witness and jointly responsible Wolfgang at that time Leonhard in addition clearly in its books the coordination of Moscow occupy.
Had preceded controversy discussions of the members in the German countries.
- fundamentalist forces thatKPD, which continued the policy of disparaging the SPD as „social fascists “,
- critical forces of the SPD, which communist called „ red-painted fascists “,
- forces, which the political concepts of KPD and SPD as incompatibly regarded,
- unit efforts, those from realizations of Social Democrats and communists from the time of the common unlawfulness and pursuit under the National Socialist dictatorship and the common resistance resulted,
- to efforts of Soviet crew power to establish stalinistisch oriented forces
- efforts of the US-American, English and French crew powers, antisoviet oriented forces tooparticularly establish
- , tactical and power-politics efforts in parts of the KPD guidance, around the increasing influence of the SPD back urge.
Particularly within the SPD violent controversies raved around the advised combination. The actual chairman in West Germany, briefly Schumacher, spoke himself vehementgegen diesen Schritt aus. The central committee under the presidency of Otto Grotewohl, the management commitee of the SPD in the SBZ and the four-sector city Berlin, could come with several meetings to no agreement. He consented only, as the Thuringian SPD state chairman Otto book joke threatened to start the combination with its regional organization. In particular in the regional and restaurant arrangements of the SPD Soviet crew power had the possibility of affecting among other things also with Repressionen and arrests the SPD members.
With a strike ballot among SPD members,only in the west sectors in west Berlin to be accomplished could do, spoke themselves to 31. March 1946 82% the participant against an immediate combination, but nevertheless 62% for „common work “with the KPD out. In the Soviet sector of Berlinand in the Soviet zone of occupation a strike ballot of the SPD did not become certified. In Berlin, where the SPD also in the East part of the city far existed, approximately two thirds of the members kept its social-democratic party book, about a third stepped intothe SED.
Also in the remaining zones of occupation there were different forms of co-operation and approximation efforts between Social Democrats and communists. Thus 24 decided to. July 1945 in Hamburg and to 8. August 1945 in Munich representative of the SPD and thatKPD a common scheme. In Frankfurt/Main developed at the 3. October 1945 a working comitee of Social Democrats and communists and at the 1. October 1945 called the Einheitsauschuss of SPD and KPD in Wiesbaden for the combination of both local parties. Over itoutside Social Democrats and communists on local level co-operated in a set of cities.
Both in the American, English and French zones of occupation, and in the Soviet zone of occupation, on these processes on the part of crew powers influence was taken. Therefore becomes andthe combination taken place in the Soviet zone of occupation was regarded generally as obligation combination under Soviet pressure.2001 granted the Members of the Bundestag Gabriele room and Petra Pau (both Party of Democratic Socialism) that members of the SED both during the process of the combination deceptions, obligations and Repressionen permitted, and errors would have committed. To 6. May 2001 followed the party executive committee of this explanation.
The historical development of the SED
the SED as left-socialist people's party
at the time of the establishment in the Soviet zone of occupation existed the SEDfrom approximately 1.3 million members. These came too nearly same parts from the two establishment parties. On anti-fascist - democratic fundamentals oriented program exercised a considerable attraction on the population. This testify both the member entrances and the election results1946. Thus the SED became with the elections of 1946 a strongest party, missed however the absolute majority desired.
Portion of the SED members of the individual social layers in the countries of the Soviet zone of occupation in the year 1947:
- 33% of all employees
- 33% allTeacher
- 25% all industrial worker
- 20% of all farmers
- 14% all craftsman and manufacturing one
- 14% of all engineers and technicians
with a certain authorization could be thus actually spoken of a mass party. In the first party program of the SED contained the principles found bothformer Social Democrats and with former communist agreement. Noteworthy also its proximity is for the Erfurter program of the SPD of 1891. Thus the original program of the SED avoided still each reference to the Leninism and spoke from the democratic way to socialism.In the party statute still no world-descriptive restrictions were raised. Rather the SED was open to all, which had turned away openly from the national socialism, and/or these rejected. There was still no candidate time, no examinations, no Politbüro and no Secretary-General. Offices became strict in equal numbers of communists and Social Democrats occupies. Thus there were two chairman of the party at this time also: the Social Democrat Otto Grotewohl and the communist William Pieck. Practically it was shown however that former communist functionaries, under its experience in handlingproved their proximity to crew power with political apparatuses , and with their stronger political penetration strength following from it, opposite former social-democratic functionaries frequently than dominance.
In the first year of the SED it did not succeed to carry out the objectives. Thus attempts failed,the party work since the west of Germany to expand, and with the elections of the federal parliament in the SBZ in October 1946 missed the united labour party the absolute majority. During an election turnout, in the east sector obligation to vote prevailed, over 90 per cent kept the SED from limitedwith the elections of the federal parliament 47.5 per cent of the delivered voices. In Berlin, where the elections took place at the same time for town council, the following being correct conditions (all four sectors together) resulted:
special the west workand the option on a Germany which can be reunited socialistically coined/shaped the party work of the first years. In December 1947 for the first time the first German congress of people in Berlin, called up on initiative of the SED , met. He understood himself as an all-German committee against those,so in the party language of the time at that time, „Spalterpolitik of the imperialistic Western powers “. However participated from the western zones of occupation only 664 delegated and guests. So also party cadres of the KPD (delegated 242) and the SPD (91 delegated). Even parts thatCDU of the Soviet zone of occupation refused themselves.
The shaping of the SED into a party new type
one „a party new type “is in the understanding of the Lenin's theory a party on the basis of the marxism Leninism and the democratic centralism, with taut party disciplineas principle of organization, which understands itself as avant-garde of the Proletariats.
as a mass party reflected the SED all currents of the society. This did not correspond to the conceptions of influential parts of the former KPD and Soviet crew power. Thus became, under the increasingFührerschaft of former communist members, a new, fundamental democracy understanding prevents. Besides substantial reservations, which already spoke in the 30's against a common policy of SPD and KPD, could not be eliminated. In addition belonged primarily moving from thatstalinistischen Repressionen, which also German anti-fascists fell to the victim. Prohibition itself nevertheless each beginning of a critical evaluation of this politics alone already from the presence of crew power out. As dire also the strong connection of German communists to those proved The CPSU (Bolschewisierung) and the associated influencing control on the part of the Soviet Union on all ranges of the party life. This culminated in the fact that national interests unconditionally Soviet efforts were subordinated. The preference of former communist functionaries by crew power and the kindand way, in which these used it also for itself, connected with political Diffamierungen, led to tensions and damages within the SED.
in Germany appeared the education of two states, which would belong to different blocks. Thusthe confrontation politics of the cold war were in-carried directly into the different zones of occupation. Violent arguments between LDPD, CDU and SED regarding the development tendency of the economy, resistances against land reform and nationalization, as well as contradictions between market - and planned economy markedthe situation in the Soviet zone of occupation. In addition different forms of the white-collar crime and sabotage came.
Effects on the SED
around political power to stabilize and under the influences of the CPSU it seemed necessary the prominent circles of the SED,to reform the party. On I. A conference of party in January 1949 became besides clearly that the stalinistischen forces had become generally accepted successfully in the SED. It was reshuffled strictly according to the rules of a Lenin's party, developed according to the principle of the„democratic centralism “. In addition the task of the world-descriptive neutrality belonged in favor of a strict materialism, exclusive orientation at the marxism Leninism as „scientific world view “and the fight of all social-democratic tendencies. About 150,000 members were excluded.
These processes of procedures were accompanied, howthey in the Soviet Union since Stalins seizure of power took place.Pursuits, arrests, accusations and condemnations of former Social Democrats, worker functionaries, former members of KPO and SAP and Westemigranten of the KPD under direct co-operation of the party control commission and later of organs the GermanDemocratic Republic of (Ministry for public security, people police, law apparatus) secured that stalinistisch for forces into the SED the supremacy. Thus the SED became the state-basic party of the GDR, beside which the other coalitions played only a Nebenrolle. On thatII. A conference of party 1952 the bases for the change of the society for the building up of socialism in the GDR was decided:
- Reorganisation of the structure of state with the dissolution of the countries and creation of 14 districts
- structure of armed armed forces
- strengthened collectivization of the agriculture
Structure of the SED
the basic organization
the SED organized itself mainly in the enterprises and mechanisms of the GDR. Thus actually each range of the public life was subject to its influence. The password presses the requirements, which should result from it for each member,„Where a comrade is, is there the party “out. Thus the basic organizations in the state-owned enterprises ( VEB), machine and tractor stations [ MTS], state-owned goods ( VEG) and agricultural production cooperatives ( LPG) received express auditing right over the activity of the production managements.
The group of parties formed thosesmallest organization cell of the party. In it the members selected the supervisor of group of parties (PGO) as a responsible person for the party work, a cashier, agitator and, depending upon size of, still assigned to members into the line. Were present several groups of parties, then they became in that Department party department of (APO) in summary, which formed again a separate line around the department party secretary. Those regularly stattfindenenen party meetings served for to the political discussion and training. Several APOs or, in smaller mechanisms, often only one group of parties formed the basic organization (GO), from one Party secretary were led. In the populated areas there was the less meaning living party organization (WPO) for not working person ( housewives, pensioners), with similar structure.
They were to a considerable degree prepared and produced from the party leadership of the SED. The delegated ones of the Party Congress were selected and invited by the central committee of the SED. Thus it was made certain that of the national mass organizations an appropriate numberin members and a portion of women and young people as well as of exemplary workers participated was selected. The candidates selected by the central committee in delegate conferences then by the local party machinery after the appearance one selected democratically. A surprising or unkrontrollierte discussion on thatParty Congress did not take place, since all discussion contributions on the Party Congress had to be submitted to the party before.
In April 1946 at the establishment Party Congress of the SED a one year's rotation of the Party Congresses was specified. The 2. Party Congress took place actually 1947, third howeveronly 1950. Afterwards the Party Congresses were held every 4 years, starting from 1971 every 5 years. 1989 became the 12. and last Party Congress accomplished.
The party secretary
party secretaries worked mostly honorary beside their daily work. Starting from a certain size of thatBasic organization, which caused always also many department organizations and between-arranged committees, full-time party secretaries were selected. Party secretaries in very large collective combines or in economicalally important enterprises, were at the same time member in superordinate guidance organs, up to the central committee. The task of the party secretary was the organization of the political work. He prepared the party meetings and political training courses together with the party line, controlled the adherence to the party resolutions, provided for their conversion, passed on and trained. In addition also a report monthly which can be delivered belonged over „to tendenciesand opinions “, in which the opinion of the population reflects become should. Since superordinate lines found therein every now and then a criticism of their work, these were continued to give variously modified. This fact makes the increasing Bürokratisierung of the party machinery and the presence of stalinistischer tendenciesclearly. Party secretaries were monthly politically particularly qualified and by representatives of the superordinate party committees, which Instrukteuren controls trained and. They were also members of the national line, and secured so the claims to leadership of the SED in the enterprises and administrations. Decisions thatLine were discussed in the party committees and decided finally. This meant that the national leader, if it was member of the SED was bound to the conversion of the resolution.
The choice of the party secretary took place apparently democratically via tuning of the members orDelegated one, actually was already pre-determined the exit by the designation of suitable candidates. The small scope of action, which was to party secretaries at the disposal, connected with disillusioning in view of the experienced contradictions of the social development led to the fact that particularly the honorary function often only undersubstantial moral pressure on the part of the superordinate lines one accepted.
the basic organizations of a circle were subordinated the SED Kreisleitung. Altogether there were 262 circle lines, of it twenty in central mechanisms like Free one German Youth (FDJ), suitor German trade union federation (FDGB), State Department, Ministry forForeign trade, German National Railroad and the military organs Ministry of the inside (MdI), Ministry for public security (MfS) and national People's Army (NVA), which had in each case their own political administration.
The circle line as a committee was a selected, honorary acting organ. Besides existedthe administrative institution circle line, which had employee coworkers, who were however not inevitably members of the committee circle line, but administered the party machinery. Their 1. Secretary of the SED Kreisleitung supported of 2. Circle secretary, the secretaries for economics, agriculture, agitation and propaganda and thatChairman of the circle party control commission. This secretariat of the circle line led the actual business. Further members of the secretariat were usually the chairman advice of the circle and/or. Advice of the city, the chairman of the circle plan commission, the chairman of the FDGB Kreisvorstandes and the 1.FDJ Kreissekretär. They took directly Enfluss on the work of the national organs, for example the advice of the circle. In principle the party committees could give to the national organs „only “recommendations in the operational work, were however in cadre questions (personnel decisions) obligated for agreement. Member of the SED Kreisleitungalways was the director/conductor of the circle agency of the MfS. The 1. Circle secretary was also, responsible to director/conductor of the circle employment line for the guidance of the circle in the military state of defense.
As control organs the circle revision commission, finances and adherence to the resolutions controlled and the circle party control commission functioned,the internal-party operational sequence examined and directly to the secretariat was subordinate. Meeting the circle delegate conference, in which the selected representatives of the basic organizations (party secretary and, according to the size of, several members) participated, was to be put down cause, account, resolutions to seize, the work of the secretariat andto confirm the circle line and to select a new circle line. In larger places a local line and a local delegate conference between circle line and basic organizations party members, who were not seized in operational basic organizations (pensioner, smaller crafts enterprises, self-employed person etc., were installed, over also), tooorganize. The circle party school was assigned to the circle line. A picture of the work of one circle line and its 1. Secretary drew the Thuringian writer Landolf Scherzer in its book „first “. In circle-free cities it gave the city line of the SED to after-arranged urban district lineswith party committees in the enterprises of the territory and/or. Living party lines (WPO).
this structure continued over the 15 districts with the semidirect line (BL) and their secretariat, as well as the commissions specified above. The BL asCommittee was a selected, honorary acting organ. Besides existed the administrative institution semidirect line, that had employee coworkers, who were however rarely members of the committee BL, but administered the party machinery. Their 1. Secretary, supported of 2. Secretary and the secretariat alsoResponsible person for agitation and propaganda, economics, science, culture and agriculture. The district bosses of FDJ, FDGB, district plan commission etc. belonged to this secretariat similar to the circle line. on. The first secretary of the semidirect line, had a considerable authority in the district, was memberthe central committee of the SED and more rarely even candidate or member of the Politbüros of the ZK of the SED (always the district secretary for the capital Berlin). He was at the same time a chairman of the respective district employment line (BEL), those for the line of the district in the case of defense asOrgan of the national defence council was responsible. Seat of the BEL was usually the military district command. Members of the semidirect line was among other things always the respective director/conductor of the district administration (BV) of the MfS and the district authority of the people police (BDVP). This is called, the director/conductor of the state security service BVwas formally subordinated to the SED Bezirkschef, however own command authority had in all operational questions. The district party school was assigned to the semidirect line as education place. Likewise was subordinate the BL the district newspaper, a daily paper with numerous restaurant editorships, which belonged to the party enterprise VOB Zentrag. The 1.Secretaries the SED circle and semidirect lines were already in each case nomenclature cadres, i.e. they had to be confirmed before their choice into this party function by the ZK of the SED.
the central committee (short form: ZK) was the highest organ in the party structure between the Party Congresses. The center of power was thereby at the secretariat of the committee, which a Secretary-General managed. This was again a chairman of the Politbüros. In thatthe members of the ZK stood for political order of rank over the Ministers, who were ZK-secretaries and department managers opposite the national Ministers instruction-authorized. This guide roller results from the condition of 1968, in which the guide roller of the SED was fixed.
1989 existedthe ZK from 165 members and 57 candidates. An all high-ranking party and state functionaries of the GDR were - represent if member of the SED - in the ZK. Of directors of institute over general managers of important collective combines, which presidents of the writer federation, generals up to earnedParty veterans were represented all important function carriers. The ZK was dominated - like the entire upper power hierarchy of the GDR - male, the woman portion rose since never 1950 over 15 per cent.
The Secretaries-General of the ZK of the SED were:
- Walter Ulbricht, 1950- 1953, thereafter first secretary to 3. May 1971
- Erich Honecker, starting from 3. May 1971 to 1976 first secretary, afterwards to 18. October 1989 Secretary-General
- Egon Krenz 18. October 1989 - 3. December 1989
that about ten ZK-secretariesthose were altogether assigned to 40 different departments of the ZK with full-time coworkers. There were 1970 still 1,000 coworkers, there was already 1987 2,000 coworkers. A department was led in each case by a department leader and its deputy, also very influential positionsin the GDR power apparatus. Each department was again arranged into sectors with sector leaders, coworkers and Instrukteuren. ZK-members and coworkers had free entrance to all national and party mechanisms, own holiday homes and other privileges with their id cards.
ZK-departments and its department managers (it gave approx.40 departments of, list incompletely):
- Cadre: Fritz Mueller (1960-1990), at the same time 1. Secretary of the SED-GO in the ZK
- of party organs: Refuge Dohlus (1960-86, starting from 1973 even secretary of the ZK), Heinz Mirtschin
- States of and legal questions: Dr. Klaus concern not (at the same time member of the Council of State)
- safety questions: GustavRöbelen (1955), (colonel general) harsh ore disk (1972-1985), Wolfgang Herger (1985-89)
- mechanical engineering and metallurgy: Gerhard thawing cock, at the same time starting from 1985 directors/conductors of the group of guidance of key technology
- basic industry: Refuge Wambutt (1969-89)
- agriculture: Bruno Kiesler, (1959-81) Helmut Semmelmann (1982-89)
- trade, supply and foreign trade: Ernst is enough, Hilmar white (1967-89)
- transport and intelligence: Dieter Wöstenfeld (1987-1989)
- building industry: Gerhard Trölitzsch (1960-89)
- planning and finances: Günter Ehrensperger (1974-89)
- socialist business management: Karl-Heinz Janson (1967-89), Institut of the same name assigned in Berlin Rahnsdorf
- agitation: Rudi Singer (1963-66), Werner Lamberz, late Hans Modrow (1971-73), Albert Norden
- trade unions and social politics: Fritz break (1966-76)
- culture into: Hans Joachim Hoffmann (late culture Minister as successors of Klaus Gysi), Egon Rentzsch, Lucie plow, Ursula rack joke (1976-89)
- foreign information: Manfred protects (brother of Margot Honecker)
- international connections: Paul Markowski (1966-78), Günther Sieber (1980-89)
- international policy and economy: Harsh ore Häber (1973-1985), Gunter Rettner (1985-89), Stellv. Harry morning star; IPW institute of the same name assigned
- youth: Wolfgang Herger (1976-85), Gerd Schulz (1985-89)
- women: Inge castle is enough (1961-89)
- for national education: Werner Neugebauer, Lothar Oppermann (1963-89)
- Sport: Rudolf light man
the ZK of the SED had predominantly its seat in the ZK-building, also well-known as „large house “, at the Werder market in Berlin center. This extensive building complex was in former times seat of the realm bank and is today part of the Foreign Office.
The central committee was called often „small Party Congress “, since it met between the actual Party Congresses several times in the year and the work of the Politbüros absegnete. While under Secretary-General Ulbricht still lively discussions in the ZK took place, Honecker this met under his successorCommittee only very formally twice in the year. The daytime work took over instead the Politbüro, a small circle of the secretaries of the ZK and other high-ranking party officials.
The last meeting of the central committee of the SED found at the 3. December 1989 instead of, on that Hans Albrecht, Erich Honecker, Werner Krolikowski, Günther nuthatch, Erich Mielke, Gerhard Mueller, Alexander Schalck Golodkowski, refuge Sindermann, Willi Stoph, Harry table, harsh ore goat cock and Dieter Mueller from the ZK and from thatA party were excluded.
On that 3. Party Congress of the SED 1950 was selected for the first time a ZK after Soviet model and one replaced thereby the party executive committee officiating so far.
Secretariat of the central committee
the secretariat of the ZK met in each case on Wednesday, over as a planning staffto convert the the day before made decisions of the Politbüros and to prepare its next weekly meeting. It consisted of the secretaries of the ZK of the SED, but the practical work was carried out by the various department managers and their coworkers. Crucial meaning had thatSecretariat with the selection of the ZK nomenclature cadre, this were those about 300 highest positions in a party and state, which were obligated for agreement by the ZK-secretariat before their new occupation.
Politbüro of the central committee
the important daytime work took over the Politbüro, smallerCircle of high-ranking party officials, consisting of 15 - 25 members and about 10 candidates (without right to vote), under it those about 10 secretaries of the ZK. The Secretary-General of the ZK of the SED was at the same time a chairman of the Politbüros (so also its official complete function title).These scarcely 30 SED cadres were the all-powerful internal power circle of the GDR. The actual government, the national Council of Ministers of the GDR had to convert its resolutions „only “still over the Ministries downward, constantly controlled from the party committees, so „the prominentRole of the party “, according to GDR condition, guaranteeing. The chairman of the Council of Ministers and the president of the people chamber were, if SED members, also members of the Politbüros.
In practice only the extensive of the secretariat and the departments of the ZK became erarbeitenen collecting mains ofthe members and candidates (without right to vote) usually unanimously decided, that were set for the members before by courier to the document study. One relied usually on the resolution recommendation for the respective field of activity responsible of the Politbüromitglieds, without others into its field of activity in hereto talk. Spreading only the Secretary-General could intervene. Tunings to safety questions were thereby taboo, this directly between the respective Minister and the Secretary-General were strictly confidentially regulated. Special topics leading cadres became such as general managers, directors of institute, Ministers or undersecretaries of stateDefense of their decision collecting main cited. The Politbüro met each week of Tuesday starting from 10:00 clock for approximately two hours in the second floor of the central committee building. Outside of the meetings and in the vacation period it came also to resolutions in the circulation method, i.e.a signature folder was approving drawn by the members.
commissions and working groups with the SED Politbüro and their leader:
- Commission with regard to foreign policy, Hermann Axen
- agitation commission, Joachim gentleman Mr.
- culture commission, briefly Hager
- commission of the directors/conductors of socio-scientific institutes with the ZK of the SED, briefly Hager
- economic commission, Günter noon, met every 14 days on Mondays
- to commission Asia, Africa and Arab area, Günter noon
- youth commission, Egon Krenz
- woman Mrs., Inge is enough
- for safety commission, Paul Verner, Egon Krenz (replaces by national defence council NVR?)
- Cadre commission, Fritz Mueller
- working group balance of payments, Günter noon
- Central revision commission (ZRK):Fritz Gäbler, briefly Seibt (1967-89)
for the supporting administrative work gave it a secretariat of the Politbüros, its ladder was:
the role of the SED in thatGDR
home policy and society
the avowed political goal of the SED, the establishment and preservation of the dictatorship of the Proletariats could be guaranteed only thereby which all to social ranges were subject to constant control and influencing control. With the doctrine of the guide roller of the party should , the threads of the political succeed, mental and economic life in the party centers of power gather to let”. From that communist manifesto from Marx and Engels became derived this claim to leadership finally in the condition of the GDR (section I, chapter 1, article1) embodied:
“The German Democratic Republic is a socialist state… under guidance… their Marxist-Leninistic party. ”
Party everyday life
the SED had last about 2.3 million members. This was a very high portion with approximately
8 millionEmployed person and 16.8 million humans total population in the GDR. Thus the SED led its own requirement as „avant-garde of the working class “to apply ad absurdum. However 339,000 members, thus 15%, were 1981 nomenclature cadres, i.e. a high leading partyor restaurant economics.
Into the lateeighties of the GDR it became to move under increasing contradictions between the experienced social reality and the announced theory ever more with difficulty, in particular young humans the party entrance. During some the vocational ascent by party member shank förden wanted, or therebywere pushed, then it was put to master candidates close to occur the SED was difficult it straight for the responsible persons to recruit the demanded number of workers. In the circles and in the medical profession it applied for artistic intelligence traditionally rather as, „comrade “to be befremdlich, but top positions were also there coupled to “a confession to the party”.
For the SED about 44,000 full-time coworkers and 300,000 coworkers in addition to the regular duties worked under it 100,000 party secretaries whereby at least the simple coworkers only scarcely on the average to onecomparable restaurant cadre were paid.
the admission into the SED took place starting from that 17. Lebensjahre. It required of a written request (with reason) on membership as „a candidate of the SED “, who had to be supported of two defiency guarantees, the members of many years of the SEDwere and the applicant knew.
In the following year the applicant had the obligation and the right as a candidate to participate in all party meetings of the responsible basic organization without right to vote. It took place a special candidate training and Kanditatenaufträge was often assigned. They hadfor example the following form:
- „The comrade XYZ secures a high order in his department “
- „for common with the comrade ABC holds comrade XYZ contact to the godfather class and leads two meetings in the context of the sponsorship work through “
- „as a member of the combat team of the collective combinefulfills Genossse XYZ all to it transfer genes tasks with high quality and readiness of application. “
At expiration of a yearly in the group of parties it was co-ordinated whether the candidate should be accepted, whereby it quite came to refusals or extension of the candidate time. However was thisvery rarely and frequently connected with criticism at the basic organization on the part of superordinate lines. The candidate concerned had to count on disadvantages and meeting with hostility in the working life. The minimum age with the admission as a member was 18 years (majority).
For the admission was thoseBelongingness to social layers or class quite considerably. It existed fixed member conditions of workers, employee, cooperative farmer, members of socialist intelligence, craftsmen and self-employed persons. While workers and cooperative farmers were allowed to occur practically without restriction „the labour party “SED,even purposeful publicity campaigns were accomplished were it for a member of intelligence (in particular teachers) particularly then heavily to the SED to be perhaps taken up if straight member conditions were not in the desired agreement. Partly itself these hadless wished layers for many years with the candidate status are content. Actually 1986 58.2% of all members were classified, actual as „workers “production workers were however only 37.9%. Belonging one of intelligence were officially only 22.4%, and pensioner 14% of all members.
Inpractice came it to the most adventurous bucklings, in order to be considered still as desired workers. Thus the general manager, if he had begun his career before 40 years as a worker, was considered time life as a worker.
With successful admission became the new comradethe documents, i.e. membership card, party program and party statute (two small red booklets, format for instance A6) solemnly hand over. The loss of the membership card „party document “was considered to fall as rough misdemeanour, there it „the class enemy “into the hands could and became at least alsoa Rüge punished. In the initial years the comrades had to constantly carry the document of identification with itself. In the hard times of the cold war of the 1950er years still substantially more strongly to party discipline one paid attention, and the exclusion of the comrade concerned would be safebeen.
Resolutions were seized after discussion usually unanimously, abstention were not intended according to party statute. The discussions became also from bottom to top ever more einsilbiger, until it came on the Party Congresses only to the reading before in writing submitted and authorized „discussion contributions “.
End of the membership
the membership in the SED ended only by exclusion, withdrawal (cancellation) or death. Whereby a withdrawal was actually not possible, since the abtrünnige comrade concerned was excluded simply before, this was called then „cancellation “. Party-metas Rüge, severity Rüge and exclusion became by the party control commissions on all party levels imposed, which had over „the unit and purity “of the party strictly to awake.
Chairman of the centers party control commission (ZPKK) with the ZK of the SED:
with Rügen also „moral misdemeanours were punished “like adultery, which was not worthy of a party member in the public and personal life. A criminal condemnation led to the party exclusion.
Exclusions cancellations party-met year:
- 1987/ 19.470/7.516/1,349
- 1988/22.998/10.849/ 1.956
a special form to lose its party member shank again was that about all ten to 15 years taking place conversion so mentioned of the party documents, i.e., a new membership card was spent. This was with a comprehensive internal-party discussion and„Cleaning “connected in which „unreliable “companions and comrade did not come again into the party, it took place as it were „a cold exclusion “with the cancellation from the membership list.
The last conversion was briefly planned before the end of the GDR in the autumn 1989.It accompanied with personal discussions in the basic organizations. The autumn events did not let the conversion burst and it new party documents were more spent. They were however already in the circle lines present and issued.
took party meeting as a member of the SEDat the meetings of group of parties and/or meetings of the members of the operating party organizations (BPO) or with not employed person pensioners of the populated area party organizations (WPO) part. One could be selected and selected. Candidates had only advisory voice. In the meetings there was an agenda and meeting minutes.
The informationthat about 100,000 party secretaries served the party-internal and as far as possible confidential news sheet “party information”. In the meetings frequently argumentations were spoken to current events from it.
The party meeting took place monthly in all enterprises always on Mondays after stopping time, thus off for instance 17:00 clockand lasted until two hours. It was only accessible to comrades and candidates. In exceptional cases public meetings were accomplished. Apart from the meetings of the basic organization, monthly meetings of the department party department of (APO) and the party training year were accomplished.
Party training year
the party training year served the political-ideologicalTraining of the members and was monthly accomplished. It was led by a member of the party line of the basic organization and/or a trained propagandist. It was begun central with meetings for the seminar leaders. In the seminars also non-members participated, if themspecial leading positions took. For teachers a resolution of the trade union existed, in which the participation was obligating for non-party ones. From a topic offer the party line selected for the basic organization the important. In high editions brochures became the support of the workin the the time publishing house given change. This material was acquired by the participants of the Lehrjahres available, the price was extraordinarily small with 1,60 Marks in addition.
- 1970/71 the Lenin's theory of the imperialism - keys to understand the imperialism in its present development stage
- 1978/1979 theory and politics of the further organization of the developed socialist society in the GDR
- 1983/84 basic teachings of Marxist-Leninistic philosophy
- 1985/86 Grundprobleme of the political economics of socialism and the economic strategy of the SED
- 1987/88 Lenin's theory about the imperialism
in addition toParty training year gave it in the enterprises to the 1980er year „the argument to the week “, short political training courses for the coworkers by a member of the SED assigned in addition.
the SED Parteischulen were likewise hierarchically organized. At the lower end the circle party schools stood(KPS) with evening classes, afterwards the delegation came to the district party schools (BP) (1 year direct study) and at the point was the PHS party university Karl Marx (1 and 3 years study) Berlin.
Usually one could complete the next stage only if onebefore the preceding school had successfully completed. District and party university were possible also in the remote study. The conclusion at the party university was diploma society scientist. Rektorin of the party university was as particularly orthodox well-known Hanna the wolf, with very close personal contacts toSecretary-General.
Further mechanisms on central level were Institut for marxism Lenin mash (IML) and the academy for society sciences with the ZK of the SED. Their theoretical organ was the monthly magazine „the unit “. As material for the current party work it gave from the ZK thatSED published monthly review „new way “.
Delegation was alternative for the attendance of the party university „W.I. Lenin “ of the CPSU in Moscow possible. Here many cadres from all socialist countries and Volksdemokratien studied in in or three-yearly study. The discussions were substantial from oneopen global perspective coined/shaped. Due to this Moscow stay many leading party cadres spoke (starting from 1. Circle secretary upward) Excellency Russian. Graduate as diploma society scientists with state examinations was for example Egon Krenz.
Without the attendance of a party university it was practically impossible in the GDR,to reach a national or internal-party top position, since technical and social qualification for „the socialist leader “represented a unit.
Admitted members of the SED
- Otto Grotewohl (1946)
- William Pieck (1946)
- walter Ulbricht (1946)
- Erich Honecker (1946)
- Olga of grains (1946)
- To Hermann Kant (1949)
- Hans Modrow
- Günter Schabowski (1952)
- Gregor Gysi (1967)
- Werner Eberlein
- Wolfgang Harich
- Alexander Abusch
- Volkhardt Germer
further members see category: SED member
- history of the socialist unit party of Germany (SED). Dietz publishing house, 1978, ISBN 3320004239
- obligation combination? To the debate over the union of SPD and KPD 1946 in East Germany.; Diestel publishing house, Heilbronn 1996, 128S.
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