treats spiders of these articles spiders as activity. For the animals of the same name see spider.
The product with spiders are crosswise wound up yarn reel

that spiders marks the production of threads.

Table of contents

closer representation

spiders is, like a weaving, one of the oldest technologies of mankind. In the course of the time the procedure was gradually refined and itdeveloped new procedures for the production of threads. Therefore has spiders today three meanings:

  • By spiders frequently the whole process of the production of yarns from individual fibers is understood. This contains a cleaning, a mixing and parallel putting of the fibers as well as the thread formation through forgiven and rotating includingfollowing Aufspulen.
  • In addition, spiders only the subprocess of twisting and rotating fibers is called. With spiders by hand know the fibers quasi directly with the spin wheel already versponnen to become, with machine spiders must the fibers in an arranged strand, which Streckband, to be present.By drawing and one receives the desired Garnfeinheit and firmness to linen threads.
  • Historically caused also the production of synthetic or naturenear fibers is called by pressing out liquid plastic of nozzles spiders. One speaks here of bloom, wet or drying spiders, depending on, like thatPlastic was liquefied. The developing fibers are stretched, but does not rotate, therefore such fibers are not yet sufficient rigid. Often synthetic fibers must afterwards into pieces cut and “correctly” gesponnen to become.

Versponnen become all fibers: Vegetable fibers such as cotton, synthetic fibers such as PET,animal fibers such as wool, in former times human hair or mineral fibers such as asbestos.

The product with spiders is called yarn. The expression thread is not used here. The most important characteristics of a gesponnenen yarn is beside the used fiber the weight per length (Garnfeinheit) and the Festikgeit (reference stretch/tearing strength). In principle applies: The more finely the yarn, the more expensively is it.

The quality of the used fibers and the kind, how they will versponnen, are determining for many characteristics late textile developing from it.

Spinnerin with spindle and Wollballen
William Adolphe Bouguereau(1825-1905)

A finished gesponnenes yarn can be processed in most different kind, z. B.:


gesponnen by hand already became in old Egypt. In the Middle Ages the hand spin wheel was invented, end 18. Jh. the first spin machine, those Spinning Jenny. 1769 were announced the first spin machine with water wheel drive to the patent, the Waterframe. An advancement of the Waterframe and the Jenny was the Selfaktor. In the center 19. Jh. the Ringspinnen was invented, which remained to today the most important spin procedure.


spiders plays often a role in the myth and some fate goddesses - so the Greek Klotho - is assigned (see. Moiren, Parzen).

spiders Spinnerin

with spin wheel

spiders took place by hand by hand either with bareHands or however with a hand spindle. The raw fiber was fastened thereby on a Kunkel, in order to keep the fiber arranged. A further device to spiders is by hand the spin wheel, with which the development of the mechanical Spinnens began. It becomes already 1298 ina chronicle of Speyer mentions and dips into 13. Century also in different other European regions up. Its origin is to be looked for in China. One finds the first referring to the wing pin wheel in the house book of the prince family Waldburg Wolfegg from 1480. The Jürgen of Wolfenbüttel attributed inventionthis Spinnrades might be a legend. Around 1500 also Leonardo da Vinci designed a wing pin wheel.

spiders industrially

today exist in the industrial nations only isolate spinning mills. In addition, the machines to spiders and for all preliminary stages come today still predominantly from Central Europe.

A Streckband from cotton is used, like it to rotor spiders or Vorspinnen

the whole spin process is divided into many individual work procedures, about which the Ringspinnen and rotor spiders are the most important. The preparing steps read:

  1. Open the bundle with a bundle opener
  2. cleaning of the raw fibers of dirt andFat remainders with wool or of remainders of the seed caps with the cotton
  3. aligning the fibers with a Karde to a strand partial of parallel fibers, the Kardenband
  4. and distances of several Kardenbänder on a distance brought together for the increase of the uniformity or for manufacturing mixing fibers. Stretchingusually twice one accomplishes.
  5. To the Ringspinnen the Streckband can be still combed, if it consists of langstapliger cotton. Thus a still even yarn is obtained. In any case the Streckband on a Vorspinnmschine, also Flyer mentioned, to a Vorgarn, the Lunte must,vorgesponnen become.

That comes only now actual spiders. One knows mainly two large procedures: The ring and rotor spiders.

Other procedures are, which become air spin procedure,

Umwindespinnverfahren [work on


spin machines before the Ringspinnen the Streckband on the wing pin machine (Flyer) a Lunte vorgesponnen.

The developmentthe mechanical spinning mill:

1738 first functional spin machine of Lewis Paul and John Wyatt

1767 Spinning Jenny of James Hargreaves

1769 Water Frame of smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Arkwright - first in larger extent industrielle used spin machine

1771 first mechanical spinning mill in Cromford/England by smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Arkwright

1779 Mule ofSamuel Crompton. Sie vereinigt Produktionselemente der Spinning Jenny und der Water Frame

1783 Gründung der ersten mechanischen Spinnerei auf dem europäischen Festland durch Johann Gottfried Brügelmann in Ratingen

1785 Dampfmaschine findet Eingang in Spinnerei, zunächst zum Speisen der Wasserräder, ein Jahr später auch als Antriebsmaschine

1810 flax spin machine of Philipp de Girard

1828 ring pin machine of John Thorpe

1830 Selfactor of smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Robert's

1955 conception of the first functional, of Julius Meimberg developed rotor pin machine on the international textile machine exhibition in Brussels.


Flyerspulen with Lunte, as they hang on a ring pin machine

Am weitesten verbreitet ist das Ringspinnen, wo eine Lunte etwa um den Faktor 40-50 gestreckt und dabei verdreht wird. A small metal ring (runner) rotated with it on a circular course, the ring, over a spindle, gives the turn to the thread and winds the yarn on oneCase, the Kops, up. Following the Ringspinnen several small Kopse are rewound on a larger coil (Kreuzspule). Large spinning mills possess today in the order of magnitude of 100.000 spin places. A finished ring yarn possesses a titer of approximately 5-400 tex.

For spiders oflong TAP leagues fiber yarns from wool, long TAP leagues chemical fibres as well as whose mixture one knows several spin procedures: 1.Kammgarnspinnverfahren 2.Halbkammgarnspinnverfahren 3.Streichgarn-Spinnverfahren 4.Alternative spin procedure (z. B.Compact spin procedure, V-Spinnverfahren as well as DREF Spinnverfahren)

rotor spiders

an opened spin place of a rotor pin machine, on the left of the rotor

rotor spiders (also: OE-rotor-spiders, English. O pen E lp)is to be found somewhat more rarely, but from the principle more simply. It is suitable for somewhat rougher yarns. The Vorspinnen on the Flyer is void, the machine can be supplied directly with the Streckband. The Streckband is dissolved first into individual fibers and by an air flow into onevery fast turning drum - which rotor - carries. The fibers are pressed by acceleration evenly to the inner wall of the rotor, from where they can to be taken off and to a yarn be formed. The yarn is wound up directly on a Kreuzspule, rewinding is void.A finished rotor yarn possesses a titer of approximately 10-400 tex, is not haarig as ring yarn not as and has less firmness. The productivity of a rotor spinning mill lies however around for instance 10 times over some Ringspinnerei.

spiders of synthetic fibers

the melt spinning designatesthe production of synthetic Vorgarnen from a polymer melt. A liquid, there hot polymer is pressed, drawn, cooled down and wound up by a stencil with several holes. Such infinitely long fibers, filaments, can be cut into pieces and be mixed with cotton stapels or fleece wool. Onesuch mixture can be converted during a further spin process to yarn. In order to give to this filament yarn special three-dimensional structures, the yarn can be texturiert .

The oldest spin procedure for orientation by nature fibers is that viscose rayon - procedures. Here the polymer is chemically loosened and with pressures between 5and 20 bar into a bath verdüst. Because of this bath the viscose rayon procedure for wet spiders is counted. Only in the second half 20. Jh. succeeded controlling the high pressures, which are necessary for pressing out synthetic melted polymers. Some plastics become alsoa solvent liquefies, which evaporates after the withdrawal from the nozzles and leaves firm of plastic filaments. In this case one speaks of drying spiders, since no bath is needed.

Perhaps the most frequently used polymer is PET, such fibers is z. B. under the label name Trevira available.

Web on the left of


  • Hermann Kirchenberger, spinning mill 2000, publishing house Bondi, vienna Perchtoldsdorf 1986, ISBN 3-9000-0810-8
  • Dietmar Fries, “spinning mill technology - Kammgarn Halbkammgarn Streichgarn”, working group total textile,Eschborn 1996, ISBN 3-926685-73-5
  • Waltraud getting time honey, “father spinnt”, being enough/Mueller, ISBN 3-7844-7367-9

Wiktionary: spiders - word origin, synonyms and translations

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