Spanish succession war

the Spanish succession war (1701 - 1714) was a European war, that around the inheritance of the last Spanish having citizen, king Karl II. from Spain, one led.

Table of contents

war cause

in the second half 17. Century became the Spanish succession to the throne the the subject of general attention of the European diplomacy, there with the death of the childless king Karl II. expiring the Spanish line of the house having castle was approaching.In the center of the considerations three potential inheriting were located:

  • Philipp of Anjou, the second son of the Dauphin became of Ludwig XIV. of France as a präsumptiver heir to the throne launches. The requirements relied on the circumstance that (Ludwig XIV.) on the one hand sonthe Spanish Infantin Anna of Austria, daughter Philipps III. from Spain was. Beyond that the nut/mother of the Dauphin and (first) wife of the king were the oldest daughter of the Spanish king Philipp IV.. Hauptproblem of a deratigen succession layin collapse enormous resources of Spain and France.
  • Emperor Leopold I., likewise grandchild Philipps III. and husband of the younger daughter Philipps IV. Margarita Teresa, supported its requirements for his second son, Karl, partly by these relationalRelations, which those of Ludwig XIV. preceded, because its wife during their grinding had renounced to her hereditary requirements, partly on the hereditary requirements of the house having castle on the Spanish monarchy. The problem lay also here in collapses all habsburgischen country ina hand.
  • In addition became also for the cure prince Joseph Ferdinand of Bavaria, its nut/mother Maria Antonia a daughter Leopolds I. and his Spanish wife was raised, requirements on the Spanish throne.

The sea powers England and the general states, inPersonnel union of the English king William III. were governed, präferierten the succession by the Bavarian prince.

A goal of this procedure was it to prevent that the Spanish monarchy including their enormous colonies, which were considered as the most valuable at all completely at Franceor to the Austrian having citizens fell. In order to compensate two powers for their requirements, an extensive partition plan for the Spanish possessions in the Netherlands and Italy were invented.

King Karl II. appointed then on strong diplomatic pressure of the sea powersthe young Bavarian princes by will to its successor into all at that time Spanish landing. As the latter to 6. February 1699 suddenly died, closed William III. and Ludwig XIV. to 2. March 1700 a new partition treaty.

Afterwards the ore duke Karl those should Spanish crown, to which grandchildren of the king Philipp from Anjou however Neapel, Sicilies, Guipuzcoa and Milan receive. Thus the age-old dream of the French kings would have become after the hegemony over Italy reality. There however Leopold I.the present Treaty itsAgreement refused, felt also Ludwig XIV. to it do not bind. At the yard to Madrid the imperial envoy count Harrach worked together with the wife of the king, a princess von Pfalz Neuburg, for the ore duke Karl. The French envoy Marquis v.Harcourt supported those requirement of Philipp of Anjou. At the end Karl set II. by will of 2. October 1700 Philipp from Anjou to inheriting the entire Spanish monarchy.

After the death of Karl II. at the 1. November 1700 seized theseas Philipp V.immediately of the Spanish throne possession and already pulled to 18. February 1701 in Madrid. At first only emperor Leopold raised here protest and made preparations at the beginning of the war in Italy. After however French troops the DutchCrews from the fortresses of the Spanish Netherlands (Barrière) had driven and Ludwig out XIV. after death Jakob II. also still its son as a king Jakob III. from England recognized (and thus the Jakobiten openly supported around England to weaken), becameclearly that of France powerful position with the acquisition of the Spanish by the house Bourbon was strongly expanded.

Around the Hegemonialstreben Ludwig XIV. to work against, it came 7. September 1701 on operation of England to the Hague large alliance. Although king William III.of England to 19. March 1702 died, remained both England under its sister-in-law, queen Anne, which was affected by Marlborough and its wife, and the general states of its politics led by the advice pensioner Heinsius faithfully. France had in the realmonly the cure princes of Bavaria and Cologne as well as in Italy the duke Viktor Amadeus II. of Savoyen, the father of the oldest son of the Dauphins, to allied one.

war process

the main war actions found partly at the same time in the south of the GermanRealm, in Flanders and Brabant, realm Italy and in Spain instead of.

realm Italy to 1704

the war was opened to 1701 by the imperial field gentleman prince Eugen von Savoyen in Italy. Eugen struck the French marshal Catinat to 9. July in combat with Carpi, and afterwards the incapable marshal Villeroi at the 1, stepped at Catinats place. September in the battle of Chiari.

Afterwards it attacked at the 1. February 1702 the French winter accomodation in Cremona, whereby it marshalVilleroi imprisoned to take could. It succeeded to the new French field gentleman Vendôme meanwhile, among other things in the battle with Luzarra to back-throw the imperial ones in Italy. In the year 1703 the duke of Savoyen crossed however on the side of the emperor, howthe war on this duchy concentrated.

John Churchill, 1st Duke OF Marlborough

French of raids in the German Reich

at the Niederrhein attained in the meantime the English field gentleman Marlborough the upper hand over the Frenchmen: It conquered the fortresses at that Maas and the entire cure principality Cologne.

On the upper Rhine the prince Ludwig von Baden, who the marshal Villars faced , had to 9. September 1702 Landau in the Pfalz conquers and Villars, which went with Hüningen over the Rhine, to the retreatforced; but 1703 conquered the Frenchmen mash oh (7. September) and Landau in the Pfalz (17. November). Beyond that united it itself to 12. May 1703 with that troops of the cure prince by Bavaria with Tuttlingen. Bothpenetrated first into Tirol, where the troops however by the collection of the animal oilers again back-floated. But there the Austrian general Styrum itself to 20. September with high city struck to give had and to 13. December Augsburg before the French-Bavarian troopscapitulated, the campaign for the allied ones ended unfavorably. A rebellion in Hungary, breaking out at the same time, which bound strong units of the emperor, improved the initial position of the Frenchmen, who planned a direct attack now aud hereditary country.

high city and thoseFollow

the entscheidene turn in the war process occurred 1704 : Prince Eugen von Savoyen, whom the emperor had placed against the point of the yard war council, seized the plan, by a combined attack of the two allied armies Bavarian-French power crucially toostrike.Marlborough dealt ready-consented with this plan and pulled in quick marches from the Niederrhein to Swabia. Mark count Ludwig and he combined their troops with Ulm.

Skillful maneuvers of the allied ones forced the cure prince and the French general general Marsinto the retreat to Augsburg. After had united the units of the prince Eugen with those Marlboroughs, it came to 13. August 1704 in the high city (actually with the Örtchen blind home, therefore then later the name of Marlboroughs building of splendour andDomicile Blenheim Palace) to an war-important victory of the allied ones. The cure prince fled first to Brussels, where he as general state owner together with his likewise fled brother, who cure princes of Cologne, maintained a shining yard state.

After the death of the emperor LeopoldI. to 5. May 1705, set its son Joseph I. the fight energetically away. It obtained the eight-explanation against the two wittelsbachischen cure princes. The occupation of cure Bavaria was implemented with partial brutal measures (see. Sendlinger Mordweihnacht). In the centerthe integration of cure Bavaria stood for the imperial diplomacy into the group that hereditary country in the subsequent years.

A reconciliation with the Hungarian insurgent ones avoided at the same time the danger of a two-front war. In the connection the not unauthorized concern existed on the part of the allied one,that the parallel taking place second Nordi war could unite with the fights in Central Europe. These fears became particularly acute after the raid of the Swedish king into the cure principality Saxonia. Both war-prominent sides were actively endeavored, the king of Swedento win as allied one. In order to make the king of Sweden weighed, the emperor was ready even for concessions to the Evangelist Christians into the schlesischen hereditary landing. Thus he gave permission for the building of the so-called.Grace churches. Karl XII.altogether however no interest had to interfere into the arguments and pulled again against Russia into the war.

Der Herzog von Marlborough in der Schlacht von Ramillies, Stich von 1890
The duke of Marlborough in the battle of Ramillies, pass of 1890

the front in Flanders

to 23. May 1706 erfocht Marlborough with Ramillies a shining victory over the Frenchmen under Villeroi, occupied lions, Mecheln, Brussels, Gent and Brügge and left everywhere Karl III. proclaim as a king.

Turin and the consequences

When due to this defeat Vendôme from Italy became to appoint to the Netherlands, thereby Eugen received the possibility, from Verona from the Frenchmen besieged Turin to assistance to hurry. After the combination with the troops of the duke of Savoyenit struck the united French generals Marsin, duke of Orleans and La Feuillade to 7. September before Turin directly before the gates of the city. The Frenchmen vacated in accordance with the general surrender in such a way specified of 13. March 1707 completely Italy.

the fight for Spain

equal to beginning of the war destroyed the Englishmen and the dutchman a Spanish fleet lying in the port of Vigo. 1703 joined king Don Pedro II of Portugal the large alliance and 1704 appeared ore dukeKarl in Spain, while the Englishmen to (4. August 1704) Gibraltar conquered. 1705 succeeded itself it Karl, at the Mr. von Valencia to make Katalonien and Aragonien. To 2. July 1706 became even Madrid of a united English-Portuguese armyunder Galloway and Minas read occupied. The energetic occurrence of the queen of Spain, who controlled the king according to unanimous opinion completely and her first yard lady, the famous madame Ursins (Orsini), which for its part the queen controlled, prevented however the complete collapsebourbonischen power.

Madame Ursins required the delegation of the duke of Vendôme to the Spanish front, which succeeded to it owing to their good connections to madame de Maintenon, also. Since besides to the operations the connection was missing to the allied one, were theseSuccesses not of duration; Madrid was lost soon again and to the victory of the marshal Berwick over the English-Portuguese army with Almanza to (25. April 1707) also the southern provinces fell into the hands Philipps V.

The long way to the peace

although the allied ones also on the remaining theaters 1707 no large successes it achieved, made themselves in France the exhaustion of the aids already so much noticeably that Ludwig XIV. the renouncement of Spain to the sea powers offeredand only Italian country for his grandchild stressed. Meanwhile Marlboroughs influence was in England still considerably, besides hoped the Englishmen to be able to exploit Spain under Karl III to its exclusive use merkantil.

The sea powers were itself with Austria over itunited that one insists not only on the acquisition of the entire Spanish monarchy for Austria, but also the situation to use must, in order to always break of France supremacy. Success seemed to favour this project. An attempt the Spanish Netherlandsto back-conquer, which a strong French army under the duke of Burgund and Vendome undertook 1708, Eugens and Marlboroughs became with Oudenaarde by the victory (11. July) defeats and completely Flanders and Brabant again subjected.

After a lightning-like raid a smallDepartment of Dutch riders to before the gates of Versailles , was Ludwig XIV had led., probably on pressure of the madame de Maintenon, ready, to negotiate on basis of the complete renouncement of Spain about a peace. Also as the allied ones the return of the Elsass with Strasbourg, the free county, which lothringischen dioceses demanded, was still ready for negotiations the French envoy in the Hague, Torcy. Only the Zumutung to help to drive out its grandchild by French troops from Spain knows LudwigXIV. with deciveness back.

The war in the Netherlands was again taken up; the bloody battle with Malplaquet (11. September 1709) remained undecided, the heavy losses of the Frenchmen (20000 dead ones and wounded one) and the allied one prevented however furtherOffensive one. At the same time the Austrian general Starhemberg triumphed with Almenara to 27 in Spain. July and Saragossa to 20. August, and Karl pulled to 28. September in Madrid.

change of the power balance

marriage of France defeat became inevitable,developments occurred, which led to a complete reversal of the political situation. On the one hand the duke of Vendôme, appointed to pressure of the madame Ursins (Orsini) to Spain, achieved to 10. December 1710 a shining victory over Starhemberg Mansion Viciosa. The imperial troops could not hold themselves in Kastilien, gave for Spanish heartland the Philipp V. price and withdrew themselves after Katalonien.

More importantly still it was that in England the Whigregierung was displaced by the Torys, the onePeace as rapidly as possible to manufacture trachteten. Also the so far all-powerful Favouritin of the queen, Sarah Churchill, the woman of the duke was fallen by Marlborough. The duke lost his most important support to yards.

But the highlight found to 17. April 1711instead of: completely surprisingly emperor Joseph I. deceased, without leaving male inheriting. There now its brother, the Prätendent for Spain, as a Karl VI.Emperor became, was afraid the sea powers again, the house having castle could by the combination of Austria with Spainbecome too powerful.

First the Englishmen began with Ludwig XIV. Secret negotiations. To 8. Octobers 1711 were signed the Präliminarien to London and despite all Gegenbemühungen of the emperor to 29. January 1712 the negotiations opens, which to peace of Utrecht led.Marlborough was replaced an eager Jakobiten, by the count Ormond, and this granted the prince Eugen not the necessary support, so that the marshal Villars with Denain to 27. July 1712 again some being made by Eugen and the dutchmencarried off.

the war in North America

the Spanish succession war was more still than the so-called. Pfälzi succession war, which likewise led to collisions in overseas, one of the first consciously arguments of European powers delivered also world-wide. Almost temporally parallel, of1702 to 1713 in the so-called Queen Anne's were, fought each other France and England in North America, often also under employment of its indianischen allied ones. A coordinated parallel war guidance in the overseas areas should itself in the following arguments between England andFrance as important aspect of the strategy develop.

peace treaties

of the peace of France with England and the Netherlands 1712

as Philipp V. to 5. November 1712 on the succession in France for itself and its descendantsfeierlichst and this document of Ludwig XIV did without. was confirmed, what prevented a union of Spain with France for the future, England and soon also the Netherlands with France armistice closed, to 11. April 1713 the formal conclusion of the peaceto Utrecht followed. Soon joined also Portugal, Savoyen and Prussia the general peace.

  • Philipp V. received Spain with the non-European possessions, which could be however never combined with France.
  • Spain retired England Gibraltar and Menorca as well as considerable commercial advantages in the Spanish America.
  • Savoyen received a number of border fortressesand, which was still more important, the rank increase king of Sicilies.
  • The general states got a locking regulation over the Barrièrefestungen and Handeslvergünstigungen within the range of the Spanish colonies.

the peace of France with the emperor 1714

the marshalVillars took to 20. August 1713 Landau, plundered the Pfalz and a bathing and conquered 16. November Freiburg in mash gau, on which it offered Eugen peace negotiations, which to 26. November 1713 were too restcorroded opened .

To 7. March 1714 becamethe peace between France and the emperor too restcorrode finally. In order to take up also the German Reich in the peace, a congress took place to bathing in the Aargau, where the Rastatter peace with few changes to 7. September 1714 was accepted(Peace of bathing).

  • The emperor got the entire Spanish Netherlands as well as the Spanish Nebenländer in Italy in the context of the peace, thus Neapel (however without Sicilies), Milan, Mantua and Sardinien awarded.
  • France vacated conquests in mash gau and keptbut Landau.
  • The cure princes of Bavaria and Cologne were again inserted into their countries and.

effects

power-politics result

the Spanish succession war was only one argument in a long succession of military conflicts, inthose gradually the system of a European power equilibrium developed. This balance to out-tare was a always highest goal of the policy of William III. and the peace treaties restcorroded by Utrecht and established for the first time durable equilibrium of the forces was. None of powers England,France, Austria, and since 1721 also Russia should attain a hegemony over Europe in the subsequent years up to the revolution of 1789. Up to the spectacular Renversement of the Alliances (revolution of the alliances) in the year 1755/56 the antagonism between France and Austria belongedto one the basic constants of the European system. Appearing the ascent of Prussia supplemented the alliances, did not question it however not durably.

The past great powers of the general states and Sweden separated directly from that so-called. Concert of powers out.

Altogether beganthe year and ore of the so-called.Cabinet wars.

individual States of

the great power position of France in Europe remained in the context now ever more of the drawing power balance. At the same time first attempts began toward a reconciliation with the having citizens, stillby Ludwig XIV were angedacht. The French finances of the state should not come despite many efforts again durably into order. France remained simultaneous however the largest and wealthiest national economy of Europe.

Great Britain was the large winner of the argument. On the one hand it succeeded to queenAnne to unite the crowns of England and Scotland durably. At the same time by the act OF Settlement was avoided that the dynastische follow-up of the childless queen would attain full growth itself to a renewed conflict. Wirtschaftllich was it particularly at expense thatGeneral states successfully to strengthen the own sea power. The gradual primacy in the world trade could by favorable conclusions with Spain and Portugal over the slave trade into the colonies (so-called.Asiento) developed. The profit of Gibraltar (1704) can in its strategic meaningfor the next wars highly enough to be estimated, just like the profit of Menorca and some areas in North America.

The ore house Austria won the economically valuable provinces in Italy, in particular Milan. Plans to annektieren occupied Bavaria in the long term,scheiteren however.

Spain won with the war a dynasty until today persists, the Bourbonen, lost however its Italian areas (Neapel, Sicily etc.) completely. , Especially Giulio Alberoni and second operated the Spanish policy of the subsequent years from cardinalWoman of the king, Elizabeth Farnese, which let the apparently all-powerful madame Ursins remove immediately after marriages from the yard, was fixed thereby on the recuperation of these areas for the Spanish monarchy. Itself the so-called resulting in from it. Alberonihändel, inCoolie mini ores, remained first still unsuccessful for war the war of the Quadrupelallianz (1718 - 1720).

For the realm resulted only slight changes. The outlawed realm princes of cure Cologne and Bavaria were again inserted into their old rights. To last Maximilian hadstill tries to reach the dream of a king crown. To one point of the negotiations seriously was remembered to lend to it in the exchange against Bavaria the crown of a Kingdom of Sardinien. The crown of Sardinien landed finally over some detours with the houseSavoyen.

Prussia stepped almost immediately after peace treaty, which had brought it only marginal note of profits (however by conquest all the more the prestige military as uncontrollably valid fortress funds), into the active war against Sweden in the parallel taking place second Nordi war, with likewise only minimum profits. The king should keep the close connection to the emperor house upright up to his death.

The general states, whose demand after a durable crew right into the Barrièrefestungen were fulfilled, belonged to the losers of theConflict. Since ungeführ 1680 the meaning loss beginning of Amsterdam as prominent commercial metropolis of Europe in favor of of London had accelerated itself and the internal weakness in special the governor system became always obvious. The actual value of the crews, their maintenance the commonwealth much moneyand around if it cost their rights endless controversy with the Austrians gave, pointed oneself soon to 1740, when the Frenchmen took the fortresses without each resistance on other time.

The house Savoyen was one in the long term the large andalso most successful beneficiary of the European circulations. , The rank increase did not only succeed to the duke at the king of Sicilies, later from Sardinien to reach. It created it also to finally eliminate the threat for many decades of the national existence by France. The foreign policythe next decades was directed toward the goal to finally reach the rule over Milan.

military-historical result

the two capable army leaders Marlborough and prince Eugen succeeded it, the past war guidance, which stared, at the income and/or.holding attachments aligned system to modernize. Before the background became ever more important the maintenance standing armies and grew the Bedetung tautly organized utility system on basis of magazines.

Some aspects in the contemporary military development earnAttention. That is on the one hand the invention of the bayonet, with which the Musketiere could use their weapon additionally like a Pike. The Pikeniere had disappeared thus redundantly and to beginning of war from the armies involved. This required completely new tactics, thoseas first Marlborough to use knew.

literature

to the land war:

  • George local castle (Hrsg.), Siegfried fiddler: War nature and warfare in the age of the cabinet wars, Bernhard & Graefe publishing house, Augsburg 1986, ISBN 3-7637-5478-4

to the land war from British view:

To the naval warfare:

  • Helmut Pemsel: Naval supremacy volume I, Bernhard & Graefe publishing house, Augsburg 1996, ISBN 3-89350-711-6
  • Heinz new churches: Sea power in the mirror of history, Transpress publishing house, Berlin 1982
  • Elmar B. Potter, Chester Nimitz: Sea power - a naval warfare history of the antique oneup to the present, Manfred Pawlak publishing house company ltd., Herrsching 1982, ISBN 3-88199-082-9

to the Innviertel:

  • G´wunna has z´letzt only unseroans! The Bairi rising of the people 1705/1706 in the Spanish succession war. From the Innviertel to Tölz, to the Sendlinger Mordweihnacht and to the battle with Aidenbach, (2005) To ISBN 3-902121-68-8

Web on the left of

list of the participants in the Bavarian rising of the people 1705 and 1706

see also

list of wars, list of battles.

 

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