the expression socialist realism calls a style direction of the socialist art, the 1932 decided by the central committee of the CPSU guideline for literature , screen end art and music and later for the entire socialist systembecame obligatory.
Socialist realism as official doctrine dominated the Soviet art up to the collapse of the Soviet Union in the late 80's 20. Century. It had the strongest effects in the direct time after the Second World War; only after Stalins death 1953wurden die Vorgaben etwas gelockert.
Table of contents
socialist realism in the literature
the twenties, the years after the revolution,variety and avant-garde were coined/shaped in art and literature the Soviet Union of . Freely of tsarist censorship, enthusiastisch welcoming the new spirit of the time, innumerable groups formed („групповщина “, phonetically “gruppowschtschina”) and combinations such as LEF, LCK, Proletkult, those the worker literature partly promoted andaggressively advanced.
Avant-garde currents in the culture altogether had survived themselves at the beginning of the thirties however almost and also internationally from tendencies to classicism and Ruralismus („blood and soil literature “) had been replaced.
in its decree of 23. April 1932 over thatChange of the literary-artistic organizations decided the ZK of the CPSU the dissolution of all groupings and organizations and the establishment (provisional) of an All-Union writer federation (WSP). In particular the groupings of the radical proletarian worker seal („Proletkult “) RAPP, which had formed since 1918 and for their part to the dissolution of other groups had contributed,were affected by it.
Two years thereupon the first congress of All-Union of the Soviet writers in the August 1934 prepares, on which the new doctrine was openly discussed and which Soviet writer federation was created. In its statutes socialist realism was fixed as „obligatory artistic method “. Was called literalit there:
- Socialist realism as main method of the Soviet artistic literature and literature criticism, demands from the artists truthful, historically concrete representation of the reality in its revolutionary development. Truth loyalty and historical concreteness of the artistic representation must with the tasks of the ideological shaping and education of the workers inSpirit of socialism to be co-ordinated.
Altogether 591 writers from 52 nations participated in the congress, whose central figure and first chairmen Maxim Gorki was. Some of them expected in the discussion over the new methods still larger liberties and variety in topics andForms; however already the inaugural speech of Andrej Schdanow knows as a representative of the ZK of the CPSU clearly on lining up ideological fixing of the artistic method. Campaigns, which publicised terms in the following years such as partyness, people solidarity, mass in accordance withness and comprehensibility, narrowed gradually the literary forms. Humor, Irony and satire, grotesque - absurd forms and experimental literature became - at least officially - not possibly.
socialist realism formally tried to unite romance and realism those from Russian perspective both the literary main pounding19. Century represented. Here the kind of the representation should be inferred from realism as method, the positive spirit and be developed the emotions however the romance, and so a new, revolutionary romance. One also pointed out that instead of the romance the roots of the socialistRealism rather in the classicism to find are.
In both cases old forms reused around new to transport socio-politically conformal contents frequently in trivial way. More closely the avant-garde, which new linguistic forms and expression possibilities of the poetry had developed, or naturalistische currents did not fit any longer inthis concept. Only Majakowski, which had been still attacked by the proletarian worker poets in the 20's, was distinguished of book airs and of Stalin themselves 1935 as „a Soviet classical author “.
kinds and motives
typical motives of the literature of this epoch are the heroesthe structure of the Soviet society. It prevails a worker and a work cult. Heroes of a new, Soviet type needed the exemplary achievement, which had to be furnished by the industrialization one up to then predominantly agrarian coined/shaped country by humans. Pilots, flight pioneers and crews were acting persons.Later, in order to strengthen the defense readiness in relation to the fascist foreign country, developed a close connection of writers with the Red Army. 1930 were already created the literature organization of the Red Army (LOKAF), also the Maxim Gorki belonged. Also within other ranges literature-creative became completely concrete socialTasks assigned.
A fusion of classical Heldenepen (like e.g. Eugen Onegin) and civil novel (like e.g. War and peace) led novel to the kind - of the Epos (Роман Эпопея typical for socialist realism, also: Novel Epopö). Here important historical epochs with that becameTo single fates of its heroes and in epischer width links represented.Alexei Tolstoi with its Epos the suffering way (Хождениепомукам) or Scholochows of quiet Don (ТихийДон) contributed to this kind.
A further important kind of socialist realism, the novel, was divided into three lateral branches:
- Tointo the late 30's the production novel was the most important Untergattung. Topics were agricultural scour trousers, collectivization and „Entkulakisierung “, industrieller structure, production of Bodenschätzen, sabotage and class warfare etc. Well-known authors of this kind were Mikhail Scholochow, Fjodor Panfjorow and Leonid Leonow.
- StalinThe kind of the educating novel rose from maxim that writers had to contribute to the education of the people, as well as fundamental changing values of the entire educating nature under Stalin. Thematically the development of humans was treated too „socialist personality “ , Patriotismus and line loyalty to the party. Successful educating novels were about Nikolai Ostrowskis Like the steel and Anton Makarenkos the way was hardened in the life.
- Without giving the view way up of the historical materialism (Marx), the historical novel represented a new aspect in the thirties on history. Instead of as the class warfare historical in the Zwanzigerninto the center of the view to place, now highlights were regenerated from „the national past “, whereby a purchase was however always manufactured to the Soviet present, either when warning negative examples or as indirectly parallels were designed to the current rule system. Remarkable examples of this novel kind are thosethe works of Alexei Tolstoi, Alexej Nowikow Priboj and Sergej Sergejew Tschenski.
promotion and cleanings
the cultural reversal were accompanied by radical censorship as well as pursuit and „cleanings “not system-conformal man of letters („parasits “- „вредители “, „people enemies “- „врагинарода “), whereby the extent thatPursuit its-same searched. Due to archives finds of the Lubjanka it becomes estimated that altogether approximately 2000 writers were arrested, from whom 1500 either in the camp died or was executed. For a diktatorische rule it participated typical that Stalin spared arbitrarily also individual persons with all Repressionen andit under its protection to almost take seemed. The focusing of pursuits on culture-creative (see also formalism controversy in the GDR) demonstrates the immense meaning, which one attached to this circle of acquaintances. Opposite a comprehensive system of economic promotion of the system-conformal literature-creative stood: Housing and Datschenbeschaffungen,Sanatorium stays and a pension and a health insurance belonged to.
in the climate of Repressionen, censorship and confine artistic Dogmata could from the official line deviating work only in secret develop and exist. Despite „the cleanings “in the thirties poets created how Anna Achmatowa, Ossip Mandelstam, Andrej Platonow, Mikhail Bulgakow and other lasting works, who form a widely distributed return flow in their whole to the literary products of socialist realism.
- for the theory of socialist realism, given change of Institut for society scienceswith the ZK of the SED under the direction of Hans's cook. Dietz publishing house Berlin, 1974
- criticism in the time, given change of Klaus Jarmatz. Central German publishing house resounds, to 1969 (documentation to the literature criticism in the GDR)
- Boris Groys, synthesis of the arts Stalin the split culture in the Soviet Union, Munich 1988
- Pure hard Lauer, history of the Russian literature from 1700 to the present, publishing house C.H. Beck, ISBN 3406502679
- Boris Eremejewitsch Vladimir ski: Roses for Stalin
- IwanAlexejewitsch Wladimirow: In a Mädchenschule (and other examples)
socialist realism in the music
development from 1932 to Stalins death
Before 1932 socialist realism was decided as guideline of all arts (s.o.), prevailed in the music life of the Soviet Union two differentCurrents forwards, which stood to each other in sharp contrast. The Russian federation of the proletarian musicians (RAPM) publicised the Proletkurs in the music. Its members were Dilettanten, like also the ideology of the federation the music as art as civil rejected predominantly and only works accepted, those expresslypropagandistic contents exhibited. Contemporary currents were dekadent rejected naturally as western and. The ideological position of the federation ran out on it that only simple songs for the praise of the revolution and the Proletariats should be composed, not however works in conventional forms.
The Gegenpol to the RAPMcreated association for contemporary music (ASM) formed the 1924, which was violently fought against this. Members of this organization were as good as all considerable composers of the Soviet Union, which had as a consequence that the musical positions of its members were in fact extremely heterogeneous - Maximilian stone mountainabout still deeply Nikolai Mjaskowski was however modernized in these years its clay/tone language in the music of the romance verwurzelt, while Alexander Mossolow represented the total avant-garde. As guideline was considered however unambiguously, at the modern western tendencies to orient itself (for instance the twelve-audio engineering). Also ina kind Proletkult partly prevailed to this association. Some members (how Mossolow) wanted to industrialize the art „“, i.e. in music works e.g. to represent the rhythm of machines. Likewise compositions were written for the praise of the new state. Altogether the federation pursued a sharp demarcation of the tradition. As however1931 the strictly speaking rather conservative Mjaskowski the ASM left, followed it many composers and the ASM dissolved gradually. Many composers pursued nothing the defiance further the goal of a modernization of the music.
The Verkündigung of socialist realism contradicted in principle both currents, there thison the one hand a clear refusal of avant-garde tendencies, which developed gradually to a kind „taboo “, on the other hand in addition, a rejection of the Dilettantismus than postulate for all composers meant. In fact the new aesthetics strengthened v.a. the composers, their musical opinions to a large extent in 19. Were rooted to century andbefore completely into the background turned out seemed, since openly a back meditation was demanded on old traditions (see below). On the other hand the ideological adjustment of the music „of the recent time was adapted “. Therefore the new guideline became also from rather conservative composer (Reinhold Glière, Mikhail Ippolitow Iwanow, Sergej Wassilenko) euphorically welcomes. Other composers such as Mjaskowski or Anatoli Alexandrow changed their style substantially, in order to carry for the new guideline calculation.
Around 1932 the kind of the “song Symphonie” came to its bloom. With the song Symphonie it acts around a Symphonie with singing(frequently Soli and choir), whose topics are consciously songful and in-usually arranged. The formal criteria of the Symphonie are maintained however nevertheless up to a certain of degrees. The most well-known and as a best outstanding representative of this kind is often the Symphonie Nr.4 op.41 with the title “Poemon a Komsomolzen fighter “of Lew Knipper. The topic of the final of this Symphonie became in the Soviet Union a popular mass song (see below).
First however the new aesthetics was not generally interspersed still long; Dmitri Schostakowitsch about wrote further very bold and modern works howits fourth Symphonie and its opera „lady Macbeth of the district Mzensk “. In the year 1936 however it came to a drastic event: after Stalin Schostakowitschs above mentioned. Opera had heard, appeared to 28. January in the Prawda an article named „chaos instead of music “, in which the operaone attacked sharply. Both and the Sujet and the music were represented indiskutabel, and even a kind threat was contained („this play can end however badly “). In the times of the large „cleanings “this article did not miss its effect; in addition became in the following yearsmore modern composers such as Mossolow occasionally arrests. The consequence was that all composers oriented themselves starting from center of the 1930er years without exception to socialist realism.
As the 2. World war began, was it for many composers a matter of course to write works itself the topic „fight for thoseLiberty “dedicated. Apart from various marches and combat songs for the Soviet army also few large sized works did not develop - Mjaskowskis 22 made the beginning. Symphonie, followed of the famous 7. Symphonie von Schostakowitsch (the Lenin grader Symphonie), the 2. Symphonie von Chatschaturian and other works. Also Prokofjew took up this topic, approximately in some Klaviersonaten, in addition, in that only 1947 6 developed. Symphonie. The war topic and the representation „of the bad one accompanying with it “made it possible to the composers to use style means rabiatere (and at the same time also more progressive) as this before the war „permitted “was. In addition it came that the public attention did not belong to the music naturally to this time so strongly, although also in the war the cultural life remained amazingly vital in the Soviet Union. Thus it came to (limited certainly) a modernization of the Soviet music.
This tendency should howeverno long life span granted its: in the year 1948 it came to the famous „resolution “. Direct trip was the attendance of Stalin and unites high-ranking politicians of the opera „the large friendship “from the Georgian composer Wano Muradeli. Although this opera was actually propagandistically aligned, straight pushed someDetail of the action with the Politgrössen on violent contradiction. Also the music sharply criticized because of alleged modernisms; to what extent this judgement applies, is meanwhile unclearly, there at present (2004) neither an admission still another neutral statement to be available seem. Anyhow this opera attendance ledto the fact that in January 1948 a meeting Muscovites of the composer federation was fixed, in which particularly the party official Andrei Schdanow sharply attacked the developments of the Soviet music. In consequence of this three-day-long meeting became to 10. February the party resolution over the opera „the large friendship “ publishes.
In this resolution the key word of the formalism was set into the world, whereby it is to be equated in its meaning approximately with „modern “. Officially it was explained that the Formalimus was characterized by the fact that the musical form, the construction of a piece of music, over parameters like the melody posedis and too „dekadenten “features like the Atonalität lead. In this resolution Schostakowitsch, Prokofjew, Chatschaturian, Wissarion Schebalin , Gawriil Popow as well as Mjaskowski were criticized directly. These composers were pushed to public „debt confessions “, which they also carried out with exception Mjaskowskis. In April cameit to a renewed meeting of the composer federation, in which „the formalism repeats “was condemned and TIC-hone Chrennikow to the new Secretary-General was selected (which it remained until 1992). The consequence of the resolution was a total turn of the composers to socialist realism; an enormous amount at propagandistic mass songs,Kantaten, Oratorien and Symphonien developed. Officially the criticized composers only 1958 were rehabilitated, in fact however were for instance Mjaskowskis of works already starting from 1949 substantial part of the music life. This autocracy of the socialist Realismus' continued up to Stalins death.
After that 2. World war becamegradually also introduced to the new socialist states of the Eastern Bloc in the music life the directives of the socialist Realismus'. This proved to that extent as problematic, most composers of these countries had taken completely different paths before; the musical development was nevertheless 1932, as inthe Soviet Union this aesthetics one introduced, nor do not lengthen as far advanced been as around 1950 in the countries outside of the Soviet Union. The composers, who had remained in their homelands, nevertheless saw themselves first forced, to deal with the new guidelines because one partly followed thatModel of the Soviet Union and placed „formalistic “composers against the pillory. In the GDR 1951 were publicly sharply criticized for example Paul Dessau opera „the condemnation of the Lukullus “. To Stalins death was to a large extent interspersed therefore socialist realism in all socialist countries.
of music works,those socialist realism are obligated, exhibit the generally following characteristics: The clay/tone language is remarkably conservative and is close strictly speaking to the music of the romance quite. It remains in the borders of one modal to dyed tonality, is based on in-usual melodies and is alsoin the shaping commits to the tradition. Tendencies of the music 20. Century such as twelve-audio engineering, Serialismus, Atonalität o.a. the ideology of the socialist Realismus' rejects as „formalistic erring “strictly.
A special characteristic of the socialist Realismus' is the strong inclusion of the national folklore into thoseMusic. If already original people song topics are not used, then Melodik and Harmonik are nevertheless coined/shaped strongly national. Composers, who rejected this, were reviled as „civil internationalists “. After the usual view the national component proves against it to people solidarity and ensures for the fact that the music „democratically “, i.e. generallyis understandable. Generally each music work should contact all humans; the foreign exchange L'art was l'art pour reformulated in L'art pour l'homme.
Despite the above mentioned. There is thing in common with the music of the romance a serious difference to this epoch: while the romantics onePreference for the dark, uncertain ones developed and frequently a certain world pain to recognize leave, are the music of the socialist Realismus' optimistic in its basic tendency. Will only used negative tendencies, in order to be overcome; Basis of many works is the concept of one „optimistic tragedy “, i.e. the fight overthe overcoming of negative features (frequently represented in the development from Moll to Dur). For this reason many compositions possess a heroischen, actively kämpferischen Gestus and exhibit pretty often a slope to large pathos.
Particularly large value became (naturally) on the switching of socialistContents put. Thus developed operas, Kantaten and songs on propagandistic texts, but also instrument valley works were supported many times with an ideological program. The music criticism interpreted new compositions (also such without explicit program) also in principle as social expressions.
A phenomenon almost exclusively arisen in socialist countriesis the so-called “mass song”. With this it acts around melodisch and harmoniously stressed song simply held on a revolutionary, clearly text moving for socialism a party, which could be sung problem-free by a large number of persons. A model for the mass song was e.g. the international one. After official view it concerned with the mass song a completely new kind typical for the music culture in socialism.
composers and their works
in the Soviet Union each composer was practical from approximately 1936 to beginning of the 1960er yearscommits to the aesthetics of socialist realism. Exceptions such as Nikolai Roslawez or Galina Ustwolskaja were very rare; besides in fact a performance prohibition existed for works of these composers. Also the berühmesten composers oriented themselves at this doctrine.Dmitri Schostakowitsch faced it rather sceptically, saw themselvesbut nevertheless due to the harschen criticism of 1936 and 1948 in a forced manner, in works like the 5. To deal Symphonie and more still its Oratorium „the song of the forests “op.81 with the official demands and defuse its clay/tone language. Although also Sergej Prokofjew in the year1948 under bombardment turned out, were able it it nevertheless much more easily to adapt to the aesthetics since he regarded it than its request, the listener „understandable “music to offer. Certainly one regarded its music as to decay nevertheless, so that also Prokofjew had to make concessions. Become particularly clearits efforts after comprehensibility in works like the 5. and 7. Symphonie or its Oratorium „on is awake “op.124.
Differently it behaved with Aram Chatschaturian, its own aesthetic position with the demands of socialist realism (v.a. regarding the national character of music)agreed large. “Or „, its concerts, Symphonien and vowel works like „the desert on Stalin “Armenian Kolorit connects Spartacus “to ballet like „Gajaneh with propagandistic adjustment. Also Chatschaturian 1948 was criticized nevertheless. This happened also to its teacher Nikolai Mjaskowski, that right after Verkündigung of the principles in the year1932 a Symphonie over the collectivization of the agriculture composed (Nr.12 g-moll op.35). Mjaskowski strove in the following years around a simplification and a clarification of its very complex, melancholischen style and found to a music, to a large extent on that the 19. Century is based. Nevertheless it retainedsome characteristics of its previous work. From all composers, who were criticized 1948, it is that, with which this appears most incomprehensible. It was fast rehabilitated also, without composing larger works, stand expressly on party line.
Beside these four large composers it gives stilla number of further composers, who composed music in styles of socialist realism. To call above all Dmitri Kabalewski, which wrote also music for younger people, are TIC-hone Chrennikow, which played a central role as a Secretary-General of the composer federation, and Georgi Swiridow here, thatvowel music composed predominantly. Besides a set of old composers eigntet itself the principles of socialist realism, on about Mikhail Ippolitow Iwanow, Reinhold Glière and Sergej Wassilenko. In addition socialist realism in a set of national schools played a weighty role. Examples for this are Fikret Amirow from Azerbaijan, Otar Taktakischwili from Georgien and Mykola Kolessa from the Ukraine. For composers, who were born after 1925, the meaning of the socialist Realismus' decreased noticeably.
In the GDR was Ottmar Gerster the probably most meaning representatives of the socialist one Realismus'. Gersteralready at times of the Weimar Republic a set of works for the workers' movement had written and possessed clean a relating to crafts, popular composition style. Its 2 received special attention. Symphonie, mentioned „Thüringer Symphonie “, the Kantate „iron collective combine east “of 1951 and the Festouvertüre 1948. A further representativesocialist realism was Ernst Hermann Meyer, which represented this view of art also in its book „music in the Zeitgeschehen “. For much attention its „one fields Oratorium provided “, which represents the life of the mountain workers in the change of the times. Hanns Eisler composed few large at GDR times onlyWorks, which provided however for larger attention (about its „new German Volkslieder “); its earlier compositions have something in common with socialist realism hardly.Paul Dessau took note from this aesthetics only volatilely and cannot likewise not one their Hauptprotagonisten be called.
Into mostEastern Bloc countries busy itself hardly a composer at longer term with socialist realism. In Czechoslovakia oriented yourself the Slowake Alexander Moyzes in his middle creative period at this aesthetics, which unites Orchestersuiten particularly in its Symphonien Nr.5 to 7 and to the expression comes. Already before secondWorld war had itself Ervín schoolhopes starting from approximately 1932 turned away from the Dadaismus and into its works taken up some characteristics of the socialist Realismus', particularly 6 dedicated in its Vertonung of the communist manifesto of Karl Marx and its Red Army. Symphonie, „the liberty Symphonie “. Into Hungary came Zoltán Kodály of the aesthetics quite close, since it in its whole work people music finished and its works thus with socialist realism were quite compatible. Aleksandar Josifov is in Bulgaria one of the outstanding representatives of the socialist Realismus' and to that extent an exception, he asone of the few younger composers followed this aesthetics. In Romania above all Gheorghe Dumitrescu received large attention. Almost no role played socialist realism however in Poland.
developments after Stalins death
problem of theTerm
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See also: Bitter fields way