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Specialization designates the allocation of tasks or division of labor in a system for the optimization of the operational sequences.

About the individual cells are responsibly for own in each case activities, about bones or oxygen transport in a cell system.

In the capitalistic society individual workers specialize, in order to maximize the respective yield, since during execution in and the same activity the existing optimization potential can be exhausted. In the management economics or the sociology specialization describes each form of the allocation of the social production of goods, sees also division of labor.

In both cases by the specialization reaching goals is made possible, which would be otherwise impossible. Specialization reduces however also the ability of the particulars to survive outside of the system.

See also: Flexible specialization, adaptive radiation


in the logic takes place specialization, if statements are like “all cars red” in addition are used, statements of the kind “my car is red”, “March in the car is red” to be derived. Specialization is with an important possibility in order producing knowledge by use from rules to, for instance the application of the Gravitationstheorie in the special case “if I the apple releases, falls it to soil”.

Concept B a specialization of concept A exactly if:

  • Each instance of concept B also an instance of concept A is; and
  • it instances of concept A gives, which is not instances of concept B.

For example 'bird is “a specialization of” animal 'each bird an animal is there, but not each animal a bird.

Generalization is the opposite of the specialization.


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