in Germany are savings banks public credit institutes after § 1 KWG, which operates banking transactions due to the savings bank laws of the Lands of the Federal Republic and the statute issued in addition for each individual savings bank. The designation savings bank is legally protected after § 40 credit system law.
Table of contents
savings banks are as a rule institutes of the public right. Carrier of a savings bank is a local regional administrative body (city, district) or a local Zweckverband. Legal bases are the savings bank law of the respective Land of the Federal Republic,in that the savings bank their seat has, and a statute issued by the carrier. Organs of the savings bank are the executive committee as an acting committee and the board of directors as a supervisory board. In different Lands of the Federal Republic the savings banks form a Kreditausschuss as the further organ.
usual banking transactions with private households , enterprises , municipalities and institutional customers operate business model the savings banks as universal credit institutes. To it the insert business, the exchange , that belongs Loan business and the security business. Further financial services are offered with group partners so mentioned. Examples of it are:
- Depot, foreign and large loan business over the Landesbank
- building saving over the national building societies (LBS)
- insurance over public insurers (z. B. Provinzial, savings bank insurance, ÖSA, ÖRAG, insurance chamber Bavaria etc.)
- fund business over the DekaBank
- leasing businessover the German leasing.
Savings banks are subject to the regional principle. Afterwards the line of business of a savings bank covers generally the area of the respective local carrier.
The savings bank banking syndicate is in many business fields of the financial service industry market leader in Germany. The general association of all savings banks is the German savings bank and Giroverband.
history of the savings banks
establishment of the savings banks
the first German savings banks on initiative by national rule or private individuals were originally created, in order to open poorer social classes the possibility, a long-term, safe andto form interest-bearing reserve for the accomplishment of the adversities of the life (illness, age etc.). The first savings bank was furnished to 1749 by the realm abbey Salem for the administration of orphan's annuities. Further ones developed 1765 in Bonn village in the Black Forest, 1778 in Hamburg, 1786 in Oldenburg, 1789 in Fulda, 1796 in Kiel and 1804 in Koblenz. 1818 were created in Stuttgart the Württembergi savings bank for the whole Kingdom of Württemberg. The number of savings banks rose from then on rapidly on (1836: 300 savings banks, 1860: approx. 1.200, 1913: approx.3,100 savings banks). Most of it developed as local institutes, as first for example the savings bank Goettingen (1801).
modernization and consolidation
into the 1920er years experienced the savings banks a strong modernization phase, among other things because they took up the cashless money transfer (see Sparkassenreformer Johann Christian Eberle), starting from 1918 in the building savings business entered and insurance offered. Further milestones were z. B. the admission of the consumer loan with its gathering molds starting from 1952 as well as the increasing automation of the exchange starting from the early 1970er years. At center of the 1990er years began a first consolidation in the savings bank sector.By economically caused fusions the number of the savings banks took off until 2005 on approximately 480 (2002: 519.
security system of the savings banks
the inserts of the savings bank customers become secured by an own security system of the savings bank banking syndicate. This sits down from the regional savings bank supporting funds, to thatSafeguard reserve of the Landesbank as well as the contingency fund of the national building societies together. The security system of the savings bank banking syndicate is united in an adhesion group, so that in a case of crisis the total volume of all funds is available for institute-securing measures. The adhesion group secures the attached institutes (Institussicherung) and ensures their Liquidity and solvency.
savings bank s
the savings bank s belongs to the most well-known brand names (Corporate Identity) in Germany. Red S with point is to stylize a savings box with coin and 1938 was for the first time used. The red color (HKS 13) gotthe Logo only 1972. It is patentrechtlich protected.
abroad savings banks
there are savings banks world-wide in 86 countries.
savings banks exist Finland in Finland in the legal form of a donation with 213 branches, 1,130 coworkers and a total balance sheet total of4.447 million euro (conditions: 31. December 2004). Savings banks are surface covering represented in Finland since the bank crisis into the early 1990er years no longer. By the reestablishment of the Nooa Savings bank 2003 there is again a savings bank also in the capital Helsinki. Zentralinstitut of the savings banks is since 1995 the Aktia Savings bank PLC, which originated in to 1991 from the fusion of the savings bank of Helsinki with seven further savings banks. Aktia was converted 1993 into a corporation (PLC).
into the 1990er years were in Italy most savings banks as Donation actively. In the course of a country-wide consolidation in the banking most savings banks were converted into corporations. While the donations remained existing as holding companies, a fusion fever used, with that savings banks (Cassa di Risparmio), cooperative banks (Banca Popolare) and commercial with the banksBanks together-went. As last common link the association of savings banks ACRI (Assoziazione depression Casse di Risparmio e depression Fondazioni di Origine Bancaria) continues to exist.
in Luxembourg gives it the state bank 9 and state State of Banque et to Caisse d'Epargne de l'Etat (BCEE).
the savings bank nature in Norway is split into two camps. On the one hand is active the saving banks NOR at the market, which fused however in the year 2004 with the DNB to the largest bank of the country.
On the other side a group of regional savings banks, those standsunder the Logo SpareBank1 country-wide into action go.
the savings bank in Poland became on operation of Piłsudski 1919 asPocztowa Kasa Oszczędności (postal savings bank) based. Today it firmiert under the name PKO BP, which stands for Powszechna Kasa Oszczędności bank pole ski (general savings bank bank of Poland), as corporation in the government property.
the national savings bank in Russia was already created 1841. Since 1991 firmiertit as corporation under the name СбербанкРоссии (Sberbank).
the savings bank nature in Spain is regionally organized. Each region has or two savings banks. These are organized similar as public in Germany and partly work without winning vines. The association of savings banks is the CECA(Confederación Española de Cajas de Ahorros).
international savings bank combinations
European savings bank combination (ESV)
in the European savings bank combination (ESV) are represented the savings bank organizations from 15 European Union member states and from nine further European countries.
Weltinstitut of the savings banks (POINTED)
Weltinstitut thatSavings banks (POINTED) makes possible world-wide exchange of experience under the savings bank organizations. In addition it represents the points of view of the savings banks on international level, like for example opposite the World Bank or the International Monetary Fund.
the joint undertaking EUFISERV was created by the European savings banks 1990. EUFISERV aimswith its international network mainly on financial traffic by transfer with transactions at money automats.