The late Middle Ages

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as the late Middle Ages becomes in the science of history the period of approx. 1250 to 1500 designate, which locks the Middle Ages altogether and in that the beginning of the modern times announces themselves.

Harvest failures, hunger emergencies and plague epidemic diseases as well asincreasing social decay features and conflicts, which found in the crisis of the papacy, regional Jew pursuits and rebellions of the city and Landbevölkerung expression, let the late Middle Ages appear the contemporary as a period constant Niederganges.

1453 fell Konstantinopel, which the fall of the Byzantine realm and meant the final break-down of the Turks to Europe.

The late Middle Ages the transition period were not simultaneous to the modern trend, and carried by any means only negative courses: In this time the forerunners the modern State of (national state with administration developed and office nature)

in Italy began the bloom time of the Renaissance.

In Northern Germany the Hanse , first as Kaufmannsgilde, developed then as standard ware. It controlled soon the trade on north and Baltic Sea.

In sections, but by no means altogether, dominant apokalyptische tendencyled often to the desire of the direct God experience the Bible study arranged for humans the picture of the simple way of life Jesus Christ 'and the Apostel, a model, which did not become fair the existing church, straight because the papacy since 1309 in Avignon (Avignonesi papacy) resided and ever more of humans departed. In addition came the abendländische Schisma of 1378, which was only terminated by the Konziliarismus (council of Konstanz). Due to the faith crisis developed begging medal increasesand apostolische municipalities, which wanted to dedicate themselves to the simple life. Many of it were pursued by the church because of heresy, so for example the Waldenser, Katharer or the brothers of the free spirit.

The following events mark the end (late) of the Middle Agesand the beginning of the modern times:

1450 invention of the printing by Johannes good mountain

1453 end of the hundred-year of war; Conquest Konstantinopels by the Osmanen

1492 discovery America by Kolumbus

1498 discovery of the sea route to India through there Gama

1517 beginning thatTo reformation

see also

literature

  • Ulf Dirlmeier and other one: Europe in the late Middle Ages 1215-1378 (Oldenbourg sketch of history 8), Munich 2003. At present best scientific introduction alsoextensive bibliography and term explanations.
  • Johan Huizinga: Autumn of the Middle Ages, Stuttgart 1975.
  • Prietzel painted: The holy Roman realm in the late Middle Ages, (history compactly), Darmstadt 2004. Solid one, although knappe representation of event history, in addition, the political structures.

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