Social politics

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Social politics is politically a subrange of the home policy, with the goal of placing by national measures disadvantaged groups better around so in particular for oneAdjustment of the life chances, the living conditions - to provide and for the stabilization of the social order.
In the system of the sciences at German universities the “social politics” is a part of the “national economy politics” within the political economy.

Table of contents

within the core range first the classical systems of the social security against many life risks that developed ranges social politics dependently persons employed: Illness, age, accident, unemployment and relatively again in need of careness.

In addition various measures, social reconciliation come approximately by child free allowances, educating money, social welfare assistanceand rent subsidy to manufacture are.

Outside of the direct income rearrangement social politics is concerned large family-politically, as well as with industrial safety, protection for tenants and generally within the range of the social welfare (in former times: Arm welfare service) to the juvenile welfare service, for the integration of obstructions into the society etc.

carrier

carrier of the national social politicsin the Federal Republic of Germany are the federation, the countries and the municipalities, as well as of them assigned institutes!

history of the social politics in Germany (overview)

industrialization, urbanisation and social one question

by the industrialization and the social changes exerted by it developedthe necessity to have to manufacture social safety device and soziokulturelle integration of the population increasingly by national acting. The drift of large parts of the rural population of the village community into the cities (= Pauperismus) as dependent hired hands saved with economic crises the danger of massive pauperization, ofthe traditional arm welfare service of the rapidly growing cities (urbanisation) not to be caught could. Besides the conditions of work were in the factories like that that many had to separate the proletarian relatively early or after industrial accidents from the working process. This social question as well as increasing the social-democracy ledto the fact that social politics in the empire concentrated first on the workers, in the Federal Republic of Germany also parts of the independent ones were only included into the legal insurance systems.

the beginning in the empire

around the direct interference into in-plant organization of the conditions of work (industrial safety) to avoid, by Otto von Bismarck the system of the social security (health insurance, invalid and old age pension insurance as well as accident insurance) was regulated realm-legally. Contributions for the insurance in the medical case and for separating from the working life paid persons employed and entrepreneurs in equal parts, contributions for the professional associations thoseEntrepreneur alone. Accordingly to today the autonomy organs are selected, although in case of the health insurance through additional payments so mentioned (practice fee, medicine additional payment) the parity in the financing was waived (vgl among other things Agenda 2010). The industrial safety became particularly with view of those Population politics (protection of pregnant women as well as children and young people) developed.
In the years of the empire, in particular in the 1. World war, developed the competence for the social politics from the range of the ministries of the Interior out to own authorities and/or. Ministries. The social politics was not more alonea part of national acting with the goal of prevention against social unrests.

Weimar Republic

in the Weimar Republic came it to a development of the social security as well as to the extension of social services and institutions into the range of the patient welfare service, education and the public education and intoRange of the housing policy. The inflation, which led the mechanism of a small pensioner insurance to the depletion of humans, who had believed by savings for their age to have taken precautions made necessarily. On the other hand the social security of the annuitants and pensioners had, although with dramatic cut in the process thatInflation, which got over first years of the Weimar Republic without loss. 1927 became after long debates - which had already begun the unemployment insurance in the empire - realm-legally regulated. By the deflationary policy of realm chancellor Heinrich Brüning as answer to the effects of the world economic crisis large parts became of theSocial security system in its substance endangers, which became achievements for patient, invalid and pensioner by a policy of saving drastically reduced. Although the employers had run since 1928 against the “overloading” by the contributions as part of the gross wage storm, the system of the social security survived also theseTime.

third realm

the National Socialist governments the system did not dismantle, but in few parts did not develop, ideologically reinterpreted and instrumentalisiert. From their time e.g. originate. the legal regulations regarding the 1. May as holiday (“day of the work”) and the requirement on yearlyvacation, which apply until today.

Federal Republic of Germany

in the Basic Law is generally fixed the welfare state requirement in article 20 Abs.I; socialnational principles leave themselves also from individual requirements such as protection of humans became, to societal restriction of the property, protection of marriage and family etc. derive.
On this basis and favoured by an economic upswing (Wirtschaftswunder) from the establishment into the center of the 1970er years inside in the Federal Republic of Germany the net of the social safety devices was continued to remove. 1957 became by the reform of the old age pension insurance (annualIncrease of the pensions according to the increase of the gross wages) the circle of age equal poverty broken through.

it leads current problems in the indication of the crisis of the work company and

the globalization the sinking quantitative meaning of alive manpower due to progressive automation and rationalization to the fact thatalso the portion of the incomes from acquisition work on the distribution of drawn values relatively decreases and the portion of incomes from enterprise participation, investments of funds, etc. grows.
The consequence is a creeping naturwüchsige rearrangement, which raises problems regarding distribution justice. While the creation of value - although with onlymoderate rates - continues to grow, must those, no shares, among other things have, but only an earned income to have and in one of rationalization threatened occupation (those are in the long run all occupations, which consist predominantly of standardizable routines), tendentious even income losses work to accept. This development falls besidesdominance on incomes from acquisition work which is based financing of the social security systems into a fundamental crisis. Present solution attempts of the policy hold nevertheless to the perspective that the condition of full employment is again attainable in principle, if the entire society together-tears itself only sufficient around more competitively toobecome. Despite the age of this diagnosis and the reform measures justified thereby the mass unemployment it continued to increase, by the representatives of this thesis with the fact is justified that appropriate necessary reforms were converted never consistently enough. Thus the country in the competition with other nations would fall, decidefor a market price increase would occur, further back.
Critics of this politics perspective raise the reproach that this is an illusion, because due to since center of the 1970er the level of the rationalization dynamics reached business activity on average no more new jobs creates years. In the classical industrial age is the industrial production stilldependent on the massive employment of alive manpower. This age arrived however long at its end. Today lead a free business activity under the line rather to the continued dismantling of jobs. Regaining full employment is an illusion.
It requires instead of its a Verabschiedungof acquisition work as normal model by introduction of an unconditional basic income for all members of the political community. Only this step would give also to the entrepreneurs the full liberty in the practice of their occupation, since they do not deceive then no more the responsibility of the “employer”, it at present intheir business activity strongly restrain. They could use on the condition of a basic income in many stronger measures than today the verhandenen rationalization potentials and the creation of value further advance.
The increasing mobility of financial resources, enterprises and property goods, itself the delivery load by drift abroad taxmore favorable (Tax evasion) in the course from the globalization extract, place the modern national state before fundamental problems. Because a nationalnationally written political community on world level, which would be by the globalization processes naturwüchsig raised problems to solve able, existed and the existing national states do not know their rule range thoseraised problems do not solve.

social politics in the international comparison

the German social politics is only one example of the development of the welfare state in the developed industrialized countries. In many countries (and become) the social security systems became against the cases of change of the life from their historical developmentout not over contributions, but over the national budget finances (examples: Scandinavian countries). Other countries go only in the last years to the contribution financing over (z. B. Italy). How all of this will become harmonizing in the context of the European Union in the future, is not certain.
Those The USA decided only in the world economic crisis, in view of Hunderttausender of poverty-stricken veterans of the 1. World war, to first beginnings of the structure of social security systems (new Deal). In the times of material existing socialism many placed themselves in such states like the GDRQuestions completely differently.Third world - states have partially. still not at all with the structure of such systems begun (rühmliche exception: ), But no more cannot do Cuba, than not leaving their to arms verhungern.

chronicle

literature

  • Frevel/Dietz: Social politics compactly. West German publishing house, 2004, ISBN 3-531-13873-1


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This article or paragraph represents only the situation in Germany. Help,to describe the situation in other countries.
 

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