saliva (lat. Saliva) (Geifer or Sabber becomes outdated) is the secretion of the salivary glands. This body fluid is produced by animals and also by the human organism. The manufacturing plants of the saliva can be in the range of the oral cavity, in addition, in certain internal organs howthe pancreas. Therefore one e.g. differentiates. Mouth saliva and belly saliva. Most frequently “saliva” the human mouth saliva is meant with the term; in the vernacular often spit mentioned.
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composition of the human mouth saliva
the saliva contains on the average 0.5 per cent firm of components. Under these are to be emphasized: Muzin ( a Polysaccharidgemisch), various proteins and a digesting enzyme (dia.-static enzyme), the α-Amylase (Ptyalin). It splits the strength contained in the food (Polysaccharide) up.
The pH value is with quiescent secretion between 5,5 and 6, after Stimulation rises it to approximately 7.6 - 7.8.
the salivais contained in the salivary glands or their remark courses not freely, but develops only from a source material supplied by the salivary glands with admission of air. The saliva isolation takes place only, if the fibers of the sympathetic nerve stepping to the salivary glands are provoked directly or reflektorisch.
depending upon the glands, which supply the mouth saliva, one differentiates between Parotidenspeichel, Submaxillarspeichel and Sublingualspeichel. In the oral cavity one finds a mixture of these different kinds of saliva with Mundschleim; mixed saliva is called. With the saliva formation morphologic changes of the gland cells hand goin hand; further a in such a way meaning heat formation is linked with it that the venous blood entströmende with large violence of the gland is warmer around 1-1,5°C pretty often than the carotid blood. In 24 hours the seperate quantity of the saliva with adult humans becomes on 1,5 kgestimated.
increased saliva isolation
an occasional strengthened secretion is usually caused on reflektorischem way by special influences, first than consequence of provoking the taste nerves through into the oral cavity introduced taste materials, furthermore than consequence of provoking the palpation nerves of the oral cavity, the smell nerves and stomach nerves.Also large rage or excitation leads to an increased saliva isolation.
the mouth saliva dissolves the soluble substances of the food, mixes with the dry meals to a damp mash (Chymus) and makes these the Abschlucken as suitably for the stomach digesting; finallyit affects by its content at Ptyalin digesting coal hydrates (see digesting).
In addition, saliva is important for the healthy attitude of the teeth. With decreased saliva production (e.g. by irradiation) a substantial increase of the Kariesrisikos can be observed. Same applies with permanent dilution of the saliva.Most well-known example is the baby Bottle syndrome with infants (Fläschchen Karies), which also arises, if Nuckelfla is filled only with clear water.
average saliva production is with 1 to 1.5 litres because of the day.