in the closer sense describes the term social security a public or halfpublic system of the obligation insurance. One speaks of legal social security. In the broader sense then the private social security would rank among it.
Contrary to achievements of the regional administrative bodies (federation, countries, municipalities) achievements of the social security are financed primarily not by taxes, but by contributions to the respective insurer, which is however nationally controlled.
Carriers of the social security strictly speaking are not national authorities themselves, but public or halfpublic social insurers. The social security is usually arranged into sections, z. B. in Germany:
- legal old age pension insurance (check valve)
- legal health insurance (GKV)
- unemployment insurance with the federal agency for work (BA)
- accident insurance (UV)
- nursing care insurance (test specification)
a purpose of the social security is it to make possible also for the circles of acquaintances an insurance which would not be accepted only too much when private insurance or high tariffs. Around a selection after persons with high and low risks (e.g. Recover and patient) to avoid, liability to insure usually exists.
The contributions become usually after the gross wages and - salaries (usually up to a save-specific contribution assessment limit) computes. The insurance is financed by employers - and employee - contributions depending upon section to different parts (see. also low wage job), partly gives it national tax subsidies (justifies among other things as reconciliation for so-called insurance stranger achievements). The insurance premiums are exhausted for both sides by the employer to the health insurance company. For this it receives an operating number from the local agency for work.
The disbursement orients itself according to acquired requirements (e.g. with pensions or sickpay) or it gives for all same contributions of equipment with entrance of the accident.
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emergence of the social security
the social security became mostly in the second half 19. and/or. Beginning 20. Century (beginning of the large-scale industry) called in the life. Social conditions of the working population became ever worse: among other things long work times, high accident rates and low wages led to the fact that in the year 1883 realm chancellors Bismarck into Germany introduced the social security. They were predominantly aligned to the workers. Thus should be met on the one hand to social unrests and socialism, on the other hand one already existing, freiwillige social security of the trade unions and the church worker federations should be entmachtet.
- 1883: Health insurance
- 1884: Accident insurance
- 1889: Disablement and old age pension insurance
- 1927: Unemployment insurance
- 1995: Nursing care insurance
the legal social security in the economical Gesamtrechnung
the national social security sports association forms the sector state together with the regional administrative bodies (federation, countries, municipalities).
The financing balance the sports association in demarcation of the VGR in contrast to the demarcation of the financing calculation enters thereby financing balance of the state altogether. The financing balance of the state altogether in demarcation of the VGR is article of the “Maastrichtkriterien”.