|Spanish (español, castellano)|
|spoken in:||Spain, Mexico, Peru, Colombia, Argentina, Chile, Venezuela, Nicaragua, the USA, Costa Rica, Cuba, and 34 further countries|
|speakers:|| 360 million (native speaker) (Place 2)|
417 million (Zweitsprachler)
|office language in:||Spain, Mexico, Peru, Colombia, Argentina, Chile, Venezuela, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Cuba, and13 further countries as well as the European union, the UN and the OAS|
|ISO 639 -1:||it|
|ISO 639 -2:||spa|
the Spanish language (Spanish; splinter español, castellano) that belongs to the Roman branch sometimes indogermanischen languages and with the Portuguese one and Catalan one in the closer unit Iberoromani one arranges. Another distinction possibility arranges the Spanish as well as the French, the Catalan one, the Portuguese one, Okzitani and further smaller Roman languages into thoseWestromania.
Since the Spanish writing language was coined/shaped by the linguistic usage of the centralSpanish region Kastilien, and in order the language of the other Roman Idiomen spoken in Spain (above all Galicisch and Catalan) to define as well as the nationality designation „Spanish “, one finds alsothe designation castellano („kastilische language “). During this designation in Spain is predominantly used by speakers of the other languages (Catalan, Galicisch, Baskisch), in order to deny to the Spanish the requirement for supremacy by the consonance of the name of the language and the country, becomes the designation castellano in Hispanoamerika without political ulterior motives uses.
Spanish with latin letter one writes. In the modern Spanish the acute becomes - accent for vowels and the two indications ñ and u uses. In many dictionaries also CH is and that ll still as independent letter.
The language contractions according to ISO 639 are
Table of contents
| The spanischsprachige world|
Spanish is office language in the following countries (in parentheses number of native speakers):
In the following further areas Spanish - partial due to the colonial past - is spoken of a larger population portion: Andorra, Belize, Morocco, Netherlands Antilleses, Philippines, Trinidad and Tobago, Westsahara, Brazil (Portunhol), Puerto Rico.
Becomes Spanish at present by approx. 360 million humans as native language spoken. Thus the Spanish has 20 million native speaker more than the English. Most Spanish speakers live in south and Central America. Inclusive Zweitsprachler amounts the number of the speakers to approx. 420 million. Thus is Spanish - after Mandarin-Chinese, Hindi and English - the most fourth-frequently spoken language of the world.
oldest to us inhabitants admitted of the Iberi peninsula are the Iberer, which are a people of African origin. Around 600 v. Chr. come the Celts over the Pyreneeses, which itself thereupon with the Iberern to the Keltiberern mix. Baski is the only linguistic remnants from that epoch, thatstill of approx. 850,000 humans at the gulf of Biskaya on both sides the Spanish-French border one speaks.
If a conquered people gives the own language up after one period of the bilingualness to favour of the more prestigious language of the conquerers, then speech habits work themselves nevertheless(particularly in reading and vocabulary) on the new language out, and one calls the given up language substrate.Keltiberi affected itself as follows:
- Sonorisierung of the intervokalischen catch sounds p; t; k to b; D; g (revision modification approx.> Amiga).
- Lenition of the Nexus [kt] over [çt]to [it]. In Kastili developed itself the Nexus further. The t was palatalisiert likewise by preceding Palatal. Therefore NOC width unit> noche.
Baski is a Adstrat, since none of the languages was given up. To baskischen influence the following phenomenon is to be due: Replacement of theanlautenden f by h, which was aspiriert however in the further process. (farina> harina, factu> hecho)
in the 3. Century v. Chr. begin the Romans with the conquest of the Iberi peninsula. That time become here (apart from particularsDialects) Iberisch, celtic ones, Keltiberisch, Baskisch and Greek spoken. Among emperors Augustus the entire peninsula is in Roman hand.
By a strong military operational readiness level and by numerous Roman officials latin language spreads there very fast.Latin is gradually back-pushed in such a way to the culture language, the original languages. Only in the western Pyreneeses latin encounters stronger resistance, whereby there the original language (Baskisch) remains.
as the Goten in the year 414 in Spain, already speaks one breaks in on the entire peninsula latin with local colouring. Although the Goten has the rule in Spain for the following three centuries, they affect neither language nor the social life very deeply. A reason for it,that Spaniards and Goten do not mix themselves are mainly religious origin: the Spaniards are catholics, the Goten Arianer. As in the year 589 king Rekkared I. with its people to the catholicism , disappears the gothical crosses soon perfectly.
Gives neverthelessit a few few words in the Spanish, which Germanic origin are. One assumes however that these not by the Goten, but already before by the Romans, who had come into Gallien with Germanic trunks into contact to Spain broughtbecame.
the Arab conquerers, who begin 711 from Africa their expansion eastward and the north of the peninsula, have a deep and more durable influence on the Spanish. They occupy completely Spain with exception of the Kantabri mountains, where a small crowd looks for Spaniard refuge and later back conquest (Reconquista - movement) Spain organizes.
When in the year 1492 this back conquest with the case of Granada is final, many Arab elements already are into the Spanishtaken up. Subsequently, however again some Arab words from the Spanish vocabulary are discharged. After evaluation of the dictionary that material the today's Spanish still 1285 borrowings from the Arab one (Arabismen) contains Academia Española of 1995 (see. for this peoples Noll in RomaniaArabica, telex Kontzi, 1996, S. 299–313).
Thus the Spanish is the Roman language with most Arab leaning words; it concerns thereby not only around culture terms, but also names for terms of the everyday life, z. B. aceite: „Oil “, aceituna:(also: oliva) „olive “.
The word ojalá (“hopefully”) is a hispanisierte form of the Arab idiom Inschallah (انشاءالله) and meant actually “like that God wants”.
Arab leaning words and their derivatives are within the following vocabulary ranges:Administration and commonwealth, army nature, minting, natural sciences, agriculture (agriculture, irrigation plants), furniture, clothes, meals, planting and animal designations and others.
the today's Spanish
latin, which is brought from the Romans to Spain, is not classical latin language, butthe usual colloquial language of the Legionäre (Vulgärlatein). From this language different Roman dialects develop with the time under different geographical and ethnographischen effects. One of these dialects, Kastili, develops in a weakly romanisierten area in the north of Spain,in the border area of the today's Spanish provinces Burgos, La Rioja, Vizcaya and Álava. Dieser Dialekt Altkastiliens zeichnet sich dadurch aus, dass er stärker von den vorromanischen Sprachen (Baskisch) geprägt ist und wird später durch politische Umständeto the writing and national language of Spain.
There is the counts Altkastiliens, who extend their national territory in continuous fights against the Arabs toward the south. In the process of this Reconquista movement Altkastili pushes itself like a wedge into the remaining Roman language areainside and it pushes the other language forms aside to the western (Asturisch - Leonesisch and Galicisch, from which late Portuguese develops) and eastern (Aragonesisch, Catalan) periphery of the country whereby itself the range of the kastilischen languageenormously increases.
In the second half of the 11. Century Kastilien is proclaimed to the kingdom and intended in the year 1085 Toledo for the capital. Thus the kastilische dialect becomes the yard and colloquial language of the recent kingdom. Are of languagepolitical importance the reforms Ferdinands III. (1217 - 1252) and Alfons X. (1252 - 1282), by which latin is abolished as document language, and which Kastili this function takes over.
Already in the process of the late Middle Ages Kastili does not spreadonly as writing medium, but also as spoken language outside of Kastiliens. After the combination of Kastilien and Aragón (1479) it becomes the state language of the kingdom Spain.
Today, is thus an advancement of the Latin kastilischen knows the Spanish like we itDialect with toledanischer colouring.
In the year 1713 „material the Academia de la Lengua develops “after French model, which is considered as recognized authority in language questions. Between 1726 and 1739 „the Diccionario de Autoridades is published “, in the year 1771 appearsthe grammar of the academy.
the orthography of the Spanish approximates the ideal quite to copy from sound for sound the spoken word. Thus frequently foreign words in their posting, also taken over, are adapted in such a way that itself the discussion againresults in automatically (example: bacon becomes English Spanish béicon). With the Latin American variants this applies only with restrictions (partial letters differently expressed if the word of indianischen origin is, particularly „ll “and „x “).
See also: Spanish alphabet
see also: Discussion of the Spanish language
the Spanish possesses 5 Monophthonge.
|in front||central||in the back|
|bilabial|| lab IO|
|dental||alveolar|| post office|
|Plosive||p b||t D||k g|
|Frikative||β||f||θ ð||s||x ɣ|
source: SAMPA for Spanish (English)
- (27 KB) - „good-bye, until tomorrow. “
- (24 KB) - „which gibt'sNew? “
- (29 KB) - „thanks, me is well, and you? “
Spoken of an inhabitant of Madrid.
the Perfecto is a tense of the Spanish language, its German correspondence in the perfect finds. In the Perfecto circumstances are represented, which found and into the present stop their beginning in the past. The Perfecto is formed assistance of the auxiliary verb more haber and for the participle perfect of the verb. In addition become to the trunks tooconjugated verbs - ado (with verbs up - acre) and/or. - ido (with verbs up - it and - IR) attached; more haber the persons one conjugates accordingly.
In many countries of Latin America the Perfecto is hardly used particularly in the spoken language, butby the Indefinido replaces.
Signal words are: hoy, esta semana, éste mes/año…, nunca, todavía, aún, EN nuestro siglo, hooks poco
the auxiliary verb more haber the subject in Genus and number is only adapted.
yo he tomado
tú has tomado
usted, él, ella hectar tomado
nosotros hemos tomado
vosotros habéis tomado
ustedes, ellos, ellas han tomado
ex.s: more comer
yo he comido
tú has comido
usted, él, ella hectar comido
nosotros hemos comido
vosotros habéis comido
ustedes, ellos, ellas que han comido
yo he vivido
tú has vivido
usted, él, ella hectar vivido
nosotros hemos vivido
vosotros habéis vivido
ustedes, ellos, ellas han vivido
the participles (PPP) someVerbs are not formed according to the conventional formation rule. Since they cannot be opened, they must be by heart learned.
The most important irregular PPPs:
- abrir - abierto: (yo) he abierto - I have opened
- decir - dicho: (tú) hasdicho - you have said
- escribir - escrito: (él/ella/usted) hectar escrito - he/they/they wrote/to have
- more hacer - hecho: (nosotros/as) hemos hecho - we did made/
- more poner - puesto: (vosotros/as) habéis puesto - you have skillfully (idF.: could.)
- more traer - traído: (ellos/ellas/ustedes) han traído - they/they/you have pulled
- en visto: similar to above
- - vuelto: similarly to the above
the American Spanish
in most countries of south and Central America becomes Spanishas native language spoken. Since it concerns here a large area and already passed since the Kolonialisierung by the Spaniards centuries, the Latin American Spanish exhibits certain deviations to Kastili .
These are not in the writing and traffic languageall too largely; the colloquial languages and dialects of the individual countries differ against it partly quite clearly, not only in the discussion, but also in the vocabulary. These deviations last are not on (in the individual regions differently strong)To lead back influence of different indigener languages.
Some words went through in America a meaning change, in grammatical area are however up to characteristics in the use of the past tenses (dominance of the Indefinido) and „voseo “in Argentina and Uruguay, in addition, inNicaragua or Guatemala, no considerable changes occurred.
Even if discussion and vocabulary in the individual American countries vary, one can nevertheless record some general main differences between the language of south and Central America and Kastili:
- Typically for Latin America is like thatmentioned seseo. While in the European Spanish a z is usually expressed like a be correctless English th, it becomes in Latin American discussion a normal be correctless s - sound. The same meets the C before e and i too (z.B. in nación). This discussion comes from the south Spanish and also into Latin America became generally accepted, because in 16. and 17. Century most Spanish immigrants to America from the south of Spain (v. A. Extremadura and Andalusien) came.
- Also the tendency the s anzuhauchen (z. B. „ehtoy “instead of „estoy “) is to be found in many Latin American countries and is with the Andalusian one to be likewise compared.
- The past form Pretérito Perfecto (He comprado) is uncommon. Instead one uses usually that Pretérito Indefinido (Yo compré), as far as one does not want to stress „the nor persistence “of an action explicitly.
- In Spain only as politeness form (for instance „the Siezen “in German comparably) in formal handling used the address „usted (it) “(< vuestra merced, translates about: „Of you grace “) is in Latin America the standard-linguistic and generally spread address form, completely independently of language level or confidenceness. Thus the 2 becomes. Person Plural in the American linguistic area at all always does not use and by the address in the 3. Person replaces, to the place of thePersonalpronomens „vosotros “always steps „ustedes “. Also in the singular the address is in the 2. Person with „tú “in many areas uncommonly (or is considered as impolite) and one generally seizes to the 3. Person with „usted “.
- A grammatical characteristic of the Argentine, uruguayischenand also Guatemalan language variant is voseo, D. h. instead of the Personalpronomens tú becomes in the 2. Person singular vos uses. The verbs are then differently conjugated (for example vos sos: „you are standard Spanish “, tú eres).
- Depending upon country givesit also a different number of words, which became to entliehen from the respective languages of the indigenen peoples. Some of it also the European Spanish achieved. In addition terms belong such as Aguacate (Avocado) or dad.
- There are many deviations between the continental-Spanishand the Latin American vocabulary and besides also within of Latin America von Land to country different semantic characteristics. They concern however mainly the colloquial language and terms of the daily life. Serious communication problems between speakers from different European and American subsections of the Spanish linguistic areait therefore hardly gives.
|German||europ. Splinter||amerik. Splinter||a Spaniard or a non--native speaker could understand|
|butter||mantequilla||manteca (in Argentina, Chile)||Schmalz, fat|
|skirt||falda||pollera||chicken shop assistant|
|car (mobile)||coche||carro, car, máquina||truck, Handwagen|
to misunderstandings comes it earliest by words, which possess a colloquial special meaning apart from the general meaning in certain countries. So for instance in Spain the unproblematic is and for all possibleFrequently verb used circumstances more coger („take, seize, catch “) in some countries of Latin America a common expression for the practice of the sexual intercourse. The sentence „I will take the bus “(Voy A more coger el autobús) is therefore in presence ofArgentiniern a safe laughter success (I become the bus ficken.). The same applies to terms as cola (which among other things also straw to mean can).
Also the word guagua provides in this connection again and again for amusement. During it on the Kanari islands,Cuba and the Dominican republic equivalently to (city) - bus is, is located it in and countries such as Chile, Peru or Ecuador for crawling or infant (here: Xenismus from Quechua), so that misunderstandings are programmed also here.
Further examples, here from the Dominican one Republic, show, how the words can deviate from the European Spanish:la China - the orange, la italiana - the Mandarine, la lechoza - the Papaya, el guineo - the banana, la chinola - the Maracuja.
The Spanish word guapo/A forprettily in the Dominican republic in the sense by aggressive or wildly one uses. Prettily with bonito/A or lindo/A one translates here. Una chica guapa is in Spain a pretty girl, in the Dominican Republic of a furious girl.
In the discussionwird im lateinamerikanischen Spanisch das "s", "z" oder "c" (vor "e" und "i") nicht wie das englische "th" gesprochen, sondern wie ein stimmloses "s".
A “D” at the word ending is often not spoken. The stress remains however on the last syllable.Example: “one speaks ciudad” as “ciudá”. One finds this discussion also in Andalusien.
A “s” is often only gehaucht or omitted. Thus also the second person leaves itself - with actual omission of the second person Plural in the Latin American Spanish -Singularly often of the third person do not differentiate.
Example: “¿ Qué quiere?” (“What would like he/they? ”) Qué quieres could with omission “of the s” also” ¿? “(“which you would like”) to mean.
The ending of the verbs in the basic form is different depending upon region. Often becomesout “- acre”” - á ", “- aluminium” or also (e.g. in the north of the Dominican Republic of proximity of Puerto Plata) “ai”. The word “caminar” is thus spoken “caminá”, “caminal” or “caminai”. Similar with verbs up - it or - IR. “Poner” becomes often “ponel”, also“ponei” expressed.
Kreolsprachen Chabacano (the Philippines
of hybrid dialects (mixing languages) exist, where Spanish and Portuguese meet one another
Jew Spanish Ladino
Jew Spanish is the Spanish of the 1492 from Spain refugee Jew Sephardim. They live today in Greece, Turkey, Israel, north Morocco and the USA. The speaker number becomes estimated on 150.000.
- Philippine in the Tango use finds
- work on]
- sees also
- the American
- of the USA Río de la Plata Spanish
- Dominican SpanishNebrija
- idiom: That comes me Spanish before
Spanish language history
- Antonio Tovar: Introduction to the language history of the Iberi peninsula. 1983
- Annegret Alsdorf Bollee: Spanish language history. 2003
- wolf Dietrich refuge Geckeler: Introduction to the SpanishLinguistics. 2004
the Spanish in America
- peoples Noll: The American Spanish. 2001
- Hugo Kubarth: The Latin American Spanish. 1987
- Hans Dieter Paufler: Latin American Spanish. 1977
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