of these articles treats the events at the end of the November revolution in January 1919 in Germany. To the Spartakusaufstand in the antique Roman realm see Spartakus

as Spartakusaufstand or January rebellion designates one the general strike and the armed fights in Berlin of 5. to 12. January 1919, alsotheir striking down the November revolution practically ended. The first term for it was in-patriated although the Spartakusbund and/or. the KPD this rebellion neither released nor led, and only after its beginning in it participated.


trip of the rebellion was the joggle citizens of Berlin of the chief of the police Emil squirrel of the USPD by the only dreiköpfigen advice the people-assigned. There Friedrich Ebert determined since the door of the USPD members to 29. December 1918 the policy of the committee. Squirrel had been appointed rightfully by the advice. It had itself with the previous Weihnachtsunruhento 24. December 1918 refused using weapons against striker worker; Ebert regarded it therefore as unreliable.

Workers, who stood for the revolutionary Obleuten close, occupied thereupon spontaneously to 5. And road blocks established January 1919 a newspaper editorship in the citizens of Berlin cooking race. They kept inlet rapid, so thatthey some road courses in the citizen of Berlin newspaper quarter to occupy knew, among them also editorial building of the social-democratic forward. From there since at the beginning of Decembers had appeared printed always again hostile articles against the savings TACists, among them had also hardly hidden murder calls.

The Obleute was freely selected, independent of the trade unionsWork councils. They formed in the process of the First World War particularly into the citizen of Berlin Rüstungsbetrieben and possessed already some striker driving. As war opponents they had followed predominantly the USPD and the membership in at the 1. January 1919 again created KPD rejected.

The guidance ofUSPD and KPD decided rapidly to support occupation begun. They called the citizens of Berlin population to a general strike for the 7. January up. The call followed about 500,000 humans, who flowed on weekend into the city center. In the following two days itself the strike committee could,the so-called for instance 50-köpfige „revolution committee “, however not on the further procedure unite. Some representatives demanded the armed rebellion, other pleaded for negotiations with Ebert. The Hausbesetzer received weapons.

The KPD leader Karl dear farmhand endorsed the attempt against the advice of pink Luxembourg, the remainder government of Ebert alsoTo fall force of arms. He was afraid, the KPD could isolate itself otherwise too much from the workers, who intended this. The KPD representatives, some the regiments, at the same time tried above all the People's Navy division stationed in Berlin, to pull on their side. Their armed operational readiness level should fights if possibleto avoid help. This did not succeed however, because most of the soldiers already at home were and their loyalty applied for the past advice of the people-assigned.

To 8. January left the KPD the revolution committee, after the USPD representatives had loaded Ebert to negotiations. While these took place, those experiencedremaining worker representative of a handbill of the forward of with the title „the hour of the account approaches! “and of the advance of the free corps on Berlin. In addition Ebert had to 6. January Gustav Noske the order given. Thereupon the revolution committee broke the negotiations off. The Spartakusbund called its trailersnow to the participation in the armed fight up.

Ebert still spent on the same day the employment instruction against the strikers at him intimate imperial regiments. These were armed still with armament and their opponents militarily far consider. They conquered the occupied buildings and roads rapidly;often the Besetzer resulted voluntarily. This did not prevent the military to shoot it under martial law to hundreds. Also an unknown number of indifferent civilians died with this weapon delivery.

A large crowd waited few roads far away on one the citizen of Berlin of places. It assumed neitherthe fights part she was still taken part by the strike leaders, although her like already to 9. November 1918 for disarming the soldiers was ready. On their posters and banners partially the same slogans stood as at the beginning of the November revolution: „Peace and agreement “.

In the process thatFights engaged at the beginning of of December set up republic-hostile free corps, which had been pulled together around Berlin, into the city. Their recruitment and equipment financed „the Antibolschewisti league “. This had formed and was likewise at the beginning of December at the beginning of January von Hugo Stinnes, for thatBoss of the largest trade association, equipped with generous 500 million realm Marks. The largest of the free corps was the so-called guard Kavallerie contactor division under the officer Waldemar Pabst, which was subordinate in the war general of Seeckt. The newspapers welcomed the introduction as re-establishment of „peace and order “in Berlin.Thus the rebellion was practically terminated.

the murder of pink Luxembourg and Karl dear farmhand

the leaders of the savings TACists had to be afraid and submerge now for its life, since for them one searched; to the citizens of Berlin population, they appeared to call as „ringleaders “to make and military hand over. But a high reward was suspended, which likewise originated from the fund from Stinnes.

To 15. January in the evening pink Luxembourg and Karl dear farmhand in the dwelling of a friend in Berlin Wilmersdorf were discovered, arrested by the there „citizen resistance “and Waldemar Pabst hand over. This let the prisoners bring into the hotel Eden, where they were cross-examined for hours and abused. A further arrested KPD leader, William Pieck, became a witness of these abusing as well as by telephone calls; one of it probably led Pabst with the Reichskanzlei. Like Pabst latereven, received he stated permission from Gustav Noske personally in presence of Ebert for murdering the Spartakusführer. To what extent these statements should correspond to Pabsts of the truth or relieve only him, is today disputed until.

The murder should look like an assassination attempt. In addition shifted inbeing available soldier from the quantity pink Luxembourg with the evacuation of the hotel a heavy piston impact. Already unconscious, it was then shot on the way in the car of another soldier of the troop with a put on sleep shot. The dead one was thrown into the citizen of Berlin land military channel, where one thoseCorpse only at the 1. June 1919 found.

Dear farmhand was likewise removed briefly to pink Luxembourg by the hotel and struck nearly unconscious; it had to step out on the way and then as „fleeing “was from the rear shot. The dead one was handed over citizens of Berlin to a police station as „an unknown corpse “.

Pieck reached,that it should be shifted into a prison; on the way there the escape succeeded to it. It became later one of the most important witnesses of the incidents in the hotel, which preceded the murders. The fact that the murderers were at all punish-pursued reached Leo Jogiches, pink of Luxembourg earlierPartner, which took over the guidance of the KPD after its death and which tried to clear murders up. Also he was arrested in March 1919 with further free corps employments against left worker leaders and murdered in the prison.

The murders 15. Generally speaking realm heavy unrests and rebellions solved Januaryout; it came in many large cities to similar fights as into Berlin with approximately 5,000 victims. In Bavaria those knew about six weeks after the murder of the USPD Prime Minister briefly Eisner to 7. April of 1919 proclaimed residents of Munich soviet republic to at the beginning of of May in Munich hold themselves, beforeit was bloodily struck down by a supremacy of right-wing extremist free corps - and realm military federations.

The civil war-like collisions loaded the Weimar Republic from their establishment heavily. The voter basis of the SPD was diminished in such a manner that the SPD remained dependent always on coalitions with civil parties. A part thatLink found no confidence into the parliamentary democracy, so that soon the republic-hostile forces that determined rights the daily politics.

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